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普通物理原子物理试题.pdf

普通物理原子物理试题

292811qq 2013-10-20 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《普通物理原子物理试题pdf》,可适用于自然科学领域,主题内容包含第六节原子物理第六节原子物理Theenergylevelsofthehydrogenatomaregivenintermsoftheprincipa符等。

第六节原子物理第六节原子物理TheenergylevelsofthehydrogenatomaregivenintermsoftheprincipalquantumnumbernandapositiveconstantAbytheexpression(A)nA(B))(nA(C)nA(D)An(E)nA解:选(E)。类氢原子能级公式是一定要记住的结论。WhichofthefollowingvaluesoftheatomicnumberZcorrespondstoanatomwithvalence(A)(B)(C)(D)(E)解:原子序数为的原子的电子排布式为spss当把最外层两个电子失去后为正二价。选(B)。惰性元素的原子序数为所以价态为正二价的原子为。Amuonisa“heavyelectron”withamassabouttimesofahydrogenatomisE,thebindingenergyofamuonprotonatomismostnearly(A)E(B)E(C)E(D)E(E),E解:µ子与质子组成原子时µ子的折合质量为eeeeeppmmmmmmMmM===µµµ而氢原子中电子的折合质量近似为me且氢原子能级的大小与折合质量成正比。选(C)。TheanomalousZeemaneffectresultsfrom(A)anonuniformappliedmagneticfield(B)morethanoneisotopebeingpresent(C)amagneticmomentarisingfromelectronspin(D)anuclearquadrupolemoment(E)forbiddenatomictransitions解:反常Zeeman效应是电子有自旋的实验证据之一。由于轨道角动量是h的整数倍因此必须承认电子有h的自旋才能解释谱线分离为偶数条。(A)所说内容发生在SternGerlach实验中也是SUB考试的重点之一。InaComptonscatteringexperiment,acollimatedbeamofmonochromaticxraysofwavelengthangstromimpingesonasmallcylindricalcarbonscatterThescatteredradiationisinvestigatedasafunctionoftheanglebetweenitandtheprimarybeamThescatteredradiationcontains(A)nowavelengthotherthanthatoftheprimarybeam(B)acomponentshiftedinwavelengthbyanamountthatisindependentofthewavelengthoftheprimarybeam(C)acomponentshiftedinwavelengthbyanamountthatisindependentofthescatteringangle(D)acomponentshiftedinwavelengthbyanamountthatdecreasesasthescatteringangleincreases(E)twocomponentswithwavelengthshiftedupanddownbyequalamounts解:由Compton散射公式()θλλcos'=cmhe可见波长的变化量与入射波的波长无关只是角度的函数。答案选(B)。(D)不对θ增大时(从到)cosθ减小λ变大。其实θ越大表明第六节原子物理碰撞越剧烈能量损失越大λ越大。这里还需要注意一下Compton散射公式的适用条件:入射光子能量比较大波长在X射线范围以下。SternandGerlachsucceededindeflectingabeamofsilveratomswithaninhomogeneousmagneticfieldWhichofthefollowingisagenerallyacceptedinferencefromtheresultsoftheirmeasurements(A)Thetechniqueisusefulforprecisemeasurementofmagneticfieldintensities(B)Thesingledeflectionobservedisprincipallyduetoinducedmagneticmomentinthesilveratom(C)Thetwodeflectionsobservedareduetothetwopossiblemeasuredvaluesofacomponentofthemagneticmomentoftheatom(D)Thethreedeflectionsobservedareduetoneutralatoms,negativelychargedions,andpositivelychargedions(E)Thecontinuousrangeofvaluesobservedisduetorandomorientationofthemagneticmomentsoftheatoms解:SternGerlach实验是重点要好好复习一下。SternGerlach实验中原子束偏转后分裂为几条线(而不是连续的一片答案(E)不对)表明原子角动量只取几个特定的方向。如果原子只有轨道角动量则条纹数为l但实验观测中会得到偶数条条纹说明原子中的电子不仅有轨道角动量还有其他形式的角动量即自旋。(B)不对条纹数为说明原子没有固有磁矩。(D)不对实验中用的是中性原子产生偏折由其内禀性质决定。正确答案选(C)。Thenaturallinewidthofanatomictransistorwithameanlifetimeofsecondismostnearly(A)eV(B)eV(C)eV(D)eV(E)eV解:由能量时间测不准关系hτE作为估算取h=τE。选(C)。Theratioofthespinoftheprotontothespinoftheelectronismostnearly(A)(B)(C)(D)(E)解:质子和电子的自旋均为h答案选(C)。注意自旋为粒子的内禀性质不同于宏观物体的角动量是量子化的且与质量无关。其他几个选项显然为迷惑选项。Thegroundstatesofthehelium,neon,andargonatomsareall(A)S(B)S(C)S(D)P(E)P解:氦、氖、氩为惰性元素均为满壳层结构总角量子数L、总自旋量子数S均为从而J也为所以基态(JSL)为S。选(A)。WhatarethechangesinthemassnumberAandatomicnumberZofanucleusthatundergoeselectroncapture(A)AisunchangedZdecreasesby(B)AisunchangedZdecreasesby(C)AisunchangedZincreasesby(D)AdecreasesbyZincreasesby(E)AdecreasesbyZdecreasesby解:电子质量很小跟原子核相比可忽略其电量为。原子核捕获一个电子后使一个质子变为中子质量数不变而原子序数减。选(B)。Anelementthathasanatomicenergyleveldiagramsimilartolithium(Z=)hasanatomicnumberequalto(A)第六节原子物理(B)(C)(D)(E)解:原子能级以及原子的许多其他性质均由其最外层电子决定。Li的电子排布式为ss而Na(Z=)的电子排布式为spss最外层均为一个s电子能级相近。选(B)。TheinternucleardistanceinAngstromsinthehydrogenmoleculeismostnearly(A)A(B)A(C)A(D)A(E)A解:两原子间的精确距离为A。考试现场只要想一想Bohr半径约为A而两原子之间距离为与这个值数量级相同。选(C)。Whichofthefollowingstatesispossibleforanatomwithaclosedcoreplusonedelectron(l=)(A)D(B)D(C)D(D)D(E)D解:原子基态由最外层电子决定。本题中原子只有一个d电子l=所以总角量子数L=总自旋量子数S=。J=LS,LS,…,|LS|可取值为。因此原子基态可表示为D或D。选(D)。Ifhyperfinestructureisignored,anatomicstatePinaweakexternalmagneticfieldwillbesplitintoanumberofstatesequalto(A)(B)(C)(D)(E)解:当外加磁场较弱时为反常Zeeman效应原子将分裂为J个态当外加磁场较强时为正常Zeeman效应(以及PaschenBark效应)谱线一般分裂为条。本题外加弱磁场=。选(C)。Ifanelectronisinafstate,themagnitudeofitsorbitalangularmomentumis(A)h(B)h(C)h(D)h(E)h解:电子处于f态表示其所处能级f代表其角动量量子数为。所以角动量平方为)(h=lh=l。选(D)。InComptonscatteringofabeamofkeVxraysbyfreeelectronsinitiallyatrest,whichofthefollowingistrueofthescatteredxrays(A)Theyaremostlybackscattered(B)Theyarescatteredisotropically(C)TheyhavelessthankeVenergy(D)Thyshowaleftrightasymmetry(E)Theyareallcircularlypolarized解:由于光子把一部分能量传递给自由静止电子自身能量下降。或由Compton公式)cos(θλλ=′cmhe。第六节原子物理可见波长变长能量降低。选(C)。IfaistheradiusofthefirstBohrorbitinhydrogen,thentheradiusofthefirstBohrorbitofdoublyionizedlithium(Z=)is(A)a(B)a(C)a(D)a(E)a解:类氢原子的基态玻尔半径为eZaµh=。因为电子的折合质量近似不变所以aZa=选(A)。其实由于核电荷数的增加类氢原子将电子束缚得更紧所以基态半径将会变小。Anickeltarget(Z=)isbombardedwithfastelectronsTheminimumelectronkineticenergyneededtoproducexraysintheKseriesismostnearly(A)eV(B)eV(C)eV(D),eV(E),eV解:考场上作为估算对于K线系可用氢原子能级公式估算eVnZnZeE=hµ。取Z=n=约为,eV。选(D)。严格计算可用Morsley公式:~b,)(bZvK=。TheconfigurationofthepotassiumatominitsgroundstateissspspsWhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutpotassiumistrue(A)Itsn=shelliscompletelyfilled(B)Itsssubshelliscompletelyfilled(C)Itsleasttightlyboundelectronhasl=(D)Itsatomicnumberis(E)Itselectronchargedistributionissphericallysymmetrical解:(A)不对还有d轨道。(B)不对还差一个才满。(C)不对最外层电子n=角动量由s表示为l=。(D)不对显然为。(E)正确因为s轨道为球对称而p轨道虽不球对称但由于被全部占满所以电荷分布仍为球对称。选(E)。PhotonsofwavelengthλscatterelasticallyonfreeprotonsinitiallyatrestThewavelengthofthephotonsscatteredatisincreasedby(A)λ(B)λ(C)hmec,wherehisPlanck’sconstant,metherestmassofanelectron,andcthespeedoflight(D)hmpc,wherehisPlanck’sconstant,mptherestmassofanproton,andcthespeedoflight(E)zero解:可以看作广义的Compton散射)cos('θλλ=mchm为散射物的静止质量。对于本题θ=cmhp=λλ'选(D)。请牢记Compton散射实验及其公式否则后果自负。AblackbodyattemperatureTradiatesenergyatapowerlevelofmilliwatts(mW)Thesameblackbody,whenatatemperatureT,radiatesenergyatapowerlevelof(A)mW(B)mW(C)mW(D)mW(E)mW第六节原子物理解:由Stefan定律黑体的总辐射能力和它的绝对温度的四次方成正比TPσ=。选(E)。TheFranckHertzexperimentandrelatedscatteringexperimentsshowthat(A)electronsarealwaysscatteredelasticallyfromatoms(B)electronsareneverscatteredelasticallyfromatoms(C)electronsofacertainenergyrangecanbescatteredinelastically,andtheenergylostbyelectronsisdiscrete(D)electronsalwayslosethesameenergywhentheyarescatteredinelastically(E)thereisnoenergyrangeinwhichtheenergylostbyelectronsvariescontinuously解:即使不知道FranckHertz试验的具体内容也可发现选项中只有(C)的叙述是正确的。(A)、(B)、(D)显然不对(E)选项当电子能量较低时无法触及原子内部此时为连续散射谱。Atransitioninwhichonephotonisradiatedbytheelectroninahydrogenatomwhentheelectron’swavefunctionchangesfromψtoψisforbiddenifψandψ(A)haveoppositeparity(B)areorthogonaltoeachother(C)arezeroatthecenteroftheatomicnucleus(D)arebothsphericallysymmetrical(E)areassociatedwithdifferentangularmomenta解:由ψ和ψ为球对称可知二者角量子数均为l=而跃迁选择定则要求跃迁前后l=所以无法跃迁。选(D)。TheemissionspectrumofanatomicgasinamagneticfielddiffersfromthatofthegasintheabsenceofamagneticfieldWhichofthefollowingistrueofthephenomenon(A)ItiscalledtheSternGerlacheffect(B)ItiscalledtheStarkeffect(C)Itisdueprimarilytothenuclearmagneticmomentoftheatoms(D)Thenumberofemissionlinesobservedforthegasinamagneticfieldisalwaystwicethenumberobservedintheabsenceofamagneticfield(E)Thenumberofemissionlinesobservedforthegasinamagneticfieldiseithergreaterthanorequaltothenumberobservedintheabsenceofamagneticfield解:为Zeeman或反常Zeeman效应由于磁场的作用使能级简并解除产生谱线分裂。但正常Zeeman效应一般为三分裂反常Zeeman分裂可以是更多条。故答案(D)不对。选(E)。选项(B)Stark效应也可产生谱线分裂但是是由电场造成的。AspectrallineisproducedbyagasthatissufficientlydensethatthemeantimebetweenatomiccollisionsismuchshorterthanthemeanlivesoftheatomicstatesresponsibleforthelineComparedwiththesamelineproducedbyalowdensitygas,thelineproducedbythehigherdensitygaswillappear(A)thesame(B)morehighlypolarized(C)broader(D)shiftedtowardtheblueendofthespectrum(E)splitintoadoublet解:由能量时间测不准关系hτE能级的寿命越长则其展宽越大。在浓度较大的气体中由于碰撞比较频繁能级寿命短从而谱线宽度大。选(C)。Sodiumhaselevenelectronsandthesequenceinwhichenergylevelsfillinatomsiss,s,p,s,p,s,d,etcWhatisthegroundstateofsodiumintheusualnotationSLJ(A)S(B)S(C)P第六节原子物理(D)P(E)P解:核外一共个电子其电子排布式为spss。总自旋角动量S和总轨道角动量L由最外层s电子决定。S=L=J=所以基态为S。选(B)。WhichofthefollowingisNOTcompatiblewidththeselectionrulethatcontrolselectricdipoleemissionofphotonsbyexcitedstatesofatoms(A)nmayhaveanynegativeintegralvalue(B)l=(C)ml=,(D)s=(E)j=解:电偶极辐射的跃迁定则为:宇称改变l=j=,ml=,。关键是光子由角动量但没有自旋所以s的值无法改变。Thepositronium“atom”consistsofanelectronandapositronboundtogetherbytheirmutualCoulombattractionandmovingabouttheircenterofmass,whichislocatedhalfwaybetweenthemThusthepositronium“atom”issomewhatanalogoustoahydrogenatomThegroundstatebindingenergyofhydrogeniselectronvoltsWhatisthegroundstatebindingenergyofpositronium(A)eV(B)eV(C)eV(D)eV(E)()eV解:利用氢原子能级公式neEnhµ=。本题中电子偶素由于正负电子质量相同折合质量µ=me而氢原子中µ=me所以电子偶素基态能量为氢原子基态能级的一半。选(B)。请牢记氢原子(类氢原子)的能级公式。AbeamofelectronsisacceleratedthroughapotentialdifferenceofkilovoltsinanxraytubeThecontinuousxrayspectrumemittedbythetargetofthetubewillhaveashortwavelengthlimitofmostnearly(A)A(B)A(C)A(D)A(E)A解:波长最短的X射线对应于获得电子的全部能量即eEchhv==minmaxλmmin===eEhcλ。选(B)。TheBalmerformulaforthewavelengthofthespectrallinesinthevisiblespectrumofhydrogenmaybewrittenasλ=RH(n)IfthewavelengthoftheHαlineintheBalmerseriesisAngstroms,thewavelengthoftheserieslimitismostnearly(A)A(B)A(C)A(D)A(E),A解:Hα线对应于n=而线系限对应于n=所以==αλλA===αλλ。第六节原子物理选(C)。ThefollowingthreefactorsallcontributecorrectionstothesimplesscalculationoftheenergylevelsofhydrogenIInteractionbetweenthespinoftheelectronandthespinoftheprotonIIInteractionbetweenthespinoftheelectronanditsorbitalmotionIIIRelativisticvariationoftheelectron’smassThecorrectionsduetothesefactorscompareinwhichofthefollowingways(A)ThoseduetoIareconsiderablygreaterthanthoseduetoIIandIII(B)ThoseduetoIIareconsiderablygreaterthanthoseduetoIandIII(C)ThoseduetoIIIareconsiderablygreaterthanthoseduetoIandII(D)ThoseduetoIandIIareconsiderablyandconsiderablygreaterthanthoseduetoIII(E)ThoseduetoIIandIIIareconsiderablyandconsiderablygreaterthanthoseduetoI解:对于氢原子相对论效应和自旋轨道相互作用对能级的影响由相同的数量级。同时考虑二者的作用可得到精细结构项。而核自旋与电子自旋的耦合较弱从其名字超精细结构也可想到它对能级改变很小。选(E)。Thenaturallinewidthofanatomictransitionwithameanlifetimeofsecondismostnearly(A)eV(B)eV(C)eV(D)eV(E)eV解:根据时间能量的测不准关系:hτE作为数量级的估算得eV~eEτh选(C)。IfaweakelectricfieldofmagnitudeEisappliedtoanatominitsgroundstate(Starkeffect),whathappenstotheenergyoftheatom(A)ItischangedbyanamountproportionaltoE(B)ItischangedbyanamountproportionaltoE(C)ItischangedbyanamountproportionaltoE(D)ItischangedbyanamountproportionaltoE(E)Itisnotchanged解:对存在固有电偶极矩的量子态在弱外电场的作用下原来对轨道量子数l简并的能级分裂裂矩正比与电场强度这就是线性Stark效应。选(A)。但是值得注意的是如碱金属原子的能级由于轨道贯穿和极化等效应的影响它的能级对l是不简并的这些能级相应状态的固有电偶极矩为零因此不存在线性Stark效应。在外加电场的作用下有二级Stark效应或平方Stark效应。QuestionAportionoftheenergyleveldiagramforsodiumisshownbelowsssSpppddfPDFE(eV)WhichofthefollowingopticaltransitionsisNOTallowed(A)s–p(B)p–s(C)p–s(D)d–s(E)d–p解:根据跃迁的量子数选择定则单电子原子允许的跃迁必须满足:Δl=多电子原子允许的跃迁必须满足:Δl=,。选项(D)中的Δl=显然不满足选择定则。选(D)。Forsodiumtheenergylevelswiththesameprincipalquantumnumbernandwithdifferent第六节原子物理angularmomentumquantumnumberslaredifferent,whereasforhydrogentheenergylevelsdependonlyonnTheprincipalreasonforthisisthat(A)stateswithdifferentlvalueshavedifferentspinorbitsplittings(B)instateswithsmallerlvalues,theelectronpenetratesfartherintotheelectroncloudshieldingthenucleus(C)thePauliexclusionprincipleallowsonlytwoelectronstooccupyeachstate(D)therelativisticchangeinmassoftheelectronlowersitsenergy(E)nisnotagoodquantumnumber解:原子的内层电子形成稳固的结构与原子核构成有效电荷数为的原子实。然而电子对原子实存在极化和贯穿作用:相同主量子数中角量子数较小的轨道是偏心律较大的椭圆轨道电子离原子实较近时极化很强对能量影响较大。同时价电子接近原子实的轨道很可能穿入原子实原子实的有效电荷数就会增加从而使主量子数n表示中出现量子数亏损项Δl。选(B)。SternandGerlachsucceededindeflectingabeamofsilveratomswithaninhomogeneousmagneticfieldWhichofthefollowingisagenerallyacceptedinferencefromtheresultsoftheirmeasurements(A)Thetechniqueisusefulforprecisemeasurementofthemagneticfieldintensities(B)Thesingledeflectionobservedisprincipallyduetoaninducedmagneticmomentinthesilveratom(C)Thetwodeflectionsobservedareduetothetwopossiblemeasuredvaluesofacomponentofthemagneticmomentoftheatom(D)Thethreedeflectionsobservedareduetoneutralatoms,negativelychargedionsandpositivelychargedions(E)Thecontinuousrangeofvaluesobservedisduetorandomorientationofthemagneticmomentsofatoms解:SternGerlach实验:原子射线束射入不均匀的磁场区域偏转后在屏上可观测到几条清晰可见的黑斑。这表明原子磁矩只取几个特定的方向从而原子角动量的投影是量子化的。应用上没有反过来利用它求磁场的。选(C)。PositroniumisaquasiatomicsystemconsistingofanelectronandapositronIntermsoftheionizationenergyEofthehydrogenatom,whatmustbetheenergyofaphotonmakingatransitionfromthefirstexcitedstateofpositroniumtothegroundstate(A)E(B)E(C)E(D)E(E)E解:正负电子对的能级计算与氢原子类似其等效质量m*=mH*。一些结论nHnHEaenEaema',*'====πεπεh所以从n=到基态的跃迁能量EEEEEE==′′=。选(D)。Ifanelectronwereconfinedtonucleardimensions,theuncertaintyinitsmomentumwouldbemostnearly(A)eVc(B)eVc(C)KeVc(D)MeVc(E)GeVc解:根据测不准原理直接计算~~ecxph。选(D)。Whichofthefollowingistrueoftherareearth第六节原子物理elements(A)Theyaremagneticduetothefillingofdshellsthroughouttheseries(B)Theyarenearlyindistinguishablechemicallybecausetheydiffermainlyinthefillingofthedeeplyburiedfshells(C)TheyaregroupIIelements(D)Theyareinertgas(E)Theyaresemiconductors解:稀土元素:元素周期表的第六周期中从Ce到Lu十四种元素陆续填充f壳层而s、p和s保持不变具有相似的性质组成稀土元素族。选(B)。InComptonscatteringofabeamofkeVxraysbyfreeelectronsinitiallyatrest,whichofthefollowingistrueofthescatteredxrays(A)Theyaremostlybackscattered(B)Theyarescatteredisotropically(C)TheyhavelessthankeVenergy(D)Theyshowaleftrightasymmetry(E)Theyareallcircularlypolarized解:Compton散射指X射线被原子散射后发生波长变长的现象其散射公式应熟记。由于X射线与原子中外层电子发生碰撞把自己能量的一部分转化成了电子的动能所以X射线的能量一定减小了波长变长。选(C)。InaRutherfordbackscatteringexperiment,analphaparticle(A=)ofkineticenergyK=MeVstrikesaSinucleus(A=)andisscatteredbyThekineticenergyofthescatteredalphaparticleismostnearly(A)MeV(B)MeV(C)MeV(D)MeV(E)MeV解:Rutherford散射可以近似应用经典力学模型。SiSiSiSivmvmKvmvmvm==ααααα由以上两式联立可以解出vSi从而求出KSi来。选(C)。AsourceemitswattofvisiblemonochromaticlightofwavelengthmeterThenumberoflightquantaemittedpersecondismostnearly(A)(B)(C)(D)(E)解:功率P=nhcλ由此解得~==hcPnλ。选(C)。AphotonimpingesonthesurfaceofacleancopperplateinavacuumAretardingpotentialofvoltisnecessarytoensurethatanemittedphotoelectronisthoughttorestIftheworkfunctionofthecopperplateiselectronvolts,thewavelengthofthephotonismostnearly(A),A(B)A(C)A(D)A(E)A解:根据Einstein光电效应的理论eVAEhck==λ。由此可解得入射光子的波长λA。选(D)。Oxygen,whichhasatomicnumber,hasthegroundstateconfigurationgivenbywhichofthefollowing(Thenotationnlkmeansthattherearekelectronswithprincipalquantumnumbernandangularmomentuml)(A)pss(B)ssss(C)spss(D)fdps第六节原子物理(E)dpppssss解:O是第二周期的第六号元素基态原子核外第三壳层和第四壳层都是空的。基态的电子组态为ssp。选(A)。Whichofthefollowingat

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