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首页 Anderson凝聚态物理中的基本概念.pdf

Anderson凝聚态物理中的基本概念.pdf

Anderson凝聚态物理中的基本概念.pdf

上传者: miomio0322 2013-10-11 评分1 评论0 下载17 收藏0 阅读量524 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Anderson凝聚态物理中的基本概念pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含BASICNOTIONSOFCONDENSEDMAmPHYSICSPWAndersonBellLaboratories,IncandPrinceto符等。

BASICNOTIONSOFCONDENSEDMAmPHYSICSPWAndersonBellLaboratories,IncandPrincetonUniversityTheBenjaminCummingsPublishingCompany,IncAdvancedBookProgramMenloPark,CaliforniaLondonAmsterdamDonMills,OntarioSydneyTokyoLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicadonDataAnderson,PW(PhillipW),Basicnotionsofcondensedmatterphysics(Frantiersinphysicsv)IncludesindexCondensedmatter,ManybodyproblemPerturbationtheory(Quantumdynamics)ITitleSeriesQCCAISBN(hardcover)ISBN(paper)CopyrightObyTheBenjaminCummingsPublishingCompany,IncPublishedsimultaneouslyinCanadaAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyform,orbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisher,BenjaminCummingsPublishingCompany,Inc,AdvancedBookProgram,MenloPark,California,USAManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaCONTENTSEditor'sForewordPrefaceandAcknowledgmentsIntroductionAMotivationBGeneraldescriptionofthebookBasicPrinciplesI:BrokenSymmetryAWhatisbrokensymmetryBWhybrokensymmetryCrystalsandtheboseliquidCDiscretenessanddisjointness:Firstorderversussecondordertransitions,ferroelectric,NlimitDCollectiveexcitationsandfluctuations:Spinwaves,criticalfluctuations,phononsDimensionalityoforderparametersviiiCONTENTSEGeneralizedrigidityandlongrangeorder:MeasurementtheoryFModesofbreakdownofgeneralizedrigidity:Vortices,walls,andothersingularitiesGTopologicaltheoryofdefectstructures:SuccessesandlimitationsBasicPrinciples:AdiabaticContinuityandRenormalizationAFermisystems:ThefermiliquidtheoryBGeneralizationsoffermiliquidtheoryCPrincipleofcontinuationDExamplesofcontinuationBoseandnormalliquidsSolids,quantumandotherwiseSuperconductivity(andanisotropicsuperfluidity)ERenormalizedperturbationtheory:AqualitativediscussionmultiplescatteringtheoryasanexampleFDiscretenessoflargesystemsThequantumchemists'fallaciesSolids,QuantumandOtherwiseAElementaryquantumsolidtheoryBAnharmonicsolidsCSymmetryconsiderationswhenaresolidssolidCONTENTSDSpinsandexchangeeffectsEDensitywaves,rigidity,frictionUsesoftheIdeaoftheRenormalizationGroupinIbnyBodyPhysicsAIntroductionBRNGtheoryofcriticalpointsCKondoesquescalingtheoryDSpacetimescalingintheKondoproblemandphasetransitionsasdefectcondensationsEFurtherextensionsoftherenormalizationgroup:PossiblenewdirectionsReferencesBrokenSymaetryCoherentMatterFieldPhenomenainSuperfluids,byPWAndersonSomeRecentDefinitionstheBasicSciences,editedbyAGelbert,Vol,pp(BelferGraduateSchoolofScience,YeshivaUniversity,NewYork,)ConsiderationsontheFlowofSuperfluidHelium,byPWAndersonRevModPhys,()BrokenSymmetry,EmergentProperties,DissipativeStructures,LifeandItsOrigin:AreTheyRelatedbyPWAndersonandDLSteinSelforganizingSystems:TheEmergenceofOrder,editedbyFEYates(PlenumPress,NewYork,inpress)CONTENTSTheoryofAnisotropicSuperfluidityin~e~,byPWAndersonandWFBrinkmanTheHeliumLiquids:ProceedingsofthethScottishUniversitiesSunmerSchoolinPhysics,editedbyJGMArmitageandIEFarquhar,pp(AcademicPress,NewYork,)TopologyPrinciplesofaClassificationofDefectsinOrderedMedia,byGToulouseandMKlbmanJPhys(paris)Lett,L()InvestigationofSingularitiesinSuperfluidHeinLiquidCrystalsbytheHomotopicTopologyMethods,byGEVolovikandVPMineevSovPhysJETP(),()PhaseSlippagewithoutVorteCores:VortexTexturesinSuperfluidHe,byPWAndersonandGToulousePhysRevLett,()BoseSystemsOntheQuantumMechanicsofHelium,byPenrosePhilMag,()BoseEinsteinCondensationandLiquidHelium,byPenroseandLOnsagerPhysRev,()ApplicationoftheMethodsofQuantumFieldTheorytoasystemofBosons,bySTBeliaevSovPhysJETP(),()EnergySpectrumofaNonIdealBoseGas,bySTBeliaevSovPhysJETP(),()A"FermiLiquid"DescriptionoftheKondoProblematLowTemperatures,byPNozisresJLowTempPhys,()CONTENTSQuantumSolidsConductivityfromChargeorSpinDensityWaves,byPALee,TMRice,andPWAndersonSolidStateCommun,()ElectricFieldDepinningofChargeDensityWaves,byPALeeandTMRicePhysRevB,()SlidingChargeDensityWaves,byPALeeNature,()RenormalizationGroupExactResultsintheKondoProblemScalingTheory,QualitativelyCorrectsolution,andSomeNewResultsonOneDimensionalClassicalStatisticalModels,byPWAnderson,GYuval,andDRHamannPhysRevB,()ErrataAPoorMan'sDerivationofScalingLawsforthe,KondoProblem,byPWAndersonJPhysC,()ErrataScalingTheoryoftheAsymmetricAndersonModel,byFDMHaldanePhysRevLett,()Erratahavebeenincludedinthetext,PhysRevLett,()Ordering,MetastabilityandPhaseTransitionsinTwoDimensionalSystems,byJMKosterlitzandDJThoulessJPhysC,()ScalingTheoryof~ocalization:AbsenceofQuantumDiffusioninTwoDimensions,byEAbrahams,PWAnderson,DCLicciardello,andTVRamakrishnanPhysRevLett,()xiiCONTENTSScalingTheoryoftheMetalInsulatorTransitioninAmorphousMetals,byWLMcMillanPhysRevB,()QuantumCriticalphenomena,byJAHertzPhysRevB,()IndexEDITOR'SFOREWORDTheproblemofcommunicatinginacoherentfashionrecentdevelopmentsinthemostexcitingandactivefieldsofphysicsseemsparticularlypressingtodayTheenormousgrowthinthenumberofphysicistshastendedtomakethefamiliarchannelsofcommunicationconsiderablylesseffectiveIthasbecomeincreasinglydifficultforexpertsinagivenfieldtokeepmpwiththecurrentliteraturethenovicecanonlybeconfusedWhatisneededisbothaconsistentaccountofafieldandthepresentationofadefinite"pointofview"concerningitFormalmonographscannotmeetsuchaneedinarapidlydevelopingfield,and,perhapsmoreimportant,thereviewarticleseemstohavefallenintodisfavorIndeed,itwouldseemthatthepeoplemostactivelyengagedindevelopingagivenfieldarethepeopleleastlikelytowriteatlengthaboutitFRONTIERSINPHYSICShasbeenconceivedinanefforttoimprovethesituationinseveralwaysLeadingphysiciststodayfrequentlygiveaseriesoflectures,agraduateseminar,oragraduatecourseintheirspecialfieldsofinterestSuchlecturesservetosummarizethepresentstatusofarapidlydevelopingfieldandmaywellconstitutetheonlycoherentaccountavailableatthetimeOften,notesonlecturesexist(preparedbythelecturerhimself,bygraduatestudents,orbypostdoctoralfellows)andaredistributedinmimeographedformonalimitedbasisOneoftheprincipalpurposesoftheFRONTIERSINPHYSICSSeriesistomakesuchnotesavailabletoawideraudienceofphysicistsItshouldbeemphasizedthatlecturenotesarenecessarilyroughandinformal,bothinstyleandcontentandthoseintheserieswillprovenoexceptionThisisasitshouldbeThepointoftheseriesistooffernew,rapid,moreinformal,and,xivEDITOR'SFOREWORDitishoped,moreeffectivewaysforphysiciststoteachoneanotherThepointislostifonlyelegantnotesqualifyThepublicationofcollectionsofreprintsofrecentarticlesinveryactivefieldsofphysicswillimprovecommunicationSuchcollectionsarethemselvesusefultopeopleworkinginthefieldThevalueofthereprintswill,however,beenhancedifthecollectionisaccompaniedbyanintroductionofmoderatelengthwhichwillservetotiethecollectiontogetherand,necessarily,constituteabriefsurveyofthepresentstatusofthefieldAgain,itisappropriatethatsuchanintroductionbeinformal,inkeepingwiththeactivecharacterofthefieldTheinformalmonograph,representinganintermediatestepbetweenlecturenotesandformalmonographs,offersanauthortheopportunitytopresenthisviewsofafieldwhichhasdevelopedtothepointwhereasummationmightproveextraordinarilyfruitfulbutaformalmonographmightnotbefeasibleordesirableContemporaryclassicsconstituteaparticularlyvaluableapproachtotheteachingandlearningofphysicstodayHereonethinksoffieldsthatlieattheheartofmuchofpresentdayresearch,butwhoseessentialsarebynowwellunderstood,suchasquantumelectrodynamicsormagneticresonanceInsuchfieldssomeofthebestpedagogicalmaterialisnotreadilyavailable,eitherbecauseitconsistsofpaperslongoutofprintorlecturesthathavebeenpublishedTheabovewords,writteninAugust,seemequallyapplicabletoday(whichmaytellussomethingaboutdevelopmentsincommunicationinphysicsduringthepasttwodecades)PhilipWAndersoncontributedalecturenotevolume,CONCEPTSINSOLIDS,tothefirstgroupofbookspublishedinthisseriesitgivesmegreatpleasuretowelcomehimbackasamajorcontributortoFRONTIERSINPHYSICSBASICNOTIONSOFCONDENSEDMATTERPHYSICSwillbeofinteresttoeveryoneconcernedwithteachingandlearningcondensedmatterphysicsInadditiontoprovidingthereaderwithalucidintroductiontosomeofthemostsignificantconceptsinthephysicsofcondensedmatter,thenotescontainadescriptionofsomeofthemanyseminalcontributionswhichProfessorAndersonhasmadeinthisfieldUrbana,IllinoisAugust,PREFACEANDACKNOWLEDGMENTSInthetenyearssincethefirstroughdraftofthesenoteswasbegun(October,inPortIsaac,Cornwall),farmorepeoplethantheworkdeservesorthanIcanpossiblyacknowledgehavehelpedwithoneaspectoranotherFirstofall,theentirefirstdraftwastypedbyJoyceAnderson,duringasabbaticaltermaidedfinanciallybybothBellLaboratoriesandCambridgeUniversityLaterversionsweretypedinpartbyClareWilsonatCambridge,GraceAndersonatPrinceton,andthemostnearlycompleteofallbyMaryPorrecaatBellLaboratoriesSuccessiveclassesofgraduatestudentssatpatientlythroughthelecturesbasedonthesenotesandoftenreadorcommentedwiselyuponthem,bothatCambridgeandPrincetonFinalfiguresweremostlypreparedbyJohnGomanyandMorganPhillipsatPrincetonThefinalversionowesmuchtothetypingandeditingofMarilenaStoneandKarieFriedman,andespeciallytoClareYu,whohasgonethroughthewholeandinmanycasesclarifiedmyexpressionandevenmyideasThepatienceofLoreHeinleinatAddisonWesleywasresponsibleforkeepingtheprojectalivethesetenyearsJuneMurrayHill,NewJerseyPhilipWAndersonCHAPTERINTRODUCTIONAMOTIVATIONSince,inCambridgeandtheninPrinceton,Ihavegivenaseriesofgraduatelecturecoursesbasedonthematerialfromwhichthisbookisaselection,ThismaterialwaswrittenoutinapreliminarybutcompleteformstartinginOctober,andhasbeenenlargedandrevisedmanytimessincethenPartsofithaveservedasthebasisforasetofpublishedlecturenotesinparticular,achapterondisorderedsystems,whichwasnotorganicallyconnectedwiththerestofthebookwasthebasisformyLesHoucheslectu'renotesof(inIllCondensedMatter,editedbyRBalian,RMaynard,andGToulouse)Theconceptofthebookwasthatsincetheexplosivegrowthofcondensedmatterphysicsasafieldsince,itisnolongerpossibletowriteaconventional,comprehensivetextinthefieldatanythingbutthemostelementarylevelItisevenlesspossibletogivealecturecourse,whichnecessarilyselectsfromthematerialinatextbookTherehavebeentwoorthreesolutionstothisproblemOneisspecialization,oftenunconsciousoratleastunstatedtheauthorcoversthephysicsofmetals,orofsemiconductors,orbandsandbonds,orsomeothersubjectfairlycompletely,andneglectstherestofthefieldAsecondsolutionisthatchosenbySeitzasafollowuptohismarveloustext:tocollectratherthanselect,andtopublishseriesofreviewsbydifferentauthorsontheirownspecialtiesAttheadvancedmonographBASICNOTIONSOFCONDENSEDMATTERPHYSICSlevelthisisallthatcanbedone,butitisnohelptothestudententeringthefieldFinally,somebooksconcentrateonthetheoreticaltechniqueswhicharecommontoallofmanybodytheoryManyofthosewhohavegivencoursesonmanybodytheorymusthaveexperiencedsomeofthefrustrationswithteachingsuchacoursewhichhaveledmetowritethisbookHowevermuchonemaytrytogiveabalancedcourse,emphasizingequallythephysicalandmathematicalaspectsofthesubject,onefindsthepurelymathematicalaspectsofthefieldtheoreticalperturbationtechniquesintroducedinthefiftiesdominatingthecourseThissubjectseemstotakeonalifeofitsownThematerialislengthyithasgreatappealtothestudentbecauseofitseleganceandformalnaturethatis,itdoesnotforcethestudent(orthelecturer)tothinktoodeeplyortoencounteranyuncertaintyand,perhapsmostimportant,itisthemostextensivelydiscussedpartofthebesttextsonthesubject,mostparticularlythejustlyrevered"AGD"(Abrikosov,Gorkov,andDzyaloshinskii,)Asapartialresult,atleastinmycourse,discussionsoftherestofthephysicstendedtobeconfinedtoafewhastyillustrativeexamplesattheveryendThisleftthestudents,Ifelt,underthemistakenimpressionthatmanybodyphysicswassimplyamatterofcallingintwosubroutines,oneentitled"Green'sfunctions"andtheother"diagrams,"andthenfeedingtheappropriatedataintothemainprogramThereare,ofcourse,textswhichtakeabroaderview,forinstance,theearlyonesbyPines(),andPinesand~ozisres()buteventheseemphasizeoneaspectonlyandarenowsomewhatoutofdateThemostgenerallyusedmoderntext,FetterandWalecka(),notonlytakesalesssophisticatedviewthanPinesonmanymatters,butisalsoveryformalandratherdividedinitstreatmentbetweenthedifferentmethodologiesofsolidstateandnucleartheoryIgivebelowalistofseveraltextsmyownfavorites,inspiteofvariousweaknesses,areAGD(),Pines(,Nozisres(),andThouless()MyfeelingisthatbehindthemathematicsofAGDliesamuchlessformal,logicallymorecomplete,structure,associatedmostgenerallywiththenameofLandauandfewbooksseemtogivemuchfeelingforthisIthereforefeltthatitmightbeusefultowriteabookaboutalltherestofwhatIthoughtshouldhavegoneintomylectures,andinparticulartoemphasizethegeneralprinciplesofmanybodyphysics,forwhichthemarvelousformalismofperturbationtheoryprovidesthesupportivemathematicalapparatusIINTRODUCTIONwouldnotadvisethestudenttoattempttousethisbooktohelpwithcomputations,butIwouldhopethatitwillhelpinmanycasestounderstandwhatisbeingcomputedandwhyAnotherthingIhavewantedtodoformany'yearswastoexpandonsomeoftheideasthatwerepresentedverysketchilyinthesecondhalfofmyearlierbook(Anderson,)Infact,IhaveoftenfoundmyselfunconsciouslyfollowingmyearlierdiscussionsThisindicateseitherthatIamtoooldtohaveanynewideasorthatthereallybasicprinciplesofmanybodyphysicsareindeedfairlystationaryintimeIhopethelatterThereforetosomeextentthisworkcanbeconsideredanexpansionandrestatementofthesecondhalfofmyearlierbookIntheinterveningyears,apparently,nocomparablediscussionoftheseideashasappeared,butinsteadnostbookshavefoundthemselvesentrappedindiagramsandGreen'sfunctionsIshouldlike,inaddition,todisavowanyattemptatcompletenesswhatthisbookcontainsiswhatmighthavegoneintomycoursesinsteadofperturbationtheory,andisthusidiosyncraticManyimportantresultsofmanybodytheoryforexample,somepartsofthetheoryofliquidsarenowherementioned,andothersforinstance,fluctuationdissipationandotheraspectsoftransporttheoryareskimped,fornocompellingreasonexcepttheneedforfinitenessFinally,asregardslevel:thisbookprobablyshouldnotserveunaidedasabasictextitismeantprimarilytosupplementanddeepenthestudent'sor

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