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首页 AP NEWS VALUES

AP NEWS VALUES.doc

AP NEWS VALUES

Annabel_Lee_
2013-10-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《AP NEWS VALUESdoc》,可适用于高等教育领域

APNEWSVALUESPRINCIPLESFormorethanacenturyandahalf,menandwomenofTheAssociatedPresshavehadtheprivilegeofbringingtruthtotheworldTheyhavegonetogreatlengths,overcomegreatobstacles–and,toooften,madegreatandhorrificsacrifices–toensurethatthenewswasreportedquickly,accuratelyandhonestlyOureffortshavebeenrewardedwithtrust:MorepeopleinmoreplacesgettheirnewsfromtheAPthanfromanyothersourceInthestcentury,thatnewsistransmittedinmorewaysthaneverbefore–inprint,ontheairandontheWeb,withwords,images,graphics,soundsandvideoButalwaysandinallmedia,weinsistonthehigheststandardsofintegrityandethicalbehaviorwhenwegatheranddeliverthenewsThatmeansweabhorinaccuracies,carelessness,biasordistortionsItmeanswewillnotknowinglyintroducefalseinformationintomaterialintendedforpublicationorbroadcastnorwillwealterphotoorimagecontentQuotationsmustbeaccurate,andpreciseItmeanswealwaysstrivetoidentifyallthesourcesofourinformation,shieldingthemwithanonymityonlywhentheyinsistuponitandwhentheyprovidevitalinformation–notopinionorspeculationwhenthereisnootherwaytoobtainthatinformationandwhenweknowthesourceisknowledgeableandreliableItmeanswedon'tplagiarizeItmeansweavoidbehaviororactivitiesthatcreateaconflictofinterestandcompromiseourabilitytoreportthenewsfairlyandaccurately,uninfluencedbyanypersonoractionItmeanswedon'tmisidentifyormisrepresentourselvestogetastoryWhenweseekaninterview,weidentifyourselvesasAPjournalistsItmeanswedon’tpaynewsmakersforinterviews,totaketheirphotographsortofilmorrecordthemItmeanswemustbefairWheneverweportraysomeoneinanegativelight,wemustmakearealefforttoobtainaresponsefromthatpersonWhenmistakesaremade,theymustbecorrected–fully,quicklyandungrudginglyAndultimately,itmeansitistheresponsibilityofeveryoneofustoensurethatthesestandardsareupheldAnytimeaquestionisraisedaboutanyaspectofourwork,itshouldbetakenseriously"IhavenothoughtofsayingTheAssociatedPressisperfectThefrailtiesofhumannatureattachtoit,"wroteMelvilleStone,thegreatgeneralmanageroftheAPButhewentontosaythat"thethingitisstrivingforisatruthful,unbiasedreportoftheworld'shappenings…ethicalinthehighestdegree"HewrotethosewordsinTheyaretruetoday***ThepoliciessetforthinthesepagesarecentraltotheAP’smissionanyfailuretoabidebythemissubjecttoreview,andcouldresultindisciplinaryaction,rangingfromadmonishmenttodismissal,dependingonthegravityoftheinfractionStandardsPracticesANONYMOUSSOURCES:TransparencyiscriticaltoourcredibilitywiththepublicandoursubscribersWheneverpossible,wepursueinformationontherecordWhenanewsmakerinsistsonbackgroundorofftherecordgroundrules,wemustadheretoastrictsetofguidelines,enforcedbyAPnewsmanagersUnderAP'srules,materialfromanonymoussourcesmaybeusedonlyif:Thematerialisinformationandnotopinionorspeculation,andisvitaltothenewsreportTheinformationisnotavailableexceptundertheconditionsofanonymityimposedbythesourceThesourceisreliable,andinapositiontohaveaccurateinformationReporterswhointendtousematerialfromanonymoussourcesmustgetapprovalfromtheirnewsmanagerbeforesendingthestorytothedeskThemanagerisresponsibleforvettingthematerialandmakingsureitmeetsAPguidelinesThemanagermustknowtheidentityofthesource,andisobligated,likethereporter,tokeepthesource'sidentityconfidentialOnlyaftertheyareassuredthatthesourcematerialhasbeenvettedshouldeditorsallowittobetransmittedReportersshouldproceedwithinterviewsontheassumptiontheyareontherecordIfthesourcewantstosetconditions,theseshouldbenegotiatedatthestartoftheinterviewAttheendoftheinterview,thereportershouldtryonceagaintomovesomeoralloftheinformationbackontherecordBeforeagreeingtouseanonymoussourcematerial,thereportershouldaskhowthesourceknowstheinformationisaccurate,ensuringthatthesourcehasdirectknowledgeReportersmaynotagreetoasource'srequestthatAPnotpursueadditionalcommentorinformationTheAProutinelyseeksandrequiresmorethanonesourceStoriesshouldbeheldwhileattemptsaremadetoreachadditionalsourcesforconfirmationorelaborationInrarecases,onesourcewillbesufficient–whenmaterialcomesfromanauthoritativefigurewhoprovidesinformationsodetailedthatthereisnoquestionofitsaccuracyWemustexplaininthestorywhythesourcerequestedanonymityAnd,whenit’srelevant,wemustdescribethesource'smotivefordisclosingtheinformationIfthestoryhingesondocuments,asopposedtointerviews,thereportermustdescribehowthedocumentswereobtained,atleasttotheextentpossibleThestoryalsomustprovideattributionthatestablishesthesource'scredibilitysimplyquoting"asource"isnotallowedWeshouldbeasdescriptiveaspossible:"accordingtotopWhiteHouseaides"or"aseniorofficialintheBritishForeignOffice"ThedescriptionofasourcemustneverbealteredwithoutconsultingthereporterWemustnotsaythatapersondeclinedcommentwhenheorsheisalreadyquotedanonymouslyAndweshouldnotattributeinformationtoanonymoussourceswhenitisobviousorwellknownWeshouldjuststatetheinformationasfactStoriesthatuseanonymoussourcesmustcarryareporter'sbylineIfareporterotherthanthebylinedstaffercontributesanonymousmaterialtoastory,thatreportershouldbegivencreditasacontributortothestoryAndallcomplaintsandquestionsabouttheauthenticityorveracityofanonymousmaterial–frominsideoroutsidetheAP–mustbepromptlybroughttothenewsmanager'sattentionNoteveryoneunderstands“offtherecord”or“onbackground”tomeanthesamethingsBeforeanyinterviewinwhichanydegreeofanonymityisexpected,thereshouldbeadiscussioninwhichthegroundrulesaresetexplicitlyThesearetheAP’sdefinitions:OntherecordTheinformationcanbeusedwithnocaveats,quotingthesourcebynameOfftherecordTheinformationcannotbeusedforpublicationBackgroundTheinformationcanbepublishedbutonlyunderconditionsnegotiatedwiththesourceGenerally,thesourcesdonotwanttheirnamespublishedbutwillagreetoadescriptionoftheirpositionAPreportersshouldobjectvigorouslywhenasourcewantstobriefagroupofreportersonbackgroundandtrytopersuadethesourcetoputthebriefingontherecordThesebackgroundbriefingshavebecomeroutineinmanyvenues,especiallywithgovernmentofficialsDeepbackgroundTheinformationcanbeusedbutwithoutattributionThesourcedoesnotwanttobeidentifiedinanyway,evenonconditionofanonymityIngeneral,informationobtainedunderanyofthesecircumstancescanbepursuedwithothersourcestobeplacedontherecordANONYMOUSSOURCESINMATERIALFROMOTHERNEWSSOURCES: ReportsfromothernewsorganizationsbasedonanonymoussourcesrequirethemostcarefulscrutinywhenweconsiderthemforourreportAP'sbasicrulesforanonymoussourcematerialapplytopickupsastheydoinourownreporting:ThematerialmustbefactualandobtainablenootherwayThestorymustbetrulysignificantandnewsworthyUseofsourcedmaterialmustbeauthorizedbyamanagerThestorymustbebalanced,andcommentmustbesoughtFurther,beforepickingupsuchastorywemustmakeabonafideefforttogetitontherecord,or,ataminimum,confirmitthroughourownsourcesWeshouldn'thesitatetoholdthestoryifwehaveanydoubtsIfthesourcematerialisultimatelyused,itmustbeattributedtotheoriginatingmemberandnotetheirdescriptionoftheirsourcesAUDIO:AP’saudioactualitiesmustalwaystellthetruthWedonotalterormanipulatethecontentofanewsmakeractualityinanywayVoicereportsbyAPcorrespondentsmaybeeditedtoremovepausesorstumblesWiththepermissionofamanager,overlylongpausesbynewssubjectsmaybeshortenedTheAPdoespermittheuseofthesubtle,standardaudioprocessingmethodsofnormalizationoflevels,generalvolumeadjustments,equalizationtomakethesoundclearer,noisereductiontoreduceextraneoussoundssuchastelephonelinenoise,andfadinginandoutofthestartandendofsoundbitesprovidedtheuseofthesemethodsdoesnotconceal,obscure,removeorotherwisealterthecontent,oranyportionofthecontent,oftheaudioWhenanemployeehasquestionsabouttheuseofsuchmethodsortheAP’srequirementsandlimitationsonaudioediting,heorsheshouldcontactthedesksupervisorpriortothetransmissionofanyaudioBYLINES:BylinesmaybeusedonlyifthejournalistwasinthedatelinedlocationtogathertheinformationreportedIfareporterinthefieldprovidesinformationtoastafferwhowritesthestory,thereporterinthefieldgetsthebyline,unlesstheeditorinchargedeterminesthatthebylineshouldmoreproperlygotothewriterWegivebylinestophotographers,broadcastreportersandTVcrewmemberswhoprovideinformationwithoutwhichtherewouldbenostoryIfmultiplestaffersreportthestory,thebylineistheeditor'sjudgmentcallIngeneral,thebylineshouldgotothestafferwhoreportedthekeyfactsOr,onestaffercantakethebylineforonecycle,andanotherforthefollowingcycleAdoublebylineoreditor'snotealsocanbeusedwhenmorethanonestaffermakesasubstantialcontributiontothereportingorwritingofastoryCreditlinesrecognizereportingcontributionsthatarenotablebutdon'tcallforadoublebylineIfeitherofthestafferswithadoublebylinewasnotinthedatelinedlocation,weshouldsaywhowaswhereinanoteatthestory'sendForroundups,thebylinegoestothewriter,withcreditinaneditor'snotetothereporterswhocontributedsubstantialinformationRegardingcreditsforstafferswhodovoiceoroncamerawork:Wedonotusepseudonymsor"airnames"Anyexceptions–forinstance,ifastafferhasbeenknownprofessionallybyanairnameforsometime–mustbeapprovedbyamanagerCORRECTIONSCORRECTIVES:Staffersmustnotifysupervisoryeditorsassoonaspossibleoferrorsorpotentialerrors,whetherintheirworkorthatofacolleagueEveryeffortshouldbemadetocontactthestafferandhisorhersupervisorbeforeacorrectionismovedWhenwe'rewrong,wemustsaysoassoonaspossibleWhenwemakeacorrectioninthecurrentcycle,wepointouttheerroranditsfixintheeditor'snoteAcorrectionmustalwaysbelabeledacorrectionintheeditor'snoteWedonotuseeuphemismssuchas"recasts,""fixes,""clarifies"or"changes"whencorrectingafactualerrorAcorrectivecorrectsamistakefromapreviouscycleTheAPaskspapersorbroadcastersthatusedtheerroneousinformationtousethecorrective,tooForcorrectionsonlive,onlinestories,weoverwritethepreviousversionWesendseparatecorrectivestoriesonlineaswarrantedForgraphics,weclearlylabelacorrectionwithaFIXlogoorbug,andclearlyidentifythematerialthathasbeencorrectedForphotos,wemoveacaptioncorrectionandretransmitthephotowithacorrectedcaption,clearlylabeledasaretransmissiontocorrectanerrorForvideo,correctionsinscriptsandorshotlistsaresenttoclientsasanadvisoryandarelabeledassuchForlivebroadcasts,wecorrecterrorsinthesamenewscastifatallpossibleIfnot,wemakesurethecorrectedinformationisusedinthenextappropriatelivesegmentAudiocorrespondentreportsthatcontainfactualerrorsareeliminatedand,whenpossible,replacedwithcorrectedreportsDATELINES:AdatelinetellsthereaderwhereweobtainedthebasicinformationforastoryIncontrast,abylinetellsthereaderthatareporterwasatthesiteofthedatelineWhenadatelinedstorycontainssupplementaryinformationobtainedinanotherlocation–say,whenanofficialinWashingtoncommentsonadisasterelsewhere–weshouldnoteitinthestoryThedatelineforvideooraudiomustbethelocationwheretheeventsdepictedactuallyoccurredForvoicework,thedatelinemustbethelocationfromwhichthereporterisspeakingifthatisnotpossible,thereportershouldnotuseadatelineIfareportercoversastoryinonelocationbutdoesalivereportfromafilingpointinanotherlocation,thedatelineisthefilingpointFABRICATIONS:Nothinginournewsreport–words,photos,graphics,soundorvideo–maybefabricatedWedon'tusepseudonyms,compositecharactersorfictionalnames,ages,placesordatesWedon'tstageorreenacteventsforthecameraormicrophone,andwedon'tusesoundeffectsorsubstitutevideooraudiofromoneeventtoanotherWedonot“cheat”soundbyaddingaudiotoembellishorfabricateaneventAsenioreditormustbeconsultedpriortotheintroductionofanyneutralsound(ambientsoundthatdoesnotaffecttheeditorialmeaningbutcorrectsatechnicalfault)WedonotaskpeopletoposeforphotosunlesswearemakingaportraitandthenweclearlystatethatinthecaptionWeexplaininthecaptionthecircumstancesunderwhichphotographsaremadeIfsomeoneisaskedtoposeforphotographsbythirdpartiesandthatisreflectedinAPproducedimages,wesaysointhecaptionSuchwordingwouldbe:``XXXposesforphotos’’GRAPHICS:WeuseonlyauthoritativesourcesWedonotproject,surmiseorestimateinagraphicWecreateworkonlyfromwhatweknowWepostormovealocatormaponlywhenwecanconfirmthelocationourselvesWecreatechartsatvisuallyproperperspectivestogiveanaccuraterepresentationofdataTheinformationmustbeclearandconciseWedonotskeworalterdatatofitavisualneedWecreditoursourcesoneverygraphic,includinggraphicsforwhichAPjournalistshavecreatedthedatasetordatabaseIMAGES:APpicturesmustalwaystellthetruthWedonotalterordigitallymanipulatethecontentofaphotographinanywayThecontentofaphotographmustnotbealteredinPhotoshoporbyanyothermeansNoelementshouldbedigitallyaddedtoorsubtractedfromanyphotographThefacesoridentitiesofindividualsmustnotbeobscuredbyPhotoshoporanyothereditingtoolOnlyretouchingortheuseofthecloningtooltoeliminatedustoncamerasensorsandscratchesonscannednegativesorscannedprintsareacceptableMinoradjustmentsinPhotoshopareacceptableTheseincludecropping,dodgingandburning,conversionintograyscale,andnormaltoningandcoloradjustmentsthatshouldbelimitedtothoseminimallynecessaryforclearandaccuratereproduction(analogoustotheburninganddodgingpreviouslyusedindarkroomprocessingofimages)andthatrestoretheauthenticnatureofthephotographChangesindensity,contrast,colorandsaturationlevelsthatsubstantiallyaltertheoriginalscenearenotacceptableBackgroundsshouldnotbedigitallyblurredoreliminatedbyburningdownorbyaggressivetoningTheremovalof“redeye”fromphotographsisnotpermissibleWhenanemployeehasquestionsabouttheuseofsuchmethodsortheAP'srequirementsandlimitationsonphotoediting,heorsheshouldcontactaseniorphotoeditorpriortothetransmissionofanyimageOnthoseoccasionswhenwetransmitimagesthathavebeenprovidedandalteredbyasource–thefacesobscured,forexample–thecaptionmustclearlyexplainitTransmittingsuchimagesmustbeapprovedbyaseniorphotoeditorExceptasdescribedherein,wedonotstage,poseorreenacteventsWhenweshootvideo,environmentalportraits,orphotographsubjectsinastudiocareshouldbetakentoavoid,misleadingviewerstobelievethatthemomentwasspontaneouslycapturedinthecourseofgatheringthenewsInthecasesofportraits,fashionorhomedesignillustrations,anyinterventionshouldberevealedinthecaptionandspecialinstructionsboxsoitcan’tbemistakenasanattempttodeceiveForvideo,theAPpermitstheuseofsubtle,standardmethodsofimprovingtechnicalquality,suchasadjustingvideoandaudiolevels,colorcorrectingduetowhitebalance,eliminatingbuzzing,hums,clicks,pops,oroverlylongpausesorothertechnicalfaults,andequalizationofaudiotomakethesoundclearerprovidedtheuseofthesemethodsdoesnotconceal,obscure,removeorotherwisealterthecontent,oranyportionofthecontent,oftheimageTheAPalsoallowsdigitallyobscuringfacestoprotectasubject'sidentityundercertaincircumstancesSuchvideomustnotbedistributedwithoutapprovaloftheEditoroftheDayorseniormanagerInaddition,videoforonlineuseandfordomesticbroadcaststationscanbefontedwithtitlesandlogosGraphics,includingthosefortelevision,ofteninvolvecombiningvariousphotographicelements,whichnecessarilymeansalteringportionsofeachphotographThebackgroundofaphotograph,forexample,mayberemovedtoleavetheheadshotofthenewsmakerThismaythenbecombinedwithalogorepresentingtheperson'scompanyorindustry,andthetwoelementsmaybelayeredoveraneutralbackgroundSuchcompositionsmustnotmisrepresentthefactsandmustnotresultinanimagethatlookslikeaphotograph–itmustclearlybeagraphicSimilarly,whenwealterphotostouseasgraphicsonline,weretaintheintegrityoftheimage,limitingthechangestocropping,maskingandaddingelementslikelogosVideosforuseonlinecanbealteredtoaddgraphicalinformationsuchastitlesandlogos,totonetheimageandtoimproveaudioqualityItispermissibletodisplayphotosonlineusingtechniquessuchasdegreepanoramasordissolvesaslongastheydonotaltertheoriginalimagesOBSCENITIES,PROFANITIES,VULGARITIES:Wedonotuseobscenities,racialepithetsorotheroffensiveslursinstoriesunlesstheyarepartofdirectquotationsandthereisacompellingreasonforthemIfastorycannotbetoldwithoutreferencetothem,wemustfirsttrytofindawaytogivethereaderasenseofwhatwassaidwithoutusingthespecificwordorphraseIfaprofanity,obscenityorvulgarityisused,thestorymustbeflaggedatthetop,advisingeditorstonotethecontentsAphotocontainingsomethingthatcouldbedeemedoffensivemustcarryaneditor'snoteflaggingitWhenapieceofvideooraudiocontainssomethingthatmightbedeemedoffensive,weflagitinthewrittendescription(rundown,billboardandorscript)soclientsknowwhattheyaregettingRecognizingthatstandardsdifferaroundtheworld,wetailorouradvisoriesandselectionofvideoandaudioaccordingtocustomerneedsWetakegreatcarenottoreferreaderstoWebsitesthatareobscene,racistorotherwiseoffensive,andwemustnotdirectlylinkourstoriestosuchsitesInouronlineservice,welinktheleastoffensiveimagenecessarytotellthestoryForphotogalleriesandinteractivepresentationswealertreaderstothenatureofthematerialinthelinkandontheopeningpageofthegalleryorinteractiveIfanobsceneimageisnecessarytotellthestory,weblurtheportionoftheimageconsideredoffensiveafter

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