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外文TTC.pdf

外文TTC.pdf

上传者: myb_1207 2013-10-11 评分 4.5 0 89 12 403 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《外文TTCpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含SubmetidoemAceitoparapublicaçãoAcadêmicadocursodeEngenhariaAgrônoma,UFPR,b符等。

SubmetidoemAceitoparapublicaçãoAcadêmicadocursodeEngenhariaAgrônoma,UFPR,bolsistadeiniciaçãocientíficadaUFPRTN,camilaribeiroufprbrEngAgr,MSc,ResponsávelTécnicodoLaboratóriodeAnálisedeSementesOficialdaEmpresaParanaensedeClassificaçãodeProdutos(CLASPAR),RuaJoãoAméricodeOliveira,,CEP:,CuritibaPR,Email:osvaldodecastroclasparprgovbrEngenheiraAgrônomaEmail:melgavazzahotmailcomProfessoraAdjunto,DepartamentodeFitotecniaeFitossanitarismo,UFPR,RuadosFuncionários,,CEP:,CuritibaPR,Email:maristelaufprbrTETRAZOLIUMTESTFOREVALUATINGTRITICALESEEDVIABILITYCamilaRibeiRodeSouza,oSvaldodeCaStRoohlSon,melíCiaingRediaRaújogavazza,maRiStelaPanobianCoABSTRACTFreshlyharvestedtriticaleseedsareusuallydormant,makingtheimmediateevaluationofthephysiologicalpotentialofseedlotsdifficultWeevaluateddifferenttriphenyltetrazoliumchloride(TTC)testmethodsforrapidlydeterminingtheviabilityoffourseedlotsofxTriticosecaleWittmackcultivarIPRThetestvariableswere:Preconditioning,(i)placingwholeseedsbetweenmoistenedpapertowelsor(ii)directlysoakingtheseedsinwater,bothproceduresbeingconductedatCforhoursPostconditioningseedpreparation,(i)longitudinalbisectionoftheseedthroughtheembryowithonehalfbeingstainedandtheotherdiscardedor(ii)longitudinalbisectionwithbothhalvesbeingstainedStainingforthreeandfourhours,inthedark,with,or(wv)TTCaccordingtothepreconditioningmethoddescribedabove,(i)bothhalvesofeachseedwereplacedonfilterpapermoistenedwithTTCandmaintainedatCor(ii)onehalfofeachseedwasimmersedinmLofTTCsolutioninamLglassbeakeratCThebestresultswereobtainedbypreconditioningseedsbetweenmoistenedpapertowelsatCforhoursandstainingonfilterpaperwith(wv)TTCforthreehoursatCIndexterms:germinability,seedanalysis,xTriticosecaleWittmackTESTEDETETRAZÓLIOPARAAVALIAÇÃODAVIABILIDADEDESEMENTESDETRITICALERESUMOAssementesdetriticalerecémcolhidasapresentamnormalmentedormência,dificultandoaavaliaçãoimediatadopotencialfisiológicodoloteOtrabalhoteveporobjetivoestudardiferentesprocedimentosparaaconduçãodotestedetetrazólioemsementesdetriticale,afimdedeterminarrapidamenteasuaviabilidadeForamutilizadosquatrolotesdesementesdacultivarIPR,testandoasseguintesvariáveis:a)précondicionamentoentrefolhadepapeltoalhaumedecidoeembebiçãodiretaemáguaaCporhorasb)doistiposdepreparo:cortelongitudinaldasementeatravésdoembrião,comdescartedeumadasmetadeseimersãodaoutranasoluçãodetetrazólio,aC,ecortecomcolocaçãodasduasmetadessobrepapelfiltroumedecidocomasoluçãodetetrazólio,aCc)coloraçãoporehoras,sobrepapeleimersãodiretanasoluçãod)concentraçõesdesoluçãodetetrazólioa,,,e,PelosresultadosobtidosconcluiusequeotestedetetrazólioemsementesdetriticalepodeserconduzidomedianteembebiçãoentrepapelaCporhoras,coloraçãosobrepapelporhoras,aC,naconcentraçãode,Termosparaindexação:xTriticosealeWitmack,germinação,análisedesementesRevistaBrasileiradeSementes,vol,nºp,INTRODUCTIONTriticale(xTriticosecaleWittmack),ahybridwintercerealresultingfromcrossingwheat(Triticumaestivum)andrye(Secalecereale),hashighcommercialpotentialinsomeareasofSouthernBrazilwhereitisprincipallyusedasananimalfeedstuffandenergysourceintheperiodbetweenmaize(Zeamays)harvests(Brumetal,),althoughitisalsousedasafeedstuffintheproductionofbiscuits(cookies),breadsandotherdietaryproductsforhumanconsumptionTheevaluationofthephysiologicalpotentialofseedhasbeenincludedininternalqualitycontrolprogramsand,whenconductedefficiently,allowsidentificationoflotswithahigherprobabilityofadequatelyestablishinginthefieldGerminationtestsarecommonlyusedforanalyzingthephysiologicalqualityofseedlotsbutsuchtestscantakefromdaystoweeksormonthsforseedsexhibitingdormancy,thissituationbeingundesirablebecauseoftheneedtoquicklyidentifyproblemsandmakerapiddecisionstominimizepossibledamageDormancyisanimportantresourceforthesurvivalofsomeseedbearingspeciesforwhichitconstitutesaresistancemechanismoperatingunderunfavorableenvironmentalconditionsduringwhichitguaranteesthatgerminationonlyoccurswhenconditionsarefavorableforthereestablishmentofmetabolism(MarcosFilho,)However,dormancylimitstheevaluationofthephysiologicalqualityofseedsduringgerminationtestingandresultsintheneedformethodsforovercomingdormancy,althoughthecurrentlyusedtechniquesarenotalwayseffectiveandcancreatedifficultiesfortheanalystsindistinguishingbetweendeadanddormantseeds(Cícero,)Brazilianofficialseedtestingmethods(Brasil,)statesthatingerminationtestsfortriticaleseedsthefinalcountshouldbemadeateightdaysbut,however,freshlycollectedtriticaleseedspresentdormancy,indicatingtheneedforthedevelopmentofrapidviabilitytestsThetriphenyltetrazoliumchloride(TTC)testisanimportantrapidseedviabilitytestbasedontheactivityofdehydrogenasesthatcatalyzemitochondrialrespirationThistestcorrelatesseedviabilitywithalterationinthecolorofviableplanttissueduetoanoxidationreductionreactioninvolvingaddedTTCwhichisreducedtothestablenondiffusingredpigmentformazon(FrançaNeto,),thepresenceofwhichindicatesmitochondrialrespirationandallowsdifferentiationbetweennormallystainedandunstainedorabnormallystainedtissue(MarcosFilho,)TheTTCtesthasaseriesofadvantagesoverstandardgerminationtests,includingthefollowing:itisnotaffectedbyfactorssuchasthepresenceoffungithatcanaltertheresultsofnormalgerminationteststhephysicalandphysiologicalconditionsoftheseedembryoarethefocusofthetestviabilitycanbeevaluatedrapidlyusingcheapandsimpleequipmentdifferentlevelsofviabilitycanbeassessedforsomespecies,egsoybeanandbeanandadiagnosisastowhytheseedshavelostviabilityissometimespossible(Deloucheetal,FrançaNeto,)TheefficiencyoftheTTCtestdependsonthedevelopmentofseedpreconditioning,postconditioningpreparationandstainingmethodsadaptedforeachspecies(CerviandMendonça,)MethodologiesforcarryingouttheTTCtestareconstantlybeingrefined,withspecificmanualsbeingavailableforZeamays(DiasandBarros,),Gossypiumhirsutum(VieiraandVonPinho,),Phaseolusvulgaris(Bheringetal,),Arachishypogaea(BittencourtandVieira,)andGlycinemax(FranceNetoetal,)Forseeds,theInternationalSeedTestingAssociation(ISTA)methodfortriticalerecommendspreconditioningtheseedsbyimmersioninwaterforhoursatC,followedbytransverselyorlongitudinallysectioninghalftheembryoandthreequartersoftheendospermandstainingbyimmersionin(wv)TTCsolutionforthreehoursatC(ISTA,)TheBrazilianRulesforSeedTesting(RegrasparaAnálisedeSementes(RAS)Brasil,),however,onlyprovidesgeneralinformationforcarryingouttheTTCtest,withnospecificconditionsfortriticaleWeinvestigatedthemethodologyoftheTTCtestforrapidlydeterminingtheviabilityoftriticaleseedswithaviewtooptimizingthetestforuseunderBrazilianconditionsMATERIALANDMETHODSTheseedsusedinthetestswerefourlotsoftriticale(xTriticosecaleWittmack)cultivarIPRfromthecropThelotswerehomogenizedandseparatedintosubsamplesseedsforeachtreatmentandthenstoredkraftpaperinpackagesatºCandrelativehumidity(RH)TheexperimentswerecarriedoutinJulyattheOfficialSeedAnalysisLaboratoryoftheParanáStateCompanyfortheClassificationofProducts(LaboratóriodeAnálisedeSementesOficialdaEmpresaParanaensedeClassificaçãodeProdutos(CLASPAR),Curitiba,Paraná,BrazilCRSOUZAetalRevistaBrasileiradeSementes,vol,nºp,TheinitialhumidityandpercentagegerminationofeachlotwasdeterminedbytheBrazilianRASmethod(Brasil,):humiditybytheovensetatCforhwithtwogsubsamplesperlot,andgerminationbyrollingtheseedsinthreelayersofpapertowelmoistenedwithwaterequivalenttotimesthemassofthepapertowelsandincubatingtheseedsatCforfivedaysbeforecalculatingthenumberofplantletsaccordingtotheRASmethodologyFortheTTCtest,foursubsamplesofseedswereusedforeachtreatment,thedifferentcombinationsoftreatmentsbeingdescribedinthefollowingparagraphsPreconditioning:(i)seedimbibitionatCforhbywrappingtheseedsinpapertowelsmoistenedwithwaterequivalenttotimesthemassofthepaper(ii)directimmersionforhatCinmLofwatercontainedinamLglassbeaker(ISTA,)Inbothcases,thehumidityoftheseedswasdeterminedafterpreconditioninginanovensetatCforhs(Brasil,)Postpreconditioningseedpreparation:(i)longitudinalbisectionoftheseedthroughtheembryowithonehalfbeingstainedandtheotherdiscarded(ISTA,)Foreachsubsample,onehalfofeachseedsectionwasimmersedinmLof,or(wv)TTCsolutioninamLglassbeakeratCforthreeandfourhoursuntiltheyreachedtheidealcolor,afterwhichtheywereremoved,washedinrunningwaterandstoredinwateratCtoC(ISTA,)(ii)longitudinalbisectionoftheseedthroughtheembryowithbothhalvesbeingstainedForeachsubsample,bothhalvesofeachseedwereplacedonfilterpapermoistenedwithaquantityof,,triphenyltetrazoliumchloride(TTC)solution(,or(wv)TTC)equivalenttotimesthemassofthepaperandmaintainedforthreeandfourhoursinthedarkatC,afterwhichtheseedswerestoredonfilterpaperatCtoCuntilevaluationViabilitywasevaluatedusingastereomicroscopeandtherecommendationsofGrabe()forcerealswithsmallseedsSeedsstainedredwereclassifiedasviable,whileimproperlystainedorunstainedseedswereconsideredunviable,andthedataobtainedusedtocalculatethepercentageofviableseedsTheexperimentaldesignwascompletelyrandomizedwithfourreplicatesMeanswerecomparedusingtheTukeytestattheprobabilitylevelandtheSpearmanmodelwasusedtoinvestigatecorrelationsbetweenTTCtestmeansandstandardgerminationtestmeansThehumidityresultswerenotanalyzedstatisticallyRESULTSANDDISCUSSIONTheinitialseedmoisturecontentvaluesweresimilarforthefourlots,varyingbetweento(Table),afactorconsideredfundamentalforstandardizingviabilitytestsandobtainingconsistentresults(MarcosFilho,)Theseedqualityevaluationbythestandardgerminationtest(Table)separatedthelotsintohighviabilitylots(denominatedlotsand)andlowerviabilitylots(denominatedlotsand)TABLEMeangerminationvaluesandseedmoisturecontentoffourlotsoftriticaleseedsLotGermination()Moisturecontent()aabbCV()MeansinthesamecolumnproceededbythesameletterdonotdiffersignificantlybytheTukeytestatp=CV=CoefficientofVariationTableshowstheTTCtestresultsforpreconditioningbetweenpaperandstainingonfilterpaperStainingforthreehourswasthemostefficienttimesincethisgroupedthelotsinasimilarfashiontothestandardgerminationtest(Table),independentoftheTTCconcentrationTheresultsindicatethatthelowestTTCconcentration()couldbeusedinthetest,exceptthatwiththisconcentrationvisualizationoftheessentialstructuresandviabilitydeterminationweredifficultduetotheweakstainingproducedTheISTA()TTCtestmethodfortriticalerecommendsaTTCconcentrationof,althoughourresultssuggestthatcouldalsobeusedwithoutaffectingvisualizationofessentialstructuresWhentheseedswerepreconditionedbetweenpapertowelsandstainedbyimmersioninTTCsolution(Table),threehourswasagainthemostefficientstainingtimeasmeasuredbythefactthatthisstainingtimemostefficientlyseparatedthehighviabilityseedslotsandandthelowerviabilitylotsandHowever,theseresultsweresimilartothoseshowninTableonlyfortheandTTCTheresultsalsoindicatethatwhentheseedswerehydratedtobetweenandmoisturecontent(Table)bywrappinginpapertowelmoistenedwithwaterequivalenttotimesthemassofthepapertherewasnoapparentinhibitionofenzymeactivityoftheseedsTETRAZOLIUMTESTFORTRITICALESEEDSRevistaBrasileiradeSementes,vol,nºp,TABLETriphenyltetrazoliumchloride(TTC)testresultsforfourlotsoftriticaleseedspreconditionedbetweenmoistpapertowelsandstainedonfilterpaperorbyimmersionusing,orTTCPreconditioninginpapertowelsStainingmethodhoursstainingonfilterpaperhoursstainingonfilterpaperhoursstainingbyimmersionhoursstainingbyimmersionTTCConcentrationLot…………aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabaabaaaaaabbbbacbcbbcabbbaabcbbbabbaCV()MeansinthesamecolumnproceededbythesameletterdonotdiffersignificantlybytheTukeytestatp=CV=CoefficientofVariationPreconditioningsoftenedtheseeds,facilitatedpenetrationoftheTTCsolutionandactivatedenzymaticsystems,resultinginmorevisiblestaining(VieiraandVonPinho,)TheseedneedstoreachaminimumhumidityduringpreconditioninginordertoactivatetheenzymaticsystemandguaranteestainingPreconditioningbyimmersion,followedbystainingbothhalvesofeachseedonfilterpaperwasmoreefficientwhenstainingwasinorTTCforthreehoursorTTCforfourhours(Table)Ashortstainingtime,suchasthreehours,isimportantwhenrapiddecisionshavetobetakenduringviabilityscreeningbyseedsuppliersFurthermore,economicsavingsaccruewhenusingalowerTTCconcentration,suchas,whichisstillabletoadequatelyvisualizethetissuestructureoftheseedsReducedTTCconcentrationintheTTCtesthasalsobeensuggestedforotherspecies,includingTTCfortheGossypiumhirsutum(VieiraandVonPinho,)andforArachishypogaea(BittencourtandVieira,),Phaseolusvulgaris(Bheringetal,),Zeamays(DiasandBarros,)andGlycinemax(FranceNetoetal,)TABLETriphenyltetrazoliumchloride(TTC)testresultsforfourlotsoftriticaleseedspreconditionedbyimmersionandstainedonfilterpaperorbyimmersionusing,orTTCPreconditioningbyimmersionStainingmethodhoursstainingonfilterpaperhoursstainingonfilterpaperhoursstainingbyimmersionhoursstainingbymmersionTTCConcentrationLot…………aaaaabaaaaaaaabaaaaaaabaaaacbbbcbbcbbbabcbbabbcbabbcababaCV()MeansinthesamecolumnproceededbythesameletterdonotdiffersignificantlybytheTukeytestatp=CV=CoefficientofVariationCRSOUZAetalRevistaBrasileiradeSementes,vol,nºp,TABLEPercentageseedmoisturecontent()offourlotsoftriticaleseedsafterpreconditioningatCforhoursbetweenmoistpapertowelsorbyimmersionLotPreconditioningmethodBetweenpapertowelsImmersion………………TheISTA()methodrecommendspreconditioningandstainingbyimmersion,butTableindicatesthatthismethodologyisnotthemostefficientoreconomicalwaytoperformtheTTCtestforourtriticalesamplesbecauseittookfourhoursstainingtoseparatedthelotsinasimilarmannertothegerminationtest(Table)and,furthermore,thisonlyoccurredwithTTC,whichisnotthemostefficientconcentrationforassessingseedviabilitysincethisisbestaccomplishedwithandTTCAnalysisofmeansshowedthatthemostefficientmethodologiesfortherapidevaluationoftheviabilityofourtriticaleseedswerepreconditioningbetweenpapertowels(Table)orbyimmersioninwater(Table),followedbystainingonfilterpaperforhourswithorTTCTheSpearmancorrelationcoefficients(Table)forthestandardgerminationtestandtheTTCtestsshowthatthehighestcorrelation,significantatp=,occurredwhentheTTCprotocolusedpreconditioningbetweenpapertowelsfollowedbystainingonfilterpaperforhourswithTTCHowever,preconditioningbetweenpapertowelsfollowedbystainingbyimmersionforhoursinorTTCwasalsosignificant,butonlyatP=PreconditioningbetweenpapertowelsandstainingonfilterpapermakesitsimpletoperformtheTTCtest,especiallyconsideringvisualizationofthetissuestructuresoftheseedsThisleadstoamorerapidtestandaddstothesecurityoftheinterpretationofthetestdataStainingbothhalvesofeachsectionedseedallowedbetterevaluationoftheseedviabilitybecauseitavoidedthedoubtswhichoccurwhenonlyonehalfisevaluated,especiallysinceitisdifficulttocuttheembryoexactlyinthemiddleduetothesmallsizeoftriticaleseedsThishasalsobeencommentedonforseedsofthetropicalforagegrassesBrachiariabrizantha(DiasandAlves,a)andPanicummaximum(DiasandAlves,b)TABLESpearmancorrelationcoefficient(ρ)betweenthemeanpercentagegerminationvaluesforfourtriticaleseedlotsasassessedbythestandardgerminationtestorstainingwithtriphenyltetrazoliumchloride(TTC:,or)onfilterpaperorbyimmersionandafterpreconditioningbetwe

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