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首页 50位重要的当代思想家:从结构主义到后现代

50位重要的当代思想家:从结构主义到后现代.pdf

50位重要的当代思想家:从结构主义到后现代

君怜我惜
2013-10-23 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《50位重要的当代思想家:从结构主义到后现代pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

FIFTYKEYCONTEMPORARYTHINKERSFromstructuralismtopostmodernityJohnLechteLondonandNewYorkFIFTYKEYCONTEMPORARYTHINKERSInthisbook,JohnLechtefocusesbothonthedevelopmentofstructuralisttheoryandonkeythinkersopposedtothistendencyForthespecialistandthegeneralreaderalike,itisanindispensablereferencebookonthiscentury’smostimportantintellectualrevolutionIneachofthefiftyentries,JohnLechteskilfullyilluminatescomplexthoughtwithunusualclarityHealsoprovidescomprehensivebibliographicalinformationandsuggestionsforfurtherreadingFromearlystructuralism,FiftyKeyContemporaryThinkersguidesusthroughpoststructuralism,semiotics,postMarxismandAnnaleshistory,ontomodernityandpostmodernityItincludeschaptersonBakhtin,Freud,Bourdieu,Chomsky,Derrida,Lacan,Kristeva,Saussure,IrigarayandKafkaamongothersLiteraryfigureswhohavechangedthewaylanguageisconceivedareconsidered,togetherwithphilosophers,linguists,socialtheorists,feministsandhistoriansFiftyKeyContemporaryThinkersshowsthatthoughtinthetwentiethcenturyemphasisestherelationaldimensionofexistenceratherthananessentialdimensionThiskindofthoughtleadsontonihilism,butalsotothepointwherenihilismmightbeovercomeInexplainingnewdevelopmentsinliterature,artandphilosophy,JohnLechtehelpsreaderstoachieveamoreprofoundunderstandingoftheunderpinningsofpostwarthoughtandcultureJohnLechte,aformerstudentofJuliaKristeva,teachessocialtheoryandthesociologyofrepresentationatMacquarieUniversity,AustraliaHehasalsoworkedinthefieldsofhistory,semioticsandpolitics,andhasanabidinginterestinpsychoanalysisHehastaughtandpublishedwidelyonmanyaspectsofmodernthoughtFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,©JohnLechteAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)TothememoryofmygrandmotherswhovaluededucationCarolynLechte(–)MurielGarner(–)CONTENTSPREFACEviACKNOWLEDGEMENTSviiiEARLYSTRUCTURALISMSTRUCTURALISMSTRUCTURALHISTORYPOSTSTRUCTURALISTTHOUGHTSEMIOTICSSECONDGENERATIONFEMINISMPOSTMARXISMMODERNITYPOSTMODERNITYPREFACEThisbookfollowstheveryadmirablemodelprovidedbyDianéCollinson’sFiftyMajorPhilosophers()ThusIofferthereaderbothanoverviewofeachthinker’sworktogetherwithbiographicalinformationLikeMsCollinson,Ialsoaimtointroduce,sometimesinafairlydetailedway,oneormoreaspectsoftheoeuvreinquestion,andparticularlyasthisrelatestothataspectofthoughtinspiredbystructuralismAndIoftenengagewiththatthought–differwithit,orappreciateitsinsightsMyhopeisthatthereaderwillgetarealsenseoftheflavour,style,and,inmanycases,thetrulyinnovativecharacterofthethoughtinquestionMytask,however,wasbotheasierandmoredifficultthanDianéCollinson’s,forwhileIdidnothavetotreattheentirehistoryoftheWesterncanonofphilosophyinwritingmyentries,IhadtochoosefiftycontemporarythinkersAndalthough,ofcourse,onecandebateaboutwhoshouldbeinthephilosophycanon,thereislessdoubtaboutthefactthatacanonhasbeenextraordinarilyinfluential,eventothepointwherepeoplearespeakingPlato,HobbesorSartrewithoutknowingitTosomeextent,then,DianéCollinson’staskwastomakeexplicitformsofthoughtwhichhavealreadyformedusMytask,bycontrast,hasbeentodistilkeyelementsintheworkofthinkerswhoaresometimesnotyetwidelyknown,butwhoarebecomingsoMostpeoplewillatleasthaveheardofPlatobutwilltheyhaveheardofSaussureMostwillknowthatidealismislocatedsomewhereinPlato’sphilosophybutdotheyknowthat‘difference’isakeynotioninSaussureClearly,Ibelievethattheansweris‘no’inbothcasesItisnotonlythegeneralreader’sknowledgethatIamactuallyalludingtohere,butalsomyownForthecontrastthatIamtryingtobringoutisthatbetweenarelativelystablecanonwithwhichIamfamiliar,ifnotindetail,andaseriesofthinkerswhosethoughtisoftenstillevolving,bothbecausemanyarestillwritingandthushavenotcompletedtheirwork,andbecause,bydefinition,itisnotpossibletohaveadeepfamiliaritywiththoughtthatisessentiallycontemporaryandinnovativeInotherwords,whetherIhavechosenthemostimportantorilluminatingangleonthethinkersinquestionwillbe,andshouldbe,acausefordebateInresponsetothisdifficulty,mywageronbehalfofthereaderisthatthelightthatIdoshineonthethoughtIhaveexplicatedisaninformedone,butthatevenifitturnsouttobebutonepossiblewayofunderstandingthethinkerinquestion,thisisstillinformativeandeducativeinthesensethatIintendAndthissenseisthatto(beableto)disagreewithmeistounderstandmeWhatofthechoiceofthinkers,howeverHere,thesubtitleofthebookshouldconveytheorientationofthechoicesIhavemadeThethinkerschosenservetodeepenanunderstandingofthepostSecondWorldWarstructuralistorientationinthought,whicharoselargely,ifnotexclusively,inFranceInmyexpositions,IhavetriednottobelabourthispointforeachofthefiftythinkerstreatedisirreducibletoamovementAlthoughthefocusisprimarilyonthepostwarperiod,itisnotexclusivelyso:Ihavetriedtoincludethinkerswho,chronologically,mighthavebeenofanothergeneration(Saussure,Freud,Nietzsche),butwhohavebeenofseminalimportance,andareofgreatcontemporaneity,intellectuallyspeaking‘Contemporary’,therefore,meansmorethanchronologicallycontemporaryAstheorientationofthebookislargelytowardspresentingthosethinkerswhorepresentastructural–poststructural,modern–postmodern,orientation,Ihavealsoincludedanumberofindisputablyimportantthinkers(Adorno,Habermas)whoareunsympathetic,oratleastlesssympathetic,tothisorientationAstothematerialpresentationofthebook,Ihavegroupedthethinkersinninecategories:earlystructuralismstructuralismstructuralhistorypoststructuralistthoughtsemioticssecondgenerationfeminismpostMarxismmodernityand,finally,postmodernityAshortintroductorynote,intendedtogivethereaderabroadoverviewoftheintellectualorientationconcerned,precedeseachgroupofthinkersSomemayseethesegroupingsastooreductiveMyviewisthattheysignalanorientationonly,andhelpthereadertoappreciatetheglobalsignificanceofthiscollection,asignificancewhichshouldnotgounnoticedandwhich,usedintelligently,canassistunderstandingatamoreindividuallevelForeachthinker,Ihaveaimedtoprovideinformationaboutrecentaswellasearlyworkinthelistingofmajorworks,asIhavealsoattemptedtoproviderecentfurtherreadingsFinally,IshouldaddressbrieflythequestionastohowthisbookmightbeusedItwouldhavebeenfarcical,Ibelieve,tohaveclaimedtohavepresentedthesefiftykeycontemporarythinkersinawaywhichobviatedtheneedforthereadertodoadditionalreadingtoconsolidatehisorherunderstandingThisbookoffersawayintounderstandingthethinkersconcerneditisnotasubstituteforreadingthemoneselfAfterHeidegger,IamnotprovidinglearningIamtryingtoletlearningtakeplaceJohnLechteACKNOWLEDGEMENTSGillBottomleyhasbeeninspiringindiscussingtheissuesraisedbythethinkersinthisbook,asshehasalsobeenuntiringinhermaterialsupportMydeepestthanksthusgotoherEduardodelaFuenteisbecomingaworldauthorityonAdorno,andgavemethebenefitofhisadviceandknowledgeinthisregardHealsoassistedinresearchingkeybibliographicalitemsSeveralpeopleread,andcommentedupon,entriesTheseincludeGillBottomley,MurrayDomney,EduardodelaFuente,BarryHindess,EphraimNimni,andPaulPattonIthankthemall,butofcoursetakefullresponsibilityforanyerrorsthatremaininthetexttheysogenerouslyhelpedtoimproveFinally,Iwould,verysincerely,liketothankmypublisher,RichardStoneman,fortheideaforthisproject,andespeciallyforhisextremeforbearanceinlightofaproject,which,Iamloathtoadmit,wentwayoveranumberofdeadlinesEARLYSTRUCTURALISMTogiveaninsightintothefactorswhichsetinmotionthestructuralistmovement,wecanseethatcertaintendenciesintheworkofaMarcelMaussoraGeorgesCanguilhemhadalreadybeguntodestabilisethepresuppositionsofphenomenologyandpositivismAfocusonsocietyasasystemwherecertainphenomenaconstitutea‘totalsocialfact’,orontheepistemologicalbasisofknowledge(Canguilhem),beginstoshifttheemphasisawayfromanessentialistexplanationofsocietyorknowledge,andtowardsthisasbeingtheresultofthestructural(thatis,differential,andrelational)natureoftheseeventsThehistoryofscienceisthusnolongertheexpressionofamindrather,throughanepistemologicalconfiguration,historyconstructstheintellectualframeworkthatcomprehendsitInaddition,changesinthepresentexperienceofasocietyoranindividual(cfFreud)changethemeaningofthepastThepastcannolongerbeunderstoodinitsowntermsbecausenowthepastistobeunderstoodintermsoftheconcernsofthepresentGASTONBACHELARDGastonBachelard–epistemologist,philosopherofscience,andtheoristoftheimagination–influencedkeyfiguresinthestructuralistandpoststructuralistgenerationofthepostwareraThroughJeanCavaillès,andespeciallyinlightoftheworkandguidanceofGeorgesCanguilhem,MichelFoucaultfoundhisparticularorientationinresearchingthehistoryofknowledgesAgain,withLouisAlthusserfindinginspirationinBachelard’sconceptof‘discontinuity’–whichhetranslatedinto‘epistemologicalbreak’–agenerationofMarxistphilosopherswasstimulatedtorethinkthenotionsoftime,subjectivity,andscienceGastonBachelardwasbornin,inruralFrance,atBarsurAubeanddiedinParisinAfterbeingemployedinthepostalservice(–),hebecameprofessorofphysicsattheCollègedeBarsurAubefromtoAttheageof,Bachelardengagedinfurtherstudies–thistimeinphilosophy,forwhichhecompletedanagrégationinStilllater,in,hepublishedhisdoctoralthesis,defendedin:Essaisurlaconnaissanceapprochée(EssayonApproximateKnowledge)andhiscomplementarythesis,Etudesurl’évolutiond’unproblèmephysique,Lapropagationthermiquedanslessolides(StudyontheEvolutionofaProbleminPhysics:ThermalPropagationinSolids)Inlightofthiswork,Bachelard,in,wascalledupontotakeupthechairofhistoryandphilosophyofscienceattheSorbonne,apositionhehelduntilThreekeyelementsofBachelard’sthoughtmadehimbothauniquephilosopherandthinkerandalsorenderedhisworkcrucialtothepostwargenerationofstructuralistsThefirstelementconcernstheimportanceplacedonepistemologyinscienceIf,inthisregard,scientistsweretohaveadefectiveunderstandingoftheirownpractice,theapplicationoftheirworkwouldbefundamentallyimpededEpistemologyisthedomainwherethesignificanceofscientificendeavoursiscomprehendedAsBachelardwroteinThePhilosophyofNo:‘Thespaceinwhichonelooks,inwhichoneexaminesisphilosophicallyverydifferentfromthespaceinwhichonesees’Thisisbecausethespaceinwhichoneseesisalwaysarepresentedspace,andnotarealspaceOnlybyrecoursetophilosophycanonetakeaccountofthisIndeed,Bachelardgoesontoadvocate‘asystematicstudyofrepresentation,themostnaturalintermediaryfordeterminingtherelationshipsofnoumenonandphenomenon’Closelyalignedtotheinteractionbetweenrealityanditsrepresentation,isBachelard’sunswervingadvocacyofthedialecticalrelationshipbetweenrationalismandrealism–orempiricism,asitcouldalsobecalledThusinperhapswhatbecame,forawiderpublic,hismostinfluentialbook,TheNewScientificSpirit,thisveritablepoetofepistemologyarguesthattherearefundamentallytwoprevailingmetaphysicalbases:rationalismandrealismRationalism–whichincludesphilosophyandtheory–isthefieldofinterpretationandreasonrealism,ontheotherhand,providesrationalismwiththematerialforitsinterpretationsSimplytoremainatanaiveandintuitivelevel–theexperimentallevel–ingraspingnewfactsistocondemnscientificunderstandingtostagnationforitcannotbecomeawareofwhatitisdoingSimilarly,ifoneexaggeratestheimportanceoftherationalistaspect–perhapsevenclaimingthat,intheend,scienceisnothingbutthereflectionofanunderlyingphilosophicalsystem–anequallysterileidealismcanresultForBachelard,therefore,tobescientificistoprivilegeneitherthoughtnorreality,buttorecognisetheinextricableFiftykeycontemporarythinkersFaye高亮Faye高亮Faye高亮Faye高亮Faye高亮linkbetweenthemInthefollowingmemorableexpression,Bachelardcaptureswhatisatstake:‘Experimentationmustgivewaytoargument,andargumentmusthaverecoursetoexperimentation’AllofBachelard’swritingsonthenatureofsciencearemotivatedbythisprincipleTrainedasascientistandasaphilosopher,BachelardexemplifiedthepositionhestrovetorepresentinhiswritingAsmaybeexpected,abooklikeLeRationalismeappliqué(AppliedRationalism),isgearedtodemonstratethetheoreticalbasisofdifferenttypesofexperimentationAprofoundrationalismisthusalwaysanappliedrationalism,onethatlearnsfromrealityThisisnotall,howeverForBachelardalsoagreesthattheempiricistcanlearnsomethingaboutrealityfromthetheoristwhenithappens–aswithEinstein–thatatheoryisdevelopedpriortoitsexperimentalcorrelateHere,theoryneedsitsexperimentalcorrelateinordertobeconfirmedWiththeemphasisheplacedonepistemology,BachelardbroughtscienceandphilosophytogetherinawayseldomseenbeforeThehumanandnaturalsciencesinfactfindtheirintermediaryhere,inthemanwho,intheend,comestowritea‘poetics’ofscienceThesecondmajoraspectofBachelard’sworkwhichhasbeenparticularlyinfluentialasfarasstructuralismisconcernedishistheorisationofthehistoryofscienceInanutshell,Bachelardproposesanonevolutionaryexplanationofthedevelopmentofscience,wherepriordevelopmentsdonotnecessarilyexplainthepresentstateofscienceForexample,accordingtoBachelard,itisnotpossibletoexplainEinstein’stheoryofrelativityasdevelopingoutofNewtonianphysicsNewdoctrinesdidnotdevelopoutoftheold,saysBachelard,‘butrather,thenewenvelopedtheold’Andhecontinues:‘Intellectualgenerationsarenested,onewithintheotherWhenwegofromnonNewtonianphysicstoNewtonianphysics,wedonotencountercontradictionbutwedoexperiencecontradiction’Onthisbasis,theconceptthatlinkslaterdiscoveriestoapriorsetofdiscoveriesisnotcontinuity,butdiscontinuityThereisthusadiscontinuitybetweenEuclideanandnonEuclideangeometry,adiscontinuitybetweenEuclideanspace,andthetheoriesoflocation,spaceandtimeputforwardbyHeisenbergandEinsteinAgain,Bachelardpointsoutthatinthepast,masswasdefinedinrelationtoaquantityofmatterThegreaterthematter,therefore,thegreatertheforcethoughttobeneededtoopposeit:velocitywasafunctionofmassWithEinstein,wenowknowthatmassisafunctionofvelocity,andnotthereverseThemainpointmadehereisnotthatprevioustheorieswerefoundtobewantingandthereforeopposed,butthatnewtheoriestendentirelytotranscend–orarediscontinuouswith–previoustheoriesandexplanationsofphenomenaAsBachelardexplains:NodoubttherearesomekindsofknowledgethatappeartobeimmutableThisleadssomepeopletothinkthatthestabilityofthecontentsisduetostabilityofthecontainer,or,inotherwords,thattheformsofrationalityarepermanentandnonewmethodofrationalthoughtispossibleButstructuredoesnotcomefromaccumulationalonethemassofimmutableknowledgedoesnothaveasmuchfunctionalimportanceasissometimesassumedInfact,Bachelardargues,itisthe–sometimesradical–changesinthemeaningofaconcept,orinthenatureofaresearchfieldwhichbestcharacterisethenatureofscientificendeavourWhatisnewinscience,therefore,isalwaysrevolutionaryAsanaddendumtotheBachelardianconceptionofscientificdevelopment,itisimportanttonotethatallscientificthought,‘is,initsessence,processofobjectification’–asentimentwithwhichPierreBourdieu(aformerstudentofBachelard’s)wouldEarlystructuralismFaye高亮Faye高亮Faye高亮Faye高亮Faye高亮entirelyagreeMoreover,inspeakingaboutthescientificthoughtofthemodernera,Bachelardnotesthatitisfundamentallyorientedtoseeingphenomenarelationally,andnotsubstantively,orashavingessentialqualitiesinthemselvesThisobservationclearlysignalsafeaturepresentincontemporarystructuralistthoughtThus,Bachelardconfirms,‘thepropertiesoftheobjectsinHilbert’ssystemarepurelyrelationalandinnowaysubstantial’Whenhearguesthat‘theassimilationoftheirrationalbyreasonneverfailstobringaboutareciprocalreorganizationofthedomainofrationality’,Bachelardconfirmsthedialecticalnatureofhisapproach–onethatisrecalled,albeitinadifferentcontextandwithdifferentaims,byJuliaKristevaandherconceptsofthe‘semiotic’andthe‘symbolic’Thoughtisalways‘intheprocessofobjectification’itisnevergivenandcomplete–neverclosedinuponitselfandstatic,assomescientistsusedtoassumeConnectedtothisviewofthoughtisBachelard’santiCartesianstanceWhereasDescarteshadarguedthattoprogress,thoughthadtostartfromthepointofclearandsimpleideas,Bachelardchargesthattherearenosimpleideas,onlycomplexities,thisbeingparticularlyinevidencewhenideasareapplied‘Applicationiscomplication’,BachelardclaimsMoreover,whilethebesttheoryseemstobetheonethat

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