加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 *新书上架*麻烦身份和现代世界

*新书上架*麻烦身份和现代世界.pdf

*新书上架*麻烦身份和现代世界

九月虺
2009-12-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*麻烦身份和现代世界pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TroubledIdentityandtheModernWorldThispageintentionallyleftblankTroubledIdentityandtheModernWorldLeonidasDonskisTROUBLEDIDENTITYANDTHEMODERNWORLDCopyright©LeonidasDonskis,AllrightsreservedFirstpublishedinbyPALGRAVEMACMILLAN®intheUnitedStatesadivisionofStMartin’sPressLLC,FifthAvenue,NewYork,NYWherethisbookisdistributedintheUK,Europeandtherestoftheworld,thisisbyPalgraveMacmillan,adivisionofMacmillanPublishersLimited,registeredinEngland,companynumber,ofHoundmills,Basingstoke,HampshireRGXSPalgraveMacmillanistheglobalacademicimprintoftheabovecompaniesandhascompaniesandrepresentativesthroughouttheworldPalgrave®andMacmillan®areregisteredtrademarksintheUnitedStates,theUnitedKingdom,EuropeandothercountriesISBN:ISBN:LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDonskis,LeonidasTroubledidentityandthemodernworldLeonidasDonskispcmIncludesindexISBN(alkpaper)Identity(Psychology)GroupidentityEthnicityCulturalawarenessITitleGNDdcAcataloguerecordofthebookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryDesignbyScribeIncFirstedition:JunePrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThisbookisaffectionatelyandlovinglydedicatedtoJaninaBaumanandZygmuntBaumanNeitherheavenlynorearthly,neithermortalnorimmortalhavewecreatedthee,sothatthoumightestbefreeaccordingtothyownwillandhonor,tobethyowncreatorandbuilderTotheealonewegavegrowthanddevelopmentdependingonthyownfreewillThoubearestintheethegermsofauniversallifeComteGiovanniPicodellaMirandola,OratiodeHominisDignitateHePirandellostartswiththequestion:WhoamIWhatproofhaveIformyownidentityotherthanthecontinuationofmyphysicalselfHisanswerisnotlikeDescartes’theaffirmationoftheindividualselfbutitsdenial:Ihavenoidentity,thereisnoselfexceptingtheonewhichisthereflexofwhatothersexpectmetobe:Iam“asyoudesireme”ThislossofidentitythenmakesitstillmoreimperativetoconformitmeansthatonecanbesureofoneselfonlyifonelivesuptotheexpectationsofothersIfwedonotliveuptothispicturewenotonlyriskdisapprovalandincreasedisolation,butwerisklosingtheidentityofourpersonality,whichmeansjeopardizingsanityErichFromm,EscapefromFreedomTheideaof“identity”wasbornoutofthecrisisofbelongingandoutoftheeffortittriggeredtobridgethegapbetweenthe“ought”andthe“is”andtoliftrealitytothestandardssetbytheideatoremaketherealityinthelikenessoftheideaZygmuntBauman,Identity:ConversationswithBenedettoVecchiContentsPrefaceixAcknowledgmentsxiAnIdentityinNeedofAssuranceandConfirmationToBeortoForget:PoliticsofRememberingversusPoliticsofForgettingIdentityandtheEmergenceofModernSensibilities:Liberty,Tradition,Anger,andIncessantChangeUsandThem:NationalismandPatriotismRevisitedFearandLoathinginLiquidModernityForgettingtheEndsandThenRedoublingtheEfforts:FanaticismNowhereatHomeMakingandUnmakingHistory:IdentitiesinRuinsBibliographyIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceInthisbook,IattempttocoveradiscursiveandexistentialterritoryoftheopposedmodesofselfcomprehensionandidentityFocusisonthetroubledidentity,thatis,anidentitythatconstantlyneedstheassuranceandconfirmationThetaskofthisstudyisifnottocoveranimmenseterritoryof,asZygmuntBaumanwouldsay,theunholytrinityofmodernityuncertainty,unsafety,andinsecurity,thenatleasttoenterandpartlyexploreitThecentralthemesandmainfociofthebookarecompetingmemories,thewilltorememberversusthewilltoforget,nationalismandpatriotism,ambiguousperson,fearandhatredofthemodernworldantiSemitismandotherantimodernistobsessions,fanaticism,thelossofroots,thedeclineofthepublicdomainthenewformsofwanderingintheworld,andforgeriesofhistoricalandculturalidentityOfferingthesefoci,Itrytorelatesomeissuesinselfcomprehensionandidentitywithideologicalandpoliticalanimosities,andalsowiththestrugglesoverinterpretationsofselfandoftheworldThedistinctiveelementofthebookistheambitionofitsauthortouncovertheelusivelinksbetweentheoryandbias,rationalityandsuperstition,thetroubledidentityandpoliticalthoughtOneofthepivotalquestionsofthebookis:WhydothefearandhatredofthemodernworldwalkintheguiseoffidelitytoTradition,whose“discovery”isalsoadistinctivetraitofmodernityOthercrucialquestionswillbe:HowdoesourinfatuationwithidentityrelatetothelossofthesenseofbelongingWhydoourfearandhatredofthemodernworldinevitablymasqueradeasfaith,love,compassion,faithfulnesstotradition,andthealternativeformsofuniversalismWhydoweneedastrongidentityinourdaysThebookiscomposedasadialoguewithsuchmajormodernthinkersasZygmuntBauman,LouisDumont,ErnestGellner,RobertGinsberg,andVytautasKavolisSettingasidetheirrichcontributiontopoliticalandmoralphilosophy,socialcriticism,andsocialtheoryingeneral,theyembodyandrepresentdifferentperspectivesonmodernityandidentity:ABritishsociologistofPolishbackground,xprefaceaFrenchanthropologistandhistorianofideas,aBritishphilosopherandanthropologistofCentralEuropeanbackground,anAmericanphilosopher,andanémigréLithuaniansociologistofcultureandcivilizationaltheoristwhospentmuchofhistimeintheUnitedStatesIamespeciallyindebtedtoZygmuntBaumanwhosegreattheoreticalsensitivityanduniquescholarshipcametomeasadeepinspirationMaythisbookserveasatokenofmyappreciationforhisgreatbooksandformylongconversationswithhimandJaninaBaumanonidentityandonwhatitmeanstobeanEasternorCentralEuropeaninthecontemporaryworldInadditiontothesesocialandcivilizationaltheorists,Iusetheinterpretationsofmodernidentityintheliteraryworksandessaysofmyfavoritewriters,suchasGeorgeOrwellandMilanKunderaThisistosaythatItakesomeissuesfrommystudiesinpoliticsandcultureandfurtherdevelopthem,refractingthroughtheworksoffictionalandnonfictionalwriters,sothatthereadercangraspwhyandhowsomeauthorscovertheaspectsoftroubledidentityinthemodernworldfictionally,whereasotherswoulddoitacademicallyandtheoreticallyThebookrestsonmypersonalexperience,asIspentmanyyearsoutsideofmynativeLithuaniaasawanderingscholar,researchingandlecturingintheUnitedStates,theUnitedKingdom,Sweden,Finland,Estonia,andHungaryItriedmyutmosttorefracttheconceptualcontentofthebookthroughmyexperienceasascholar,apoliticalcommentator,andahostofaLithuanianTVprogramThisbook,ablendoftheoreticalinsightandpolemic,incorporatedintoadocumentednarrativestructure,offersapersonalperspectiveonthetroubledidentityandthemodernworldItistheoutcomeofmyexperienceindifferenteducationalsystems,societies,andculturesToavoidconfusion,Iconsciouslyincorporatesegmentsofmypreviousworksintothenewbook,recontextualizing,redefining,updating,redeveloping,orrethinkingthemainfociofmypreviousbooksThosesegmentsserveasananticipationofthebooktocomeItisthenonfinished,thenonfinito,oradeliberatelyunfinishedandrecurrentwork,asRobertGinsbergwouldhaveitIconsciouslyusethisdeviceasacreativemethodandatheoreticalstrategyMypreviousbooksalwaysserveasapromiseofthebooktobewrittenAcknowledgmentsIamgratefultothefollowingpublishersandjournalsforagraciouspermissiontoreprintfromthefollowingworks:RobertGinsberg,TheAestheticsofRuinsAmsterdamNewYork:Rodopi,LeonidasDonskis,“TheRuinsasaMetaphorofModernity,”Soundings:AnInterdisciplinaryJournal,Vol,Nos–,FallWinterIoweagreatdebtofgratitudetoDrArunasGelunas,aLithuanianartistandscholar,forchoosingbeautifulartworktodesignthecoverofmybookMywarmthanksareduetoMrRolandasRimkunas,aLithuanianartist,forlendinghistalenttoillustratethecoverofmybookIthankallgoodpeopleatPalgraveMacmillanwithwhoIhavehadagreatpleasuretocooperateworkingonmybookThispageintentionallyleftblankChapterAnIdentityinNeedofAssuranceandConfirmationSocietycanexistonlyifitpenetratestheconsciousnessofindividualsandfashionsitin“itsimageandresemblance”ÉmileDurkheim,OnMoralityandSocietyHumanNature:EverPresenceorHistoricalAchievementGiambattistaVicopublishedthefirsteditionofhismainwork,LaScienzaNuova,inThefulltitleofhismasterpiecewasPrincipiidiunascienzanuovad’intornoallanaturadellenazioni(ThePrinciplesofaNewScienceoftheCommonNatureofNations)Asubstantiallyrevisededitionofthisbookappearedinandthethirdeditionin,theyearofhisdeathWhereasthevastmajorityofearlymodernphilosophershadnodoubtsconcerningtheuniversalityofhumannature,regardlessofdifferencesamonghistoricalepochs,societies,theircustoms,andcodesofchivalry,GiambattistaVicochallengedthisviewbypresenting,inLaScienzaNuova,humannatureintermsofhistory,insteadofnatureinthestrictsenseNothingisobviousandclearhereForVico,humannaturebecomessomethingofanachievementoraccomplishment,insteadofinheritanceHumannaturemovesfromascriptiontoselfdiscoveryandselffulfillmentInthis,Vicosoundsstrikinglymodernandiseasilyrecognizabletoourintellectual,political,andmoralsensibilitiesHumannatureisunthinkablewithouthistory,or,toputitslightlydifferently,humannaturedoesnotexistbeyondhistoryItisatroubledidentityandthemodernworldselfcorrectingandactivatingprocessofawarenessandselfanalysisratherthaneverpresenceHumannatureisthereforerelocatedfrommetaphysicstohistoryandcultureBarbarityispartofhumannature,andsoiscivilizationYethoweverplausibleandmodern,Vico’sconceptofhumannatureisbutanextensionofCountGiovanniPicodellaMirandola’sideathathumanitycanmakeofitselfwhateveritlikespreciselybecauseGodlefthumanitychoice“tosinkintoabeast,andbebornanewtothedivinelikeness,”asindicatedinPico’sspeechonthedignityofhumanity(citedinBurckhardt,,)VicowouldnotbecapableofcreatingtheNewSciencewithoutphilologybroadlyunderstoodFormundaneexperienceandhumanlife,historymanifestsitselfasthetotalityofhumanpractices,suchasrituals,customs,andotherformsofhumaninteractionItisimpossibletotracehistorywithoutdealingwiththelanguagebecauselanguagecontainsalltheformsofhumanchangeandhistoryinthemostinclusivesense,rangingfromcosmologytothewayinwhichwewritepoetryorphilosophicaltreatisesDescribingphilologyasthestudyofhistoricalcultures,andphilosophyasthestudyofeternalideas,Vicopointsout,InmyScience,philosophyundertakestoexaminephilology(ByphilologyImeanthescienceofeverythingthatdependsonhumanvolition:forexample,allhistoriesofthelanguages,customs,anddeedsofvariouspeoplesinbothwarandpeace)Previously,philosophyhashadalmostahorrorofdiscussingquestionsofphilology,sincetheyinvolvelamentablyobscurecausesandinfinitelydiverseeffectsButherephilosophyreducesphilologytotheformofascience,discoveringinittheoutlinesofanidealeternalhistory,alongwhichthehistoriesofallnationspassintimeViewedunderthisprincipalaspect,myNewSciencebecomesaphilosophyofhuman“authority”…Andbydiscoveringnewprinciplesofpoetry,whichinturnrevealnewprinciplesofmythology,IshowthattheGreekmythsweretrueandrigoroushistoriesofthecustomsofthemostancientpeoplesofGreece(Vico,,)HistoryisallaboutthechangeofhumannaturepreciselybecauseitisaboutthechangeoflanguageitselfIfournatureisdisconnectedfromourlanguage,images,imagination,powersofreasoning,andfiguresofspeech,thenitisbutanemptyrecordHumannaturesimplydoesnotexistbeyondhistoryJoséOrtegayGasset’sideathathumanityhasnonature,forinsteadithashistory,perfectlyfitsVico’sideaofthreekindsofhumannatureIntheNewScience,wehearanidentityinneedofassuranceandconfirmationthebirthcryofhistoricismasanextensionofamodernideaofselfsufficiencyofthehumanworldHistoryitselfbecomesaninescapableaspectofhumannatureandviceversa:Thestudyofhumannaturemovesfrommetaphysicstothenewscience,thatofhistoryandcultureHumannaturechangesoverhistoryNohumannatureexiststhatwouldbegrantedbyNatureorProvidencetothehumanbeingonceandforallHerewecanheartheearlyvoiceofhistoricismthatlaterwouldrangefromFriedrichSchiller’sdictum(tobeexplicatedbyHegel)proclaimingthat“worldhistoryisthetrialoftheworld”(dieWeltgeschichteistdasWeltgericht),andLeopoldvonRanke’sassertion,“everyepochhasitsrelationshiptoGod”(alleEpochensindunmittelbarzuGott),toOswaldSpengler’sdistinctionbetweentheworldasnatureandtheworldashistory,thefirstbeingruledbycausalityandthesecondbyirrationalfate(Schicksal)(seeDooyeweerd,)MostimportantisVico’sassumptionthattruthisadaughteroftime(veritasfiliatemporis)WeshouldsearchfortruthinafluxofhistoricalepochsandtheirgreateventsratherthaninthenaturalworldcreatedbyGodorinthehistoryfreehumanworlddisconnectedfromfleshandbloodhumanbeings,theirthoughtsanddeedsTruthcomestousonlythroughourstudyofhistory,thatis,thecivilworldofnationsWhatmanifestsitselfbehindthisideaisRenaissanceWeltanschauungwithitsmajoremphasisonthehumanbeingasthesolecreatorofthehumanworld,thatworldbeingincompleteandtotallydependentonourabilityto(re)shapeitthroughtheuniversalprinciplesofhumanreason,creativeendeavor,andartisticaccomplishmentAsJacobBurckhardtnoted,thebiographiesbasedonintrospection,coupledwithaprofoundselfanalysis,revealapowerfulsenseofhistoryintheepochof“thediscoveryoftheworldandofman”(seeBurckhardt,,–)YetthatfactremainsthatourindividualgraspofrealityandpersonalattitudestolifewouldbeunthinkablewithouttheuseofconceptsoftheindividualandrealitythatarealwayscommonThetormentingdualityofthebodyandthesoulisfarfromafantasyorareligioussuperstitionItdeeplypermeateshumanexistenceInadditiontoit,anotherkindofdualityexists,whichlinksoropposesthewaywerepresenttheworldtoourselvestothatinwhichwerepresentourselvestotheworldTheconceptsweuseandthetermsweemployreflectalonghistoryofhumanconsciousnessAsÉmileDurkheimpointsout,noarticulationofhumanlifeandexperienceispossiblewithouttheuseofthesegenericandcommonconcepts,yettheirinternalizationandactualizationaredeeplytroubledidentityandthemodernworldpersonalandunique(seeDurkheim,,–)ContrarytoVico’shistoricismthatledhimtoassumethatthreekindsofhumannatureexist,Durkheim’sconceptofhumannaturerestsonthepainfulcontradictionandtensionbetweentwokindsofhumannature:Oursensorybeinganditsinvolvementinactions,indreamsandactions,inimaginationandsocialpracticesCrossingtheboundariesofclassicalnotionsandtranscendingthelimitsofwhatwetakeaspurelyreligiousorphilosophicalconcepts,Durkheimassertsthat“thetraditionalantithesisofthebodyandsoulisnotavainmythologicalconceptthatiswithoutfoundationinreality”(ibid,)RecallingBlaisePascal’sformulathatthehumanbeingisboth“angelandbeast,”wecouldsumitupbyusinganotherofPascal’sphrasesthateachofusisa“monsterofcontradictions”(citedinibid,–)Thisistosaythat,asDurkheimsuggests,“wecannotfollowoneofourtwonatureswithoutcausingtheothertosuffer”(ibid,)Thewayweperceiveourselvesandtheworldarounduscaninfactbeuniqueandhighlyindividual,buttheconceptsinwhichwethinkorthelanguagewespeakrepresenttheworldandalonghistoryofthehumansoulWecanactspontaneouslyandfeelouruniquevalidityduetooursensations,pain,anguish,disappointments,happiness,andsoonyetwhenitcomestoconceptsandterms,wemapourlives,inscribeournamesorengraveourexistentialandmoralchoicesintheexistingspiritual,intellectual,mental,andmoralcartographyofhumanityLikeconceptsandideas,idealsareofholisticcollectivenatureTheyprecedeourindividualchoicesandspontaneousreactionsthatsignifyourcomingintoexistenceasindividualsThefusionofwhathadlongexistedbeforeusandofthenoveltyanduniquenessofourreactionsandchoicesmakesouridentityworkOfidealsandtheirinternalization,Durkheimwrites,Butevenwhiletheyarebeingindividualizedandthusbecomingelementsofourpersonalitiescollectiveidealspreservetheircharacteristicproperty:theprestigewithwhichtheyareclothedAlthoughtheyareourown,theyspeakinuswithatoneandanaccentthatareentirelydifferentfromthoseofourotherstatesofconsciousnessTheycommandustheyimposerespectonuswedonotfeelourselvestobeonanevenfootingwiththemWerealizethattheyrepresentsomethingwithinusthatissuperiortous(ibid,)Therefore,thewayinwhichweidentifyanddescribeourselvesusingthelanguageispersonalandimpersonal,uniqueandcommon,modernandtraditional,spontaneousandorganized,individualandcollectiveanidentityinneedofassuranceandconfirmationThesameappliestoouridentity,whichalwaysissimultaneouslydividingandassociating,splittingandlinking,exclusiveandinclusiveIdentityasaBurden,Adventure,andGameTheambivalenceanddualitypermeatethetheoryandthepracticeofmodernidentityAsZygmuntBaumansuggests,ourinfatuationwithidentitycomesfromtheweakeningandlooseningofthesenseofbelongingAsBaumanpointsout,Theideaof“identity”wasbornoutofthecrisisofbelongingandoutoftheeffortittriggeredtobridgethegapbetweenthe“ought”andthe“is”andtoliftrealitytothestandardssetbytheideatoremaketherealityinthelikenessoftheidea…IdentitycouldonlyentertheLebensweltasatask,asanasyetunfulfilled,unfinishedtask,aclarioncall,adutyandanurgetoact…Identitybornasfictionneededalotofcoercingandconvincingtohardenandcoagulateintoareality(morecorrectly:int

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/46

*新书上架*麻烦身份和现代世界

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利