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首页 *新书上架*【马克思主义研究】马克思主义与民族身份

*新书上架*【马克思主义研究】马克思主义与民族身份.pdf

*新书上架*【马克思主义研究】马克思主义与民族身份

九月虺
2009-12-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【马克思主义研究】马克思主义与民族身份pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MARXISMANDNATIONALIDENTITYSocialism,Nationalism,andNationalSocialismduringtheFrenchFindeSiècleROBERTSTUARTMARXISMANDNATIONALIDENTITYSUNYseriesinNationalIdentitiesThomasMWilson,editorMARXISMANDNATIONALIDENTITYSocialism,Nationalism,andNationalSocialismduringtheFrenchFindeSiècleRobertStuartStateUniversityofNewYorkPressPublishedbyStateUniversityofNewYorkPress,Albany©StateUniversityofNewYorkAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaCovercartoonentitledVivel’Armee!byJulesHéraultNopartofthisbookmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwhatsoeverwithoutwrittenpermissionNopartofthisbookmaybestoredinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeansincludingelectronic,electrostatic,magnetictape,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwisewithoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofthepublisherForinformation,addressStateUniversityofNewYorkPress,WashingtonAvenue,Suite,Albany,NYProductionbyDianeGanelesMarketingbyAnneMValentineLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataStuart,Robert,–Marxismandnationalidentity:socialism,nationalism,andnationalsocialismduringtheFrenchfindesiècleRobertStuartpcm(SUNYseriesinnationalidentities)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:(hardcopy:alkpaper)ISBN:(hardcopy:alkpaper)SocialismFranceHistoryNationalismFranceHistoryNationalsocialismFranceHistoryITitleIISeriesHXS''dcForMax,andinmemoryofAlice(–)yanuladaThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceixIntroduction“ForUstheWorld!”:TheGuesdistsagainsttheNation“DupesofPatriotism”:NationalismasBourgeoisHegemony“NationalEconomics”:Protection,MigrantLabor,andFrenchMarxism“ProletarianPatriotism”:TheGuesdistsandtheNationalistTemptation“Savage,Brutal,andBestialMentalities”:TheGuesdistsandRacism“AClassofMadmen”:MarxistsConfrontNationalSocialismConclusionAppendixA:IdeologyandTerminologyAppendixB:BibliographicalNoteNotesBibliographyIndexviiContentsyanuladaThispageintentionallyleftblankThisstudywasbegunsomeyearsagowhenIdecidedtoexplore“FrenchMarxismandtheNationalQuestion”WithinweeksofcommencingtheprojectIdiscoveredtherichnessoftherelevantconceptualdebates,andsoonafterthatIbegantounderstandthemammothdimensionsoftheliteratureonFrenchnationalismEvenmoredauntingly,onceIreengagedwiththeMarxistsofthefindesiècle,IrealizedthatnationhoodsuffusedtheirtextuallegacyevenwhereIhadleastsuspecteditTheirangrydialoguewithFrenchnationalismsuddenlyloomedasanimportant,evendecisive,determinantinthe“meaningofMarxism”Atthesametime,theconvolutedheritagethatIwasbeginningtounravelamplifiedandsometimeschallengedtheinsightsoftoday’sscholarshipMyexperiencepowerfullyconfirmedEPThompson’sbeliefthatconceptualanalysisandempiricalhistorylivehealthilyonlywheninharmonySufficeittosaythataprojectplannedforasemester’swritinghasextendedoveradecadeasIhavereadandrereadthePartiOuvrier’scorpus,battledtomastertheliteratureonnationhood,andstudiedworkonFrenchnationalismIntheprocess,mypresent,nolessthantheMarxistpast,hasacquirednewmeaningFindesièclesocialists,afterall,struggledtomakesenseofaworldgovernedbothbyparochialnationalismandglobalcapitalismaworld,infact,verylikeourownTheirinsights(andtheirerrors!)haveprovenuncannilyaproposwhilereadingmyweeklyEconomistorwatchingFoxNewsHereImustmakeknownmysympathies,sincetrueobjectivity,ascontemporaryhistoriographyteaches,liesonlyinbeingcriticallyawareofone’sbiases,andmakingothersawareofthemSo(deepbreath)ThemilitantsofthePartiOuvrierare,atacentury’sdistance,“mypeople”DespiteMarxism’sfailuressincetheir“timeofhope,”Istillsympathizewiththedreamthatcapital’sworldspanningimperiummightsomeday,somehow,empowerworkingpeopletoconstructsomethingbetterThatdreamhasfadedNonetheless,despitethe“EndofHistory”(aka“theendofMarxism”),IcontinuetorejectpostmodernlegerityandneoliberaltriumphalismSometimesdreams,howeverspectral,arebetterthanreality,howevercrushingAsfornationalism,Iamproudtoconfessmyselfa“rootlesscosmopolitan,”whilesometimesyearningfortherootsthatgroundotherssocomfortablyHavingbeenbornintoaCanadathatInowhardlyknow,havingbeenraisedinaixPrefaceUnitedStatesthatwasnotmine,havingresidedinFrance,Britain,andAustraliawhateverrootsIhavesunkareshallowindeedSpectraldreams,shallowrootsHardlygroundsforideologicalarrogance!Nonetheless,mymarginality,bothpoliticalandnational,hasawardedmealiminalperspectiveofconsiderableuseforthisstudyIhaveaccumulatedobligationsbothinstitutionalandpersonalInparticular,IoweadebttoCorpusChristiCollege,Cambridge,whereavisitingfellowshipgavemetranquilityandidealworkingconditionsWithoutCorpus,thisprojectwouldneverhavebeeninitiatedTheUniversityofWesternAustralia,foritspart,supportedtwoextendedresearchleavesthatallowedmetorevisitmyEuropeansourcesManyindividualshavealsoaidedmeinonewayoranother,andIthankthemallRichardBosworthandChipsSowerwinereadtheentireprojectindraft,however,anddeserveparticulargratitude,whilebeingabsolvedofallresponsibilityfortheerrors,omissions,andinfelicitiesthathavesurvivedtheirgenerousministrationsFinally,mythanksandlovetoViv,withoutwhosesupportthisbookwouldneverhavebeencompletedxPrefaceAttheendofsummerduring,EuropewitnessedtwoworldhistoricaleventsThesocialistpartiesoftheSecondInternationalassembledinBrussels,celebratinglabor’smobilizationagainstcapitalShortlythereafter,theFrenchfleetvisitedKronstadt,consolidatingFrance’srapprochementwithimperialRussiaContemporariesnotedthisconjunctionTheliberalpublicistJulesSimon,forone,complainedthattheBrusselsassemblyhad“substitutedtheclasspatriotism”oflaborfortheBalticnavaldemonstration’s“patriotismofpeoples”Ifsocialismprevailed,hewarned,“theFrench”woulddisappear,displacedby“theproletariat”Simon’sforebodingshavenotbeenrealizedTheworkersoftheworldhavenotunitedintotheuniversal“genrehumain”promisedbytheInternationaleThenineteenthcenturygaveway,nottotheradiantsocialistworldorderanticipatedbyMarx,buttoa“worldofnations”imperiouslycommandedbynationalists,andsometimesbrutallyruledbynationalsocialistsHowhaveMarxism’sclasswarriorsunderstoodtheirstruggleagainstnationhood,andtheirdefeatBadly,accordingtomostaccountsHistorianshaveidentifiedMarxism’sinterpellationofnationalismasits“greathistoricalfailure,”socialscientistshavecondemnedMarxisttheorizationsofnationalidentityasmereevasion,andaparticularlyscathingaccounthasevencontemptuouslysuggestedthattherehasbeennosuchathingasagenuine“Marxisttheoryofnationalism”Marxists,theircriticsaffirm,havechampionedacosmopolitanhumanismthathasblindedthemtotheinevitability,andcertainlytothedesirability,ofnationalistparticularismNowonder,then,thatMarxism’smilitantshaveselfconfessedlymisunderstoodandmishandlednationalidentityMuchofthiscriticalscholarshiphasfixedrepetitivelyonMarxhimselfStudiescommentcausticallyonthemaster’sindifferencetonationalityMarxmayhaveplannedtowriteabookonthenationalquestion,butnomorethanorpercentofhisactualwork,allegedly,eventouchesontheissueHiscriticssuggestthatMarx’soverwhelmingpreoccupationwith“worldhistory”underminedhiseveryengagementwiththatpotentparticularism,thenationThischarge,however,hasbeenchallengedMarx’sdefenderscontendthathisvastcorpusmanifestsprofound,ifambiguous,insightintonationhoodandnationalismButwhateverthemaster’sownsuccessorfailure,MarxismIntroductionshouldnotbejudgedprimarilyagainstMarx’swork,butagainstthepracticeofMarxists,asthedoctrinehaslivedanddiedonlyasincarnateinitsmilitantsTheircommitmentandstrivingaccordedMarxismitsvasthistoricalvitality,whiletheirdefeatsandretreatshaveledinexorablytowardtoday’s“deathofMarxism”CertainlythebestanalysesofMarxism’sentanglementwithnationalismsituatethedoctrineinmilieusofmilitancyTheSovietexperiencehasundergoneparticularlyintensestudy,ifonlybecauseoftheUSSR’sfinalnationalistimplosionThesanguinarywarbetweenCommunismandfascismleftoneofthegreatsitesofscholarlyexhumation:amassgraveinwhichlieentombedsomethepastcentury’smostinspiringvisionariesandmostghastlydespotsAndMarxism’sstarringroleinthedramaoftwentiethcenturyantiimperialismhasreceiveddueattention,despiteMarx’sownEurocentricindifferencetowardperipheral“nationswithouthistory”Butthedoctrine’s“goldenage”duringtheSecondInternational,Marxistsocialism’sownbelleepoque,remainsthelocusclassicusofMarxism’sengagementwithnationhoodLeninandStalin’sopportunisticconstructionofa“nationalitiespolicy”fornewbornBolshevism,RosaLuxemburg’squixoticforaysagainstPolish“socialistnationalism,”OttoBauer’sinspireddisassociationofstatehoodfromnationhoodallhaveundergoneskillfulscholarlydissectionYetscholars’assessmentsoftheSecondInternationalechotheircritiquesofMarxFindesiècleMarxistsstandaccusedofpromotinga“utopiancosmopolitanism”thatdisabledtheirsocialismAfterall,theInternationalneveronceplacedthe“nationalquestion”onitsagendaIgnorantobliviousnessIrresponsibleneglectEmbarrassedavoidancePerhapsnationalismduringthebelleepoqueindeedconstitutedMarxism’s“Achillesheel,”itsselfengulfing“blackhole”“PostMarxists”havecertainlyhighlightedthissupposedlacunaintheirformerdevotionsAccordingtoRégisDebray,acosmopolitanrevolutionaryturnedGaullistideologue:The“nationalquestion”isthecriticalgapinMarxisttheoryInthissmallgap,everythingnotsaidinMarxismisconcentratedandcrystallizedAndwhentheunsaidissaid,itexplodesalltherestInthissensethenationisliketheatomicnucleusinageneralconflagrationofMarxismastheoryandsocialismaspractice“Blackholes,”“nuclearexplosions,”“generalconflagrations”confrontedbythecollisionbetweenMarxismandnationalism,critiquewaxesapocalypticThisrhetoricisoverblownMarx’sworkonnationalitybequeathedarichlegacy,andMarxistsofthe“goldenage”theBauers,Luxemburgs,andLeninsrichlyembroidereditSuchenrichmentmighthavebeenexpectedThefindesièclewitnessedMarxism’stransformationfromacosmopolitanconIntroductiongeriesofmilitantsintoaninternationalassociationofnationalpartiesHowcouldtheseemergent“socialistnationalist”organizationsignorethenationalquestionInfact,theydidn’tAtthesametime,agrislyprotofascismclaweditswayintoEurope’spoliticalculture,menacingtheascendantsocialistsnolessthantheregnantliberalsHowcouldMarxismslightthisdemonicmanifestationInfact,itcouldn’tDespitecritics’aspersions,findesiècleMarxiststhoughtlongandhardaboutnationalidentity,andthoughtwellTheir“entanglementinperplexitiesthatcontinuetoentangleus”shouldensurethat“wewouldbewrongtocalltheiranswerstothenationalquestionpassé”Bauer,Luxemburg,LeninthesepersonaerecurinstudiesofMarxismandnationalismMappingtheirnamespointstoAustria,Poland,andRussia,tothemarchlandsofEasternEuropeStudiesofMarxism’sencounterwithnationalismmovewithoutexceptionfromthefoundingfatherstotheoristsfromtheeasternmultinationalempiresAccordingtothesestudies,MarxistsinWesternEuropelargelyignoredthenationalquestion,andinturncanbesafelyignoredNeglectoftheFrenchcase,inparticular,hasbeenatroublingfeatureofthisscholarshipEvenFrenchstudiesofMarxismandnationalismignoreFrancedespitetheFrenchhavingpioneeredmodernnationalism,despitethefascinationofMarxandEngelswithFrance,despitetheParisianultraRight’sspearheadingofnascentnationalsocialismInsteadofsufferingneglect,FranceshouldtakecenterstageinanyhistoricalassessmentofMarxism’slongengagementwithnationalismFranceoftheprewarThirdRepublictracedEurope’strajectorytowardtoday’shegemonicsynthesisofcapitalisteconomics,liberaldemocracy,andthecentralizednationstatefarmoreclearlythandidimperialGermany(stillstrugglingtoreconcileitsPrussianlegacywithitscapitalistdynamism),moreobviouslythanVictorianandEdwardianBritain(hardlydemocratic,andanimperialmetropolisratherthananationstate),andcertainlymorestarklythantheramshackleeasternempiresofAustriaandRussia(stillmiredinthelegacyofearlymodernstatebuilding)TheFrenchRepublic,ineffect,prefiguredtoday’sneoliberal“endofhistory”Atthefindesiècle,however,historydraggedonThenearmortalcrisesoftheRepublicBoulanger’sCaesareanuprisingofthelates,theantiSemiticinsurgencyduringtheDreyfusaffairforeshadowedtheimpending“eraoffascism”France,morethananywhereelseonearthatthetime,embodiedboththeforceandthefrailtyofliberalnationalismFranceofthebelleepoquenotonlyexemplifiednationalliberalismandoriginatedprotofascist“integralnationalism,”butgavebirthintoapotentMarxistmovement,thePartiOuvrierFrançaisAlthoughlittlemorethanamilitantsectduringthes,thePOFtransformedFrance’spoliticalcultureduringthes,moldingtheLefttoitsMarxismbeforemeldingintotheunifiedFrenchsocialistpartyofLedbyJulesGuesde,oneofIntroductionFrance’smostcharismaticoratorsandavulgarizerofgenius,inspiredbyPaulLafargue,soninlawofMarxandabrilliant,iferratic,ideologue,andreinforcedbythousandsofdevotedmilitants,thePartiOuvrierselfconsciouslyrepresentedMarxistsocialisminFranceTherethePOFpioneeredthemodernmasssocialdemocraticparty,inventedmuchoftheceremonyandsymbolismoftwentiethcenturysocialism(includingtheflyingoftheredflag,thesingingoftheInternationale,andthecelebrationofMayDay),andorganizedtheParisianfoundingoftheSecondInternationalAcrossFrance,fromthehumblestminingvillagetothearrogantcapital,theGuesdists(astheywereknown)indictedbourgeoisrule,promotedproletarianmobilization,andauguredthesocialistrevolutionButwhatofthePartiOuvrierFrançaisandthe“nationalquestion”LikeMarxistsinViennaorWarsaw,GuesdistshadtorespondtothatinterrogativeFrance,afterall,prideditselfonbeingthemodelnationstate,anditsrulersruledas“nationalliberals,”evenif(unliketheirGermancounterparts)theyneverdesignatedthemselvesassuchAsarevolutionaryparty,astheFrenchembodimentofinternationalsocialism,thePOFneededtodiscredita“certainideaofFrance”inordertounderminebourgeoishegemonyAtthesametime,GuesdistsfoughtferociouslyagainstrivalclaimantstotheliberalsuccessionPaulDéroulède’sparamilitaryLiguedesPatriotesconstitutedan“antiPOF”thatmobilizedtheFrenchnotonlyagainsttheGermans,butagainsttheMarxist“internalenemy”ThevirulentantiSemiticmovementpatronizedbyEdouardDrumont,harbingeroftheHolocaust,battledagainstthe“Jewishsocialism”ofthePartiOuvriernolessthanagainsttheJewishbankersoftherueLafitteAndMauriceBarrès’s“nationalsocialism”definedits“socialism”againstGuesde’sMarxismaswellasagainstFerry’snationalliberalismHowcouldFrenchMarxistsignorethenationalistchallenge,challengedastheywerebybothnationalliberalsandnationalsocialistsTheycouldn’t,ofcourseDuringdecadesofideologicalcontention,thePartiOuvrierformulatedmanyanswerstoMarxism’s“nationalquestion,”fromcosmopolitanrepudiationofthenationtonearBarrèsianappropriationofnationalismYetthislong,arduous,andambiguousengagementbetweenFrenchMarxismandFrenchnationalismhasremainedvirtuallyunstudiedAsscholarshipstrugglestomakesenseofMarxism’sepochalfailure,theemblematiccaseofthePartiOuvrierFrançaisdeservesscrutinyThisstudyscrutinizestheGuesdists’experienceanalyticallyratherthanthrough“narrative”Guesdistdiscoursecertainlyrespondedtosalientevents,andmakessenseonlyintermsofthoseeventsThePartiOuvrier’selectoralsuccessesofthes,forinstance,undoubtedlyinflectedthemovementtowardsocialistnationalism,ifonlybecauseitsenemiesdiscoverednationalism’sutilityinmaligningtheGuesdists’cosmopolitanconvictionsNonetheless,theintricatedialecticbetweenMarxismandnationhoodduringtheFrenchfindesiècleIntroductionisbestelucidatednotby“tellingastory”butbysystematicanalysisThePartiOuvriercertainlyoscillatedbetweenalternativeunderstandingsofnationalidentity,butlittleoverall“development”occurredinitsconfusedanswertothenationalquestionEvenduringthePOF’smost“nationalist”phaseduringthemids,itremainedpermeatedbycosmopolitanism,whilesocialistnationalismrecurredinitsrecordevenduringthesectariansIndeed,areadingofMarx’sownworkorperusaloftoday’sTrotskyistpamphletsrevealsconflictedresponsestonationalidentitystrikinglysimilartothePartiOuvrier’sownequivocationsMarxism’sunchangingimperativesdefinedtheGuesdists’equivocalinterpretationofnationalidentity,whiletheGuesdists’oscillatingviewpointinturntellsusmuchabouttheunstableessenceofMarxismAnalysis,notstorytelling,bestilluminatesthisfluidyetcloselychanneleddiscourseAlthoughattentivetotheshiftingsettingoftheFrenchfindesiècle,thisstudydissectsaninvariant,ifcomplexandattimesevenselfcontradictory,“meaningofMarxism”Itisan“anatomy,”notanarrativeChapteranatomizesMarxism’s“defaultmode,”theconvictionthat“theworkingmenhavenocountry”Whenobedienttothisconviction,Guesdistsrepudiatedallidentitiesfoundedon“varioushumanfragmentsdisseminatedacrosstheplanet”infavorofa“finalhumancommunion,aplanetaryinternationalism”ThischapterelucidatestheFrenchMarxists’brilliantinsightsintoacapitalistworldmarketthattransgressedeveryboundary,andtheirutopianexpectationthatbourgeoisglobalizationwouldnecessarilyengenderaworkingclasswithoutethnicallegiance,aproletariatloyalto“onlyonehomeland:thesocialrevolution”Chapterbeginsanexamination,tobecompletedinchapter,oftheFrenchMarxists’forcedrecognitionthat“workingmen”did,indeed,“haveacountry”Duringthefindesiècle,nationalwelfa

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*新书上架*【马克思主义研究】马克思主义与民族身份

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