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Geology A Self Teaching Guide

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Covertitle:Geology:ASelfteachingGuideWileySelfteachingGuidesauthor:Murck,BarbaraWinifredpublisher:JohnWileySons,Inc(US)isbn|asin:printisbn:ebookisbn:language:EnglishsubjectGeologyStudyandteaching(Secondary)publicationdate:lcc:QEMebddc:subject:GeologyStudyandteaching(Secondary)PageiGeologyPageiiWileySelfTeachingGuidesteachpracticalskillsfromaccountingtoastronomy,managementtomathematicsLookforthematyourlocalbookstoreOtherWileySelfTeachingGuides:ScienceAstronomy,FifthEdition,byDinahLMochéBasicPhysics,SecondEdition,byKarlFKuhnBiology,byStevenDGarberChemistry:ConceptsandProblems,SecondEdition,byCliffordCHoukandRichardPostMathAlltheMathYou'llEverNeed,RevisedEdition,bySteveSlavinGeometryandTrigonometryforCalculus,byPeterHSelbyPracticalAlgebra,SecondEdition,byPeterHSelbyandSteveSlavinQuickAlgebraReview,SecondEdition,byPeterHSelbyandSteveSlavinQuickArithmetic,SecondEdition,byRobertACarmanandMarilynJCarmanQuickBusinessMath,bySteveSlavinQuickCalculus,SecondEdition,byDanielKleppnerandNormanRamseyStatistics,FourthEdition,byDonaldKoosisPageiiiGeologyASelfTeachingGuideBarbaraWMurckPageivCopyright©byBarbaraMurckAllrightsreservedIllustrationscopyright©byBarbaraMurckPublishedbyJohnWileySons,IncNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,scanningorotherwise,exceptaspermittedunderSectionsoroftheUnitedStatesCopyrightAct,withouteitherthepriorwrittenpermissionofthePublisher,orauthorizationthroughpaymentoftheappropriatepercopyfeetotheCopyrightClearanceCenter,RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MA,(),fax()RequeststothePublisherforpermissionshouldbeaddressedtothePermissionsDepartment,JohnWileySons,Inc,ThirdAvenue,NewYork,NY,(),fax(),email:PERMREQWILEYCOMThispublicationisdesignedtoprovideaccurateandauthoritativeinformationinregardtothesubjectmattercoveredItissoldwiththeunderstandingthatthepublisherisnotengagedinrenderingprofessionalservicesIfprofessionaladviceorotherexpertassistanceisrequired,theservicesofacompetentprofessionalpersonshouldbesoughtThistitleisalsoavailableinprintasISBNFormoreinformationaboutWileyproducts,visitourwebsiteatwwwWileycomPagevContentsAcknowledgmentsviiANotetotheReaderPlateTectonics:ARevolutioninGeologyWhattheEarthIsMadeOfTheRockRecordandGeologicTimeEarthquakesandtheInsideoftheEarthVolcanoesandIgneousRocksWeatheringandErosionSedimentsandSedimentaryRocksMetamorphismandRockDeformationTheHydrosphereandtheAtmosphereTheRecordofLifeonEarthResourcesfromtheEarthEarthSystemsandCyclesAppendix:UnitsandConversionsAppendix:ElementsandTheirSymbolsAppendix:PropertiesofSomeImportantMineralsPageviAppendix:SymbolsCommonlyUsedonGeologicMapsAppendix:SomeGreatEarthScienceWebSitesIndexPageviiAcknowledgmentsIwishtoacknowledge,firstandforemost,theextensivecontributionstothisbookmadebyBrianSkinner,myfriendandcoauthoronotherWileyprojectsBrianselectedthephotographsincludingseveralgreatshotsfromhisownextensivecollectionandwrotethecaptionsforthemMuchmoreimportantly,thethoughtsandwordshehassharedwithmeonsomanyotheroccasionsarewoventhroughoutthisbookwithoutthem,itwouldnotexistManythankstoJeffGolickofJohnWileySonsforinitiatingthisprojectandseeingitthroughtocompletion,forprovidingmewitheverpatientandlevelheadedcounsel,andforhavingtheenergyandforesighttoforgefullspeedintoournextcollaborationThanks,too,toMarjorieGraham,JillTatara,andAnnaMelhorn,whowentbeyondthecallofdutytohelpinvariouswayswiththephotoselectionsandartwork,andSibylleKazeroidforherguidancethrougheditingandproductionMydaughterElizaKingearnedherkeepasaneditorialassistant,andRileyandJackhelpedoutwiththeirusualtoleranceofsuchactivitiesAndCliff,thanksforrecommendingme,eventhoughyouknewitmightdistractmefromotherWileyprojects!PageviiiThispageintentionallyleftblankPageANotetotheReaderWelcometothestudyofourhomeplanet,EarthInthisbookyouwilllearnaboutthefascinatinggeologicprocessesthatmaketheEarththespecialplaceitisYouwillfindouthowourunderstandingofthisplanethaschangeddramaticallyoverthepastfewdecadesasaresultofnewtheoriesandnewtechnologiesforEarthobservationYetwecontinue,aswell,tobuilduponthescientificfoundationslaidbygeologistsofthepastyearsEarthisafascinatingplanet,andgeologythescientificstudyoftheEarthisamultifaceteddisciplineIfyouhavepurchasedthisbook,youprobablyfallintooneofthreecategories:•youstudiedgeologyanumberofyearsagoincollegeoruniversityandwanttoupdateyourunderstandingofthesubject•youarecurrentlystudyinggeologyincollegeoruniversityandwanttosupplementyourunderstandingofthematerialcoveredinlecturesandlabs•youhavedevelopedaninterestingeology,perhapsthroughwatchingshowsonpublictelevisionorhearingaboutnaturaleventssuchasearthquakesandvolcaniceruptions,andyouwanttolearnmoreaboutthisfascinatingscienceWhateveryourbackground,IhopethisbookwillmeetyourneedsandthatyouwillenjoyreadingitandlearningmoreaboutourplanetintheprocessAllofthechaptersbeginwithabrieflistofthemainthingsyouwillbelearningaboutInmostofthechaptersyouwillfindsometextthatissetapartlikethis:ThesymbolindicatesthatthisissomethingspecialthatyoumightwanttothinkaboutoranactivityorexperimentyoumightwanttotryforyourselfThroughoutthebookyouwillfindquestionsandanswers,aswellasaSelfTestattheendofeachchapterUsethesetotestyourcomprePagehensionandretentionofconceptsandvocabularyasyoureadThechaptersofthebookcanbereadindependentlyofoneanotherHowever,eachchapterassumesthatyouhavelearnedthevocabularyand,insomecases,theconceptspresentedintheprecedingchaptersInparticular,theboldvocabularytermsareonlyintroducedoncetheyarenotredefinedineachchapterinwhichtheyappearForthisreason,itwillprobablymakethemostsenseforyoutoreadthechaptersintheorderinwhichtheyarepresentedThisbookismainlyaboutphysicalgeology,meaningthatitfocusesprimarilyonEarthmaterials(rocks,minerals,lavas,etc)andprocesses(erosion,sedimentation,volcanism,etc)However,itisdifficulttoseparatephysicalgeologyfromhistoricalgeologythestudyofEarthhistoryaspreservedintherockrecordandoforganismsthatlivedlongagoTherearetwochapters(chapterandchapter)inthebookthatfocusspecificallyonhistoricalgeologyYouwillalsodiscoverthatmanyotherscientificdisciplinesincludingastronomy,chemistry,biology,physics,oceanography,hydrology,andmeteorologycontributetoourunderstandingofthiscomplexplanetweinhabitIhopeyouwillenjoyyourexplorationofplanetEarth!PagePlateTectonics:ARevolutioninGeologyThisweknowTheEarthdoesnotbelongtouswebelongtotheEarthattributedtoChiefSeattleItismyopinionthattheEarthisverynobleandadmirableandifithadcontinuedanimmenseglobeofcrystal,whereinnothinghadeverchanged,IshouldhaveesteemeditawretchedlumpofnobenefittotheUniverseGalileoGalileiOBJECTIVESInthischapteryouwilllearn•whatphysicalandhistoricalgeologyareandthedifferencesbetweenthem•howthetheoryofplatetectonicsrevolutionizedgeology•howscientistsgatheredevidencetosupportthetheoryofplatetectonics•howinternalprocessesshapethesurfaceoftheEarthandmakeitadynamicplacetoliveUNDERSTANDINGTHEEARTHGeologyisthescientificstudyoftheEarthGeologyisayoungscienceithasexistedasamodernscientificdisciplineforjustoveryearsThestudyoftheEarthistraditionallydividedintotwobroadsubjectareas:physicalgeologyandhistoricalgeologyPhysicalgeologyconcernstheprocessesthatoperateatorbeneaththesurfaceoftheEarthandthematerialsonwhichthoseprocessesoperateSomeexamplesofgeologicprocessesaremountainbuilding,volcanicerupPagetions,riverflooding,earthquakes,andtheformationoforedepositsSomeexamplesofgeologicmaterialsareminerals,rocks,soils,lava,andwaterHistoricalgeologyconcernsgeologiceventsthatoccurredinthepastTheseeventscanbereadfromtherockrecordHistoricalgeologiststrytoanswerquestionssuchaswhentheoceansformed,whythedinosaursdiedout,whentheRockyMountainsrose,andwhenthefirsttreesappearedHistoricalgeologyhelpsusestablishachronologyofeventsinEarthhistoryandgivesusacontextforunderstandingourpresentdayenvironmentTherearemanymorespecializedareasofstudywithinthetraditionaldomainsofphysicalandhistoricalgeologyForexample,volcanologistsstudyvolcanoesanderuptionsseismologistsstudyearthquakesmineralogistsstudymineralsandcrystalspaleontologistsstudyfossilsandthehistoryoflifeontheEarthstructuralgeologistsstudyhowrocksbreakandbendeconomicgeologistsstudytheformationandoccurrenceofvaluableoredepositsThisspecializationisneededbecausegeologyencompassessuchabroadrangeoftopicsGeologistsarescientistswhomakeacareeroutofthescientificstudyoftheEarthYettoacertainextentweareallgeologistsEveryonelivingonthisplanetreliesonresourcesfromtheEarth:water,soil,buildingstones,metals,fossilfuels,gems,plastics(madefrompetroleum),ceramics(madefromclayminerals),salt(themineralhalite),andmanyothersWeareaffectedbygeologicprocesseseverysingledaywespendonthesurfaceofthisdynamicplanetBylearningasmuchaswecanabouttheseprocesses,wecanbecomebetterinformed,moreresponsiblecaretakersofourhomeplanetNamethreeexamplesofgeologicprocessesTrytothinkofatleastoneexamplethatwasnotmentionedinthetextAnswer:Examplesinthetextaremountainbuilding,volcaniceruptions,riverflooding,earthquakes,andtheformationoforedepositsSomeotherexamplesaregroundwatermovement,oilandcoalformation,evaporation,anderosionCanyouthinkofanymoreNamethreeexamplesofgeologicmaterialsTrytothinkofatleastoneexamplethatwasnotmentionedinthetextAnswer:Examplesinthetextareminerals,rocks,lava,andwaterSomeotherexamplesaresoil,magma,glacialice,andnaturalgasCanyouthinkofanymorePageGEOLOGYTHENANDNOW:ASCIENTIFICREVOLUTIONEvenascienceasyoungasgeologycanhavearevolution,andthatiswhathappenedinthesAtthattime,abrandnewtheoryemergedandcompletelychangedourunderstandingofgeologicprocessesThetools,themethods,andeventhelanguageofgeologychangedasaresultofthatscientificrevolutionIfyoustudiedgeologypriortothes,youmayremembersometermsthatarenolongerinusetodayTermssuchas"eugeosyncline"and"miogeosyncline"wereusedtodescribetopographicfeaturesoftheEarth'ssurfacethatgeologistsobservedbutcouldnotexplainWiththeadventofthetheoryofplatetectonics,thesefeaturestookonnewmeaningConsequently,geologistsbeganusingnewtermstodescribethemThisbookwillhelpyoulearnthevocabularyweusetodescribeourcurrentunderstandingoftheEarthThisfirstchapterand,indeed,muchoftherestofthisbookconcernstheplatetectonicrevolutionandhowithasinformedandtransformedourunderstandingoftheEarthButgeologyiscurrentlyundergoinganother,moresubtlerevolutionThisrevolutionisdrivenbytheabilityofscientiststoobserveandcollectinformationabouttheEarthasawholeplanet,usinginstrumentsmountedonsatellitesThisabilityisquitenewrememberthatnoonehadeverseenapictureofthewholeEarthuntilthes,whenthefirstphotographwastakenofEarthfromspaceSatelliteimagesanddatacollectedfromouterspaceprovideascientificfoundationforourstudyoftheEarthasanintegratedsystemEarthsystemscience,asthisapproachiscalled,isnotnewinphilosophy,butitstoolsandtechniquesareverynewThesetoolsareusedinawiderangeofapplications,fromweatherforecastingtothemonitoringofchangesinsedimentationrates,measuringtheflowofpolarice,locatingmineralresources,documentingtheextentofoilspills,trackingdepletionofstratosphericozone,andmanyothersThroughEarthsystemscience,geologistsarecontributingtoourunderstandingoftheEarthasawhole,howtheEarthchangesovertime,andtheimpactsofhumanactionsontheEarthsystemNameatleastthreeapplicationsofEarthsystemscienceAnswer:Examplesinthetextareweatherforecasting,monitoringchangesinsedimentationrates,measuringtheflowofpolarice,locatingmineralresources,documentingtheextentofoilspills,andtrackingthedepletionofstratosphericozoneCanyouthinkofanymorePageGEOLOGYBEFOREPLATETECTONICSDuringthes,peoplefavoredtheideathattheEarth,originallyamoltenmass,hadbeencoolingandcontractingforcenturiesScientistsarguedthatmountainrangesfulloffoldedrockswereexpressionsofthecontractionandshrinkageoftheEarth'sinterior(ifthecrustdidn'tcontractasmuchastheinterior,itwouldfoldandcrumplelikethewrinkledskinofadriedprune)ContractiondidappeartoexplainsomefeaturesoftheEarth'ssurface,butitcouldnotexplaintheshapesandpositionsofthecontinentsNordiditexplainfeatureslikegreatriftvalleys,clearlycausedbystretchingratherthanbycontractionAtthebeginningofthetwentiethcentury,scientistsdiscoveredthattheEarth'sinteriorisheatedbythedecayofnaturallyoccurringradioactiveelementsThissuggestedthattheEarthmightnotbecoolingbutratherheatingup,andthereforeexpandingAsmallerEarthmightoncehavebeencoveredmostlybycontinentsAstheEarthexpanded,thecontinentswouldcrackintofragments,andeventuallythecrackswouldgrowintooceansTheexpandingEarthhypothesisdidexplaintheapparentfitbetweenthecoastlinesofAfricaandSouthAmerica,whichlookasiftheyhavebeenrippedapartfromeachotherButthereareotherfeaturesthatthishypothesisdidnoteasilyaccountfor,suchasfoldedmountainrangesformedbycompressionTogetaroundtheflawsintheexpansionandcontractionhypotheses,geologistsbegantosearchforotherwaysofexplainingtheshapesandpositionsofthecontinents,oceans,andmountainchainsBythemiddleofthiscentury,allreasonablesuggestionsseemedtohavebeenexhaustedthetimewasripeforatotallynewapproachThisapproachturnedouttobeplatetectonicsthetheorythatthecontinentsarecarriedalongonhugeslabs,orplates,oftheEarth'soutermostlayerInsomeplacestheplatesareslowlycolliding,formingcompressionalfeatureslikehugemountainrangesInotherplacestheplatesaremovingapart,formingexpansionalfeatureslikegreatriftvalleysThetheoryofplatetectonicsprovided,forthefirsttime,acoherent,unifiedexplanationforallofthesefeaturesoftheEarth'ssurfaceWhatwaswrongwiththe"contractingEarth"hypothesisAnswer:Itdidnotadequatelyexplaintheshapesandpositionsofthecontinents,nordiditexplainfeatureslikegreatriftvalleys,whichappeartohavebeencausedbystretchingWhatwaswrongwiththe"expandingEarth"hypothesisPageAnswer:ItdidnotadequatelyexplainfeaturessuchasfoldedmountainrangesformedbycompressionCONTINENTALDRIFTANDTHESTORYOFWEGENERThischaptertellsthestoryofhowthetheoryofplatetectonicswasconceivedanddevelopedandeventuallycametobeacceptedThemodernpartofthestorybeganintheearlyswithaGermanmeteorologistnamedAlfredWegener,whohadsomecontroversialideasabouttheshapesandpositionsofthecontinentsIn,WegenerbeganlecturingandwritingscientificpapersaboutcontinentaldriftHiscontinentaldrifthypothesissuggestedthatthecontinentshavenotalwaysbeenintheirpresentlocationsbutinsteadhave"drifted"andchangedpositionsWegener'sideawasthatthecontinentshadoncebeenjoinedtogetherinasingle"supercontinent,"whichhecalledPangaea(pronounced"panJEEah"),fromGreekwordsmeaning"alllands"HesuggestedthatPangaeahadsplitintofragmentslikepiecesoficefloatingonapondandthatthecontinentalfragmentshadslowlydriftedtotheirpresentlocationsWegenerpresentedagreatdealofevidenceinsupportofthecontinentaldrifthypothesisNevertheless,hisproposalcreatedastormofprotestintheinternationalscientificcommunityPartoftheproblemwasthatgeologistssimplycouldnotenvisionhowthecontinentscouldmovearoundAnotherpartoftheproblemwasthatgeologistshadtobeconvincedthattheevidencethatthecontinentshadoncebeenjoinedwastrulyconclusiveLet'slookatsomeoftheevidenceforcontinentaldrift,soyoucanjudgeforyourselfNoticethatnosinglepieceofevidenceisconclusiveonitsownIttookseveraldecadesandtheweightofallthisevidence(andmore)tofinallyconvincegeologiststhatcontinentaldriftreallyhappensWhatwasthenameofthe"supercontinent"proposedbyAlfredWegenerAnswer:PangaeaEVIDENCEFROMCOASTLINESLookatamapoftheworldTheAtlanticcoastlinesofAfricaandSouthAmericaseemtomatch,almostlikepuzzlepiecesThesoutherncoastofAustraliasimilarlyseemstomatchpartofthecoastofAntarctica,andthesameistrueofsomeothercontinentalcoastlinesIsthisapparentfitanacciPagedent,ordoesitsupportthehypothesisthatthecontinentswereoncejoinedtogetherToanswerthequestionofwhethercontinentswereoncejoined,wemustfirstrecognizethattheedgeofthelandthatis,theshorelineusuallyisn'tthetrueedgeofthecontinentTofindthetrueedgeofacontinent,weneedtolocatetheplacewheretherocksofthecontinentmostlymadeofgranitemeettherocksoftheoceanfloormostlymadeofbasalt(Youwilllearnmoreaboutthesetwoimportantrocktypesinchapter)Alonganoncliffedshoreline,suchastheAtlanticcoastsofNorthAmerica,SouthAmerica,andAfrica,thelandusuallyslopesverygentlytowardthesea(Figure)ThisgentlyslopinglandiscalledthecontinentalshelfAttheedgeofthecontinentalshelfthereisasharpdropofftothesteepercontinentalslopeAtthebottomofthesteepcontinentalslope,thelandbeginstoleveloffagainthisisthecontinentalrise,whichmarksthetransitiontotheflatoceanfloor,theabyssalplainTheactualplacewher

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