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schools+of+linguistics.pdf

schools+of+linguistics.pdf

上传者: steven8810469 2009-12-20 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《schools+of+linguisticspdf》,可适用于考试题库领域,主题内容包含SchoolsofLinguisticsCompetitionandevolutionGeoffreySampsonHutchinsonLondon符等。

SchoolsofLinguisticsCompetitionandevolutionGeoffreySampsonHutchinsonLondonMelbourneSydneyAucklandJohannesburgHutchinsonCo(Publishers)LtdAnimprintoftheHutchinsonPublishingGroupHighburyCrescent,LondonNIRXHutchinsonGroup(Australia)PryLtdCremomeStreet,RichmondSouth,VictoriaPOBox,Broadway,NewSouthWalesHutchinsonGroup(NZ)LtdViewRoad,POBox,Glenfield,AucklandHutchinsonGroup(SA)(Pry)LtdPOBox,Bergvlei,SouthAfricaFirstprintedinGreatBritainGeoffreySampsonIllustrationsHutchinsonCo(Publishers)LtdThepaperbackeditionofthisbookissoldsubjecttotheconditionthatitshallnot,bywayoftradeorotherwise,belent,resold,hiredout,orotherwisecirculatedinanyformofbindingorcoverotherthanthatinwhichitispublishedandwithoutasimilarconditionincludingthisconditionbeingimposedonthesubsequentpurchaserSetinVIPTimesbyPrefaceLtd,Salisbury,WiltsPrintedinGreatBritainbyTheAnchorPressLtdandboundbyWmBrendonSonLtdbothofTiptree,EssexBritishLibraryCataloguingInPublicationDataSampson,GeoffreySchooloflinguisticsLinguisticsHistory'PBBNcasedXpaperForVerawhotoldmetogetbacktolinguisticsContentsPrefacePrelude:thenineteenthcenturySaussure:languageassocialfactTheDescriptivistsTheSapirWhorfhypothesisFunctionallinguistics:thePragueSchoolNoamChomskyandgenerativegrammarRelationalgrammar:Hjelmslev,Lamb,ReichGenerativephonologyTheLondonSchoolConclusionNotesBibliographyIndexPrefaceThestudyoflinguisticshasgrownupinmanywidelyseparatedpartsoftheWesternworldOftenoneindividualorasmallgroupoforiginalmindshasfoundedatraditionwhichhascontinuedtomouldapproachestolanguageintheuniversityorthenationinwhichthattraditionbeganbetweenadherentsofdifferenttraditionstherehasusuallybeenrelativelylimitedcontactHencethisbookItcannotfailtobeanadvantagetoanystudentoflinguistics(whetherheisa'student'intheformalortheamateursense)tolearnsomethingoftheideasthathavebeencurrentintraditionsotherthantheonewithwhichheismostfamiliarThisisnotonlybecausesomeoftheideashehasbeentaughtasreceivedtrutharelikelytobewrong(althoughIdobelievethattherearefundamentalerrorsinthethinkingofthemostfashionablecontemporarylinguisticschool,andIhopethisbookmayencouragequestioningofthosepoints)Inmanycasesoneschoolhasdirecteditsattentiontoissueswhichsimplyhavenotbeenconsideredbyanotherschool,sothatonecangainbystudyingotherorthodoxieswithoutnecessarilyrejectinganyelementsofone'sownFurthermore,itisimpossiblefullytoappreciateascholar'sideaswithoutsomeunderstandingoftheintellectualatmospherewithinwhich,andinreactiontowhich,thoseideaswereevolvedsothatoneneedstolearnsomethingaboutpasttheoriesifonly,insomecases,toseewhytheywerewrongInabookofthissizeitisnotpossibletodomorethansketchbroad,generaltendenciesofthoughtshared,moreorless,bysizablegroupsoflinguisticscholarsHappily,scholarsdonotcomeinwelldefinedcategoriesSomeindividualsmentionedhereconformmoreclearlythanothersto(IttendenciesIascribetotheir'schools'eventhosewhoseemeasiesttocategorizewilloftenbefoundtohavemaderemarksatsomePrefacepointintheircareerswhich,takeninisolation,mightappeartoplacetheminadifferentcampaltogetherIcannotclaimthatthebookiswhollycomprehensiveIknowlessaboutdevelopmentsoutsidetheEnglishspeakingworldthanwithinitinparticular,IsuspectthatIshouldhavefoundtheFrench'linguisticgeography'movementandItalian'neolinguistics'worthyofextendeddiscussion,ifIhadknownmoreaboutthemNodoubtthereareotherdevelopmentsaboutwhichIdonotevenknowthatIamignorantAndontheotherhandthereisonlyonegrouprepresentedhere(the'stratificationalist'followersofSydneyLamb)aboutwhomIcanclaimtobeunusuallyknowledgeableHowever,Ihavehadthefortune,duringmytimeasastudentandateacherattenBritishandAmericanuniversitiesanduniversitycolleges,tobeexposedperhapsmorethanmostcolleaguestoavarietyoflinguisticorthodoxiesintheirrespectivenativehabitatsIncasepartisansofoneschooloranothershouldfeeltemptedtorefertotheproverbaboutJackofalltrades,letmesaythattomymindbyfarthegreatestdangerinscholarship(andperhapsespeciallyinlinguistics)isnot,thattheindividualmayfailtomasterthethoughtofaschoolbutthataschoolmaysucceedinmasteringthethoughtoftheindividualIhaveintentionallylimitedthebookto'core'linguistics,excludingvariousperipheralbranchesofthefieldSubjectssuchassociology,psychologyandanthropologyarediscussedwhentheyareparticularlyrelevant(astheyoftenare)tothelinguistictheoriesofgivenschoolsButtherealsoexistbrandsof'hyphenatedlinguistics'(sociolinguistics,psychoHnguistics,andthelike)whichinvolveinvestigatingtherelationshipsbetween,forexample,sociologyandacurrentlinguistictheoryirrespectiveofwhetherthatparticularversionoflinguisticsforcesonetothinkinsociologicaltermsSuchstudiescanbequitelegitimate,butIignorethemhereStilllessdoIdiscusssocalled'appliedlinguistics',whichinpracticemeansthestudyoflanguageteachingmethodsThisisbecauseIdonotbelievethatlinguisticshasanycontributiontomaketotheteachingofEnglishorthestandardEuropeanlanguagesThemanypeoplewhoclaimthatithasseemtometodeceivethemselvesandothers(Thiswouldnotmatter,wereitnotfortheextenttowhichthe'appliedlinguistics'industry,Prefacelikesomanyotherdubiousmodernenterprises,isfinancednotbythosewhoseeitashavingsomevaluebutbytaxpayershelplessinthegripofavoraciousandtyrannicalstate)Linguisticshasanhonourableroletoplayintheteachingof'exotic'languageslackingapedagogicaltradition,whichispresumablylikelyalwaystobeasmallscaleactivitybutwhatisrelevantthereisnotaspecialappliedversionoflinguistics,butstraightforwarddescriptivelinguisticsasdiscussedinthisbookIhavenothesitatedtoallowmyownviewsaboutthevariousissuestreatedinthebooktobecomeapparent,althoughIhopeIhaveavoidedthedangerofconfusingmyviewswiththoseofthevariouswritersIdiscussAbookofthiskinddoesitsreadersmoreservicebyofferingreasonedjudgementswithwhichtheymayagreeordisagree,thanbytreatingeachfigureandeachschoolattheirownselfevaluationandthusleavingthereadernowiserthanifhehadbeengivenabibliographyandlefttoreadthesourcesforhimselfFurthermoreIhavenotstriven,asscholarsoftendo,toeradicateallexpressionofthepersonaltastes,foibles,andunscientificprejudiceswhichmayhaveaffectedmyjudgementoftheissuesdiscussedAsanadmirerofthephilosophyofImreLakatos,Iregardsuchaprocedureaspositivelyundesirable,servingonlytolendtothewriter'sworktheappearanceofanimpartialauthoritywhichnoproductofahumanmindpossessesinrealityItgoeswithoutsayingthatthereadershouldfeelfreetodisagreefrequentlyandstronglywithmyopinionsAllmyfriendsdoIoweaspecialdebtofgratitudeinconnexionwiththisbooktoDickHudson,whofirstaskedme,sixyearsago,togivethecourseoflecturesoutofwhichthebookhasfinallygrownHehasfurthermorebeenkindenoughtocommentondraftsofthemanuscript,ashaveRichardHoggandNigelVincentonparritThebookowesagreatdealalsotoCharlesHockett,fromwhomIhavelearnedmuchwithoutevermeetinghimOverandoveragainIhavediscoveredthesourceofsomeideawhichIhadfondlyimaginedtobeoriginalonrereadingTheStateoftheArtoranotherofhispublicationsNoneofthesepeople,ofcourse,aretobeblamedfortheshortcomingsofmyworkItisapleasuretothankthelibrarystaffsofLancasterUniversityandtheBritishMuseumfortheirveryconsiderablehelp,alwaysgivenwithwillingenthusiasmandImustthankPrefaceLancasterUniversityalsoforpermittingmetheleisuretowriteIthanktheAmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofScience,andtheLinguisticSocietyofAmerica,forpermissiontoquotepassagesbyEdwardSapironpagesToVera,mydebtisinexpressibleIngleton,YorksSeptemberPrelude:thenineteenthcentury'Notes(includingdefinitionsoftechnicalterms)areonpagesThisbookdealsprimarilywithlinguisticsasithasdevelopedinthetwentiethcenturyThescientificstudyoflanguagedidnotofcourse,begininthiscenturybuttheyearsaroundhappentohavemarkedanimportantturningpointinthehistoryofmodernlinguisticsAtveryroughlythattimeindependentlyinEuropeandAmerica,linguisticsshifteditsorientationinsuchawaythatmuchnineteenthcenturyworkinthesubjecthasbecomerelativelyremotefromtheconcernsofthelinguistofrecentyearsNotthattwentiethcenturylinguisticsisawhollynewenterprisequitelackingconnectionswiththepastfarfromitNoamChomsky,insomewaysthemostinnovativeofcontemporarylinguists,stressestherelationshipbetweenhisownworkandthatofWilhelmvonHumboldt()andoftherationalistphilosophersofseventeenthcenturyFranceBut,ifwewantaboundarythatwilldividethestreamoflinguisticinquiryinto`history'andc`urrentaffairs',asitwere,thenthebeginningofourcenturywilldoverywellThereorientationthatoccurredaboutthenwasashiftfromthe`historicallinguistics',alsoknownas`diachroniclinguistics'or`philology',whichhaddominatednineteenthcenturylinguisticresearch一theinvestigationofthehistoryoflanguages,theuncoveringoftheirrelationships,andthereconstructionofthelost'protolanguages'fromwhichfamiliesofextantlanguagesdescend一towardswhatbecameknownas`synchroniclinguistics':theanalysisoflanguagesascommunicativesystemsastheyexistatagivenpointoftime(oftenthepresent),ignoring(astheirspeakersignore)theroutebywhichtheyarrivedattheirpresentform'*ItisnevereasytoappreciatenovelideaswithoutsomeSchoolsofLinguisticsunderstandingoftheclimateofopinionexistingwhenthoseideaswereformed,andagainstwhichtheyconstitutedareactionAccordingly,inthisfirstchapterIshallsketchtheintellectualtrendswhichcausedlinguistsofthenineteenthcenturytobepreoccupiedwiththehistoricalapproach,asapreludetoconsideringinsubsequentchaptersthealternativeviewsoflanguagewhichhavebeenadvancedsincethatapproachceasedtopredominateItiseasyforanewcomertolinguisticstodaytodismissthephilologersofthenineteenthcenturyaspedantsmotivatedmorebyaloveofaccumulatingfactsfortheirownsakethanbyafeelingfortheexcitementofscientifictheoryconstructionSuchajudgementwouldbequiteincorrectItistruethattheenormouseffortdevotedtothehistoricalstudyoftheIndoEuropeanlanguagefamilywasinspiredpartlybypersonaltaste,asopposedtoconsiderationsofrationalscientificresearchstrategyThechangeofemphasisfrom'classicalphilology'tothenewsubjectoflinguisticsoccurredfirstinGermany(indeed,throughoutthenineteenthcenturylinguisticswasmainlyaGermanpursuit)andtheflourishingofIndoEuropean(inGermanIndogermanisch')linguisticstudieswenthandinhandWiththegenertlintellectualandartisticmovementoflateeighteenthtomidnineteenthcenturyGermanyknownasRomanticism,withitsrejectionoftheclassicaltraditionanditsemphasisonindigenousethnicandculturalroots(ThelinkbetweenlinguisticsandthesewiderintellectualandaestheticcurrentsisparticularlyclearintheworkofsuchmenasJGHerder(),theleadingfigureintheSturmundDrangmovementinliterature,collectoroffolksongsandrelicsoftheearlycultureoftheGermanicpeople,oneofwhosemostinfluentialworkswashisTreatiseontheOriginofLanguage(),andJacobGrimm(),oneofthefoundersofGermaniclinguistics,andcollectorwithhisbrotherWilhelmofaworldfamousanthologyoftraditionalGermanfairytales)Sincerace,languageandculturewereassumedtobeintimatelyrelated,reconstructionoftheprehistoryoftheGermanicandotherlanguagestockswasattractivetotheRomantictemperamentButtherewasmuchmoretothesituationthanthis:thehistorycentredoutlookofnineteenthcenturylinguisticscientistswasrelatedtothegeneralstateofscienceatthetimePrelude:thenineteenthcenturyItiscommonlythecaseinthehistoryofsciencethatatanygiventimethereareafewoutstandinglysuccessfulbranchesofsciencewhichareregardedasmodelsofwhatascienceshould,be,sothatscholarsattemptingtoinvestigatescientificallysome,newfieldofphenomenawillalmostinevitablyimitatethemethodsandtheoriesofthe'model'sciencesThemodernphilosopherofscienceThomasKuhn()hascoinedtheterm'paradigm'tosuggesthow,atagivenperiod,thinkingaboutaparticularsubjectiscommonlyconditionedbysomemoreorlesscoherentsystemofideaswhichact,notsomuchasexplicittenetsofascientifictheory,butasunspokenassumptionsabouttherangeofpossiblehypotheseswhichthescientistmayentertainForKuhn,themostimportantscientificadvancesoccurontherareoccasionswhenscholarsmanagetobreakoutofthesementalstraitjacketsbyrejectingassumptionswhichtheirpredecessorsdidnotevenfeeltheneedtodefend(aswhenEinsteinrespondedtoproblemsabouttheobservedspeedoflightbysuggestingthatspace,time,andmassmightbeobserverdependentratherthanabsolutequantities)WemayuseKuhn'sterm'paradigm'alsoinaratherwidersense,sothattheoutlookofpractitionersofaparticularlysuccessfulscience^constitutesaparadigmnotonlyforthatscienceitselfbutalsoforlessdevelopedsciencesThenineteenthcenturycontainedtwooutstandinglysuccessfulscientificparadigmsinthissenseThefirstofthesewasmechanisticphysics,accordingtowhichallphenomenacouldbedescribedbysimple,deterministiclawsofforceandmotionsothatallfuturestatesoftheworldcouldinprinciplebeinferredfromacompleteknowledgeofitspresentstate(theviewclassicallyexpressedbyLaplaceintheprefacetohisThiorieanalytiquedesprobabtijUs(),andabandonedinourowncenturywiththeadoptionofthequantumtheory)thesecondwasthebiological'theoryofevolutionbynaturalselection,whichemergedfromagreatupsurgeofinterestinnaturalhistoryduringtheeighteenthandnineteenthcenturies,andculminatedinDarwin'sOriginofSpecies()andthe#tormofcontroversyarousedbythatbookFromphysics,philologiststookthenotionofdescribingthehistoryofsoundchangesoccurringinalanguageintermsof'laws'whichapplyuniformlytowholerangesofexamples,ratherthandiscussingindividualwordsintheanecdotal,casebycaseSchoolsofLinguisticswayinwhichahistorian(intheordinarysense)treatsindividualpersonsoreventsOneofthefirstsuchdiscoveries,forinstance,wastheProtoGermanicconsonantshiftcommonlycalledGrimm'sLaw(thoughinfactstatedfirstbytheDaneRasmusRaskin),wherebyProtoIndoEuropeanconsonantschangedintheGermanicbranchinaccordancewiththefollowingrules:PIEGermanicvoicelessstopsptk>voicelessfricativesfxvoicedstopsbdg>voicelessstopsptkvoicedaspiratesbhdhgh>voicedstopsbdgSinceinotherbranchesofIndoEuropeantheconsonantsremainedunchanged(ordevelopeddifferentlythusPIEvoicedaspiratesbecomevoicelessaspiratesphthkhinClassicalGreek,whichinturnbecomevoicelessfricativesinModernGreek),theGermanicconsonantshiftproducesmanycasesofwordsalikeinmeaningbutcontainingdistinctconsonantsindifferentlanguages:compare,forexampb,theinitialconsonantsofGreekthyraandEnglishdoor,GreekgenosandEnglishkin,GreekpousandEnglishfoot*'Grimm'sLaw'reducesmanyhundredsofcaseslikethesetothreesimpleformulaeThetermLautgesetz,'soundlaw',wasfirstusedbyFranzBoppin(Wechssler,p)(Boppevenofferedwhathecalleda'mechanical'explanationfortheIndoEuropeanphenomenonknownas'Ablaut'thealternationbetweendifferentvowelsinamorphologicalparadigm,ofwhichweretaintracesintheconjugationofEnglishstrongverbssuchassing~sang~$ung<byinvokinga'lawofgravity'inconnectionwiththerelative'weight'ofdifferentsyllables,cfDelbriick(,pp)Ifintendedliterally,however,thisissurelyarathercrudeattempttoapplythefindingsofonedisciplinetothesubjectmatterofanother)Bopp'ssoundlawswereonlystatementsofgeneraltendencies,andBoppdidnotfeelitnecessarytoprovideexplanationsforcaseswhichfailedtofollowthegeneralrulebut,asthecenturygrewolder,theconceptof'soundlaw'tookonmoreandmoretherigorouscharacterofgenuinescientificlawssuchasthoseofphysics:bythelastquarterofthenineteenthcenturyapparentcounterexamplestoasoundlawwerepermissibleonlyiftheycouldbeexplainedbyasublawoftheirova*Prelude:thenineteenthcenturyWhilemechanisticphysics,providedoneparadigmforlinguistics,hpwever,theinfluenceofbiologywascertainlyverymuchgreaterAsGermanscholarshipcametodistinguishbetweentheNaturwissenschaftenandGeisteswissenschaftenbetweenthenaturalandmoralsciences,orinmoderntermsbetweenthe'sciences'andthe'arts'or'humanities'linguistswereanxioustoalignthemselveswiththeformer:but,iflinguisticsistobeanaturalscience,thena'language'mustbesom^kindofentitywhichcanbedescribedobjectivelyalongwiththerestofthefurnitureofthenaturalworldItwillnotbeadequatetointerprettheterm'language'asmerelyaconvenientwayofreferringtovariouscharacteristicsofthepurelysubjectiveintellectuallifeofanation,asoneadoptingthe'humanities'ratherthan'science'approachmightbeinclinedtodo(Thisisperhapsnotaveryclearcharacterizationofthe'humanities'viewoflanguage,andIamnotsurethataclearerstatementispossibleatthispointbuttheproblemofhow'languages'canbeobjectsofscientificstudyremainsarealone)Thesolutionofmanynineteenthcenturylinguistswastoregardlanguagesasanorderofnaturalorganisms,onaparwithplantsandanimalsThus,Bopp(,p)writes:LanguagesmustberegardedasorganicbodiesorganischeNaturkorper,formedinaccordancewithdefinitelawsbearingwithinthemselvesaninternalprincipleoflife,theydevelopandtheygraduallydieout,after,nolongercomprehendingthemselves,theydiscard,mutilateormisusecomponentsorformswhichwereoriginallysignificantbitwhichhavegraduallybecomerelativelysuperficialappendagesSimilarviewsareexpressedbyAugustPottafewyearslater(,pxxvii):Alanguageisinaconstantstateofchangethroughoutitslife:

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