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首页 性别麻烦—女性主义与身份的颠覆(英文版) 朱迪思·巴特勒著

性别麻烦—女性主义与身份的颠覆(英文版) 朱迪思·巴特勒著.pdf

性别麻烦—女性主义与身份的颠覆(英文版) 朱迪思·巴特勒著

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2009-12-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《性别麻烦—女性主义与身份的颠覆(英文版) 朱迪思·巴特勒著pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

GENDERTROUBLEGENDERTROUBLEFeminismandtheSubversionofIdentityJUDITHBUTLERRoutledgeNewYorkandLondonPublishedinbyRoutledgeWestthStreetNewYork,NYPublishedinGreatBritainbyRoutledgeNewFetterLaneLondonECPEECopyright©,byRoutledgeGenderTroublewasoriginallypublishedintheRoutledgebookseriesThinkingGender,editedbyLindaJNicholsonAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecordingorinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataButler,JudithPGendertrouble:feminismandthesubversionofidentityJudithButlerpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexOriginallypublished:NewYork:Routledge,ISBN(pbk)FeministtheorySexroleSexdifferences(Psychology)Identity(Psychology)FemininityITitleHQBdcCIPISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(GlassbookFormat)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,ContentsPreface()viiPreface()xxviiOneSubjectsofSexGenderDesirei“Women”astheSubjectofFeminismiiTheCompulsoryOrderofSexGenderDesireiiiGender:TheCircularRuinsofContemporaryDebateivTheorizingtheBinary,theUnitary,andBeyondvIdentity,Sex,andtheMetaphysicsofSubstanceviLanguage,Power,andtheStrategiesofDisplacementTwoProhibition,Psychoanalysis,andtheProductionoftheHeterosexualMatrixiStructuralism’sCriticalExchangeviiLacan,Riviere,andtheStrategiesofMasqueradeiiiFreudandtheMelancholiaofGenderivGenderComplexityandtheLimitsofIdentificationvReformulatingProhibitionasPowerThreeSubversiveBodilyActsiTheBodyPoliticsofJuliaKristevaiiFoucault,Herculine,andthePoliticsofSexualDiscontinuityiiiMoniqueWittig:BodilyDisintegrationandFictiveSexivBodilyInscriptions,PerformativeSubversionsConclusionFromParodytoPoliticsNotesIndexContentsviPreface()TenyearsagoIcompletedthemanuscriptofGenderTroubleandsentittoRoutledgeforpublicationIdidnotknowthatthetextwouldhaveaswideanaudienceasithashad,nordidIknowthatitwouldconstituteaprovocative“intervention”infeministtheoryorbecitedasoneofthefoundingtextsofqueertheoryThelifeofthetexthasexceededmyintentions,andthatissurelyinparttheresultofthechangingcontextofitsreceptionAsIwroteit,Iunderstoodmyselftobeinanembattledandoppositionalrelationtocertainformsoffeminism,evenasIunderstoodthetexttobepartoffeminismitselfIwaswritinginthetraditionofimmanentcritiquethatseekstoprovokecriticalexaminationofthebasicvocabularyofthemovementofthoughttowhichitbelongsTherewasandremainswarrantforsuchamodeofcriticismandtodistinguishbetweenselfcriticismthatpromisesamoredemocraticandinclusivelifeforthemovementandcriticismthatseekstoundermineitaltogetherOfcourse,itisalwayspossibletomisreadtheformerasthelatter,butIwouldhopethatthatwillnotbedoneinthecaseofGenderTroubleInIwasmostconcernedtocriticizeapervasiveheterosexualassumptioninfeministliterarytheoryIsoughttocounterthoseviewsthatmadepresumptionsaboutthelimitsandproprietyofgenderandrestrictedthemeaningofgendertoreceivednotionsofmasculinityandfemininityItwasandremainsmyviewthatanyfeministtheoryviithatrestrictsthemeaningofgenderinthepresuppositionsofitsownpracticesetsupexclusionarygendernormswithinfeminism,oftenwithhomophobicconsequencesItseemedtome,andcontinuestoseem,thatfeminismoughttobecarefulnottoidealizecertainexpressionsofgenderthat,inturn,producenewformsofhierarchyandexclusionInparticular,Iopposedthoseregimesoftruththatstipulatedthatcertainkindsofgenderedexpressionswerefoundtobefalseorderivative,andothers,trueandoriginalThepointwasnottoprescribeanewgenderedwayoflifethatmightthenserveasamodelforreadersofthetextRather,theaimofthetextwastoopenupthefieldofpossibilityforgenderwithoutdictatingwhichkindsofpossibilitiesoughttoberealizedOnemightwonderwhatuse“openinguppossibilities”finallyis,butnoonewhohasunderstoodwhatitistoliveinthesocialworldaswhatis“impossible,”illegible,unrealizable,unreal,andillegitimateislikelytoposethatquestionGenderTroublesoughttouncoverthewaysinwhichtheverythinkingofwhatispossibleingenderedlifeisforeclosedbycertainhabitualandviolentpresumptionsThetextalsosoughttoundermineanyandalleffortstowieldadiscourseoftruthtodelegitimateminoritygenderedandsexualpracticesThisdoesn’tmeanthatallminoritypracticesaretobecondonedorcelebrated,butitdoesmeanthatweoughttobeabletothinkthembeforewecometoanykindsofconclusionsaboutthemWhatworriedmemostwerethewaysthatthepanicinthefaceofsuchpracticesrenderedthemunthinkableIsthebreakdownofgenderbinaries,forinstance,somonstrous,sofrightening,thatitmustbeheldtobedefinitionallyimpossibleandheuristicallyprecludedfromanyefforttothinkgenderSomeofthesekindsofpresumptionswerefoundinwhatwascalled“FrenchFeminism”atthetime,andtheyenjoyedgreatpopularityamongliteraryscholarsandsomesocialtheoristsEvenasIopposedwhatItooktobetheheterosexismatthecoreofsexualdifferencefundamentalism,IalsodrewfromFrenchpoststructuralismtomakemypointsMyworkinGenderTroubleturnedouttobeGenderTroubleviiioneofculturaltranslationPoststructuralisttheorywasbroughttobearonUStheoriesofgenderandthepoliticalpredicamentsoffeminismIfinsomeofitsguises,poststructuralismappearsasaformalism,alooffromquestionsofsocialcontextandpoliticalaim,thathasnotbeenthecasewithitsmorerecentAmericanappropriationsIndeed,mypointwasnotto“apply”poststructuralismtofeminism,buttosubjectthosetheoriestoaspecificallyfeministreformulationWhereassomedefendersofpoststructuralistformalismexpressdismayattheavowedly“thematic”orientationitreceivesinworkssuchasGenderTrouble,thecritiquesofpoststructuralismwithintheculturalLefthaveexpressedstrongskepticismtowardtheclaimthatanythingpoliticallyprogressivecancomeofitspremisesInbothaccounts,however,poststructuralismisconsideredsomethingunified,pure,andmonolithicInrecentyears,however,thattheory,orsetoftheories,hasmigratedintogenderandsexualitystudies,postcolonialandracestudiesIthaslosttheformalismofitsearlierinstanceandacquiredanewandtransplantedlifeinthedomainofculturaltheoryTherearecontinuingdebatesaboutwhethermyownworkortheworkofHomiKBhabha,GayatriChakravortySpivak,orSlavojZˇizˇekbelongstoculturalstudiesorcriticaltheory,butperhapssuchquestionssimplyshowthatthestrongdistinctionbetweenthetwoenterpriseshasbrokendownTherewillbetheoristswhoclaimthatalloftheabovebelongtoculturalstudies,andtherewillbeculturalstudiespractitionerswhodefinethemselvesagainstallmanneroftheory(althoughnot,significantly,StuartHall,oneofthefoundersofculturalstudiesinBritain)ButbothsidesofthedebatesometimesmissthepointthatthefaceoftheoryhaschangedpreciselythroughitsculturalappropriationsThereisanewvenuefortheory,necessarilyimpure,whereitemergesinandastheveryeventofculturaltranslationThisisnotthedisplacementoftheorybyhistoricism,norasimplehistoricizationoftheorythatexposesthecontingentlimitsofitsmoregeneralizableclaimsItis,rather,theemergenceoftheoryatthesitewhereculturalhorizonsmeet,wherethedemandfortranslationisacuteanditspromiseofsuccess,uncertainPrefaceixGenderTroubleisrootedin“FrenchTheory,”whichisitselfacuriousAmericanconstructionOnlyintheUnitedStatesaresomanydisparatetheoriesjoinedtogetherasiftheyformedsomekindofunityAlthoughthebookhasbeentranslatedintoseverallanguagesandhashadanespeciallystrongimpactondiscussionsofgenderandpoliticsinGermany,itwillemergeinFrance,ifitfinallydoes,muchlaterthaninothercountriesImentionthistounderscorethattheapparentFrancocentrismofthetextisatasignificantdistancefromFranceandfromthelifeoftheoryinFranceGenderTroubletendstoreadtogether,inasyncreticvein,variousFrenchintellectuals(LéviStrauss,Foucault,Lacan,Kristeva,Wittig)whohadfewallianceswithoneanotherandwhosereadersinFrancerarely,ifever,readoneanotherIndeed,theintellectualpromiscuityofthetextmarksitpreciselyasAmericanandmakesitforeigntoaFrenchcontextSodoesitsemphasisontheAngloAmericansociologicalandanthropologicaltraditionof“gender”studies,whichisdistinctfromthediscourseof“sexualdifference”derivedfromstructuralistinquiryIfthetextrunstheriskofEurocentrismintheUS,ithasthreatenedan“Americanization”oftheoryinFranceforthosefewFrenchpublisherswhohaveconsidereditOfcourse,“FrenchTheory”isnottheonlylanguageofthistextItemergesfromalongengagementwithfeministtheory,withthedebatesonthesociallyconstructedcharacterofgender,withpsychoanalysisandfeminism,withGayleRubin’sextraordinaryworkongender,sexuality,andkinship,EstherNewton’sgroundbreakingworkondrag,MoniqueWittig’sbrillianttheoreticalandfictionalwritings,andwithgayandlesbianperspectivesinthehumanitiesWhereasmanyfeministsinthesassumedthatlesbianismmeetsfeminisminlesbianfeminism,GenderTroublesoughttorefusethenotionthatlesbianpracticeinstantiatesfeministtheory,andsetupamoretroubledrelationbetweenthetwotermsLesbianisminthistextdoesnotrepresentareturntowhatismostimportantaboutbeingawomanitdoesnotconsecratefemininityorsignalagynocentricworldLesbianismisnottheeroticconGenderTroublexsummationofasetofpoliticalbeliefs(sexualityandbeliefarerelatedinamuchmorecomplexfashion,andveryoftenatoddswithoneanother)Instead,thetextasks,howdononnormativesexualpracticescallintoquestionthestabilityofgenderasacategoryofanalysisHowdocertainsexualpracticescompelthequestion:whatisawoman,whatisamanIfgenderisnolongertobeunderstoodasconsolidatedthroughnormativesexuality,thenisthereacrisisofgenderthatisspecifictoqueercontextsTheideathatsexualpracticehasthepowertodestabilizegenderemergedfrommyreadingofGayleRubin’s“TheTrafficinWomen”andsoughttoestablishthatnormativesexualityfortifiesnormativegenderBriefly,oneisawoman,accordingtothisframework,totheextentthatonefunctionsasonewithinthedominantheterosexualframeandtocalltheframeintoquestionisperhapstolosesomethingofone’ssenseofplaceingenderItakeitthatthisisthefirstformulationof“gendertrouble”inthistextIsoughttounderstandsomeoftheterrorandanxietythatsomepeoplesufferin“becominggay,”thefearoflosingone’splaceingenderorofnotknowingwhoonewillbeifonesleepswithsomeoneoftheostensibly“same”genderThisconstitutesacertaincrisisinontologyexperiencedatthelevelofbothsexualityandlanguageThisissuehasbecomemoreacuteasweconsidervariousnewformsofgenderingthathaveemergedinlightoftransgenderismandtranssexuality,lesbianandgayparenting,newbutchandfemmeidentitiesWhenandwhy,forinstance,dosomebutchlesbianswhobecomeparentsbecome“dads”andothersbecome“moms”Whataboutthenotion,suggestedbyKateBornstein,thatatranssexualcannotbedescribedbythenounof“woman”or“man,”butmustbeapproachedthroughactiveverbsthatattesttotheconstanttransformationwhich“is”thenewidentityor,indeed,the“inbetweenness”thatputsthebeingofgenderedidentityintoquestionAlthoughsomelesbiansarguethatbutcheshavenothingtodowith“beingaman,”othersinsistthattheirbutchnessisorwasonlyaroutetoadesiredstatusPrefacexiasamanTheseparadoxeshavesurelyproliferatedinrecentyears,offeringevidenceofakindofgendertroublethatthetextitselfdidnotanticipateButwhatisthelinkbetweengenderandsexualitythatIsoughttounderscoreCertainly,Idonotmeantoclaimthatformsofsexualpracticeproducecertaingenders,butonlythatunderconditionsofnormativeheterosexuality,policinggenderissometimesusedasawayofsecuringheterosexualityCatharineMacKinnonoffersaformulationofthisproblemthatresonateswithmyownatthesametimethatthereare,Ibelieve,crucialandimportantdifferencesbetweenusShewrites:Stoppedasanattributeofaperson,sexinequalitytakestheformofgendermovingasarelationbetweenpeople,ittakestheformofsexualityGenderemergesasthecongealedformofthesexualizationofinequalitybetweenmenandwomenInthisview,sexualhierarchyproducesandconsolidatesgenderItisnotheterosexualnormativitythatproducesandconsolidatesgender,butthegenderhierarchythatissaidtounderwriteheterosexualrelationsIfgenderhierarchyproducesandconsolidatesgender,andifgenderhierarchypresupposesanoperativenotionofgender,thengenderiswhatcausesgender,andtheformulationculminatesintautologyItmaybethatMacKinnonwantsmerelytooutlinetheselfreproducingmechanismofgenderhierarchy,butthisisnotwhatshehassaidIs“genderhierarchy”sufficienttoexplaintheconditionsfortheproductionofgenderTowhatextentdoesgenderhierarchyserveamoreorlesscompulsoryheterosexuality,andhowoftenaregendernormspolicedpreciselyintheserviceofshoringupheterosexualhegemonyKatherineFranke,acontemporarylegaltheorist,makesinnovativeuseofbothfeministandqueerperspectivestonotethatbyassumingtheprimacyofgenderhierarchytotheproductionofgender,MacKinnonalsoacceptsapresumptivelyheterosexualmodelforthinkingaboutsexualityFrankeoffersanalternativemodelofgenderGenderTroublexiidiscriminationtoMacKinnon’s,effectivelyarguingthatsexualharassmentistheparadigmaticallegoryfortheproductionofgenderNotalldiscriminationcanbeunderstoodasharassmentTheactofharassmentmaybeoneinwhichapersonis“made”intoacertaingenderButthereareotherswaysofenforcinggenderaswellThus,forFranke,itisimportanttomakeaprovisionaldistinctionbetweengenderandsexualdiscriminationGaypeople,forinstance,maybediscriminatedagainstinpositionsofemploymentbecausetheyfailto“appear”inaccordancewithacceptedgenderednormsAndthesexualharassmentofgaypeoplemaywelltakeplacenotintheserviceofshoringupgenderhierarchy,butinpromotinggendernormativityWhereasMacKinnonoffersapowerfulcritiqueofsexualharassment,sheinstitutesaregulationofanotherkind:tohaveagendermeanstohaveenteredalreadyintoaheterosexualrelationshipofsubordinationAtananalyticlevel,shemakesanequationthatresonateswithsomedominantformsofhomophobicargumentOnesuchviewprescribesandcondonesthesexualorderingofgender,maintainingthatmenwhoaremenwillbestraight,womenwhoarewomenwillbestraightThereisanothersetofviews,Franke’sincluded,whichoffersacritiquepreciselyofthisformofgenderregulationThereisthusadifferencebetweensexistandfeministviewsontherelationbetweengenderandsexuality:thesexistclaimsthatawomanonlyexhibitsherwomannessintheactofheterosexualcoitusinwhichhersubordinationbecomesherpleasure(anessenceemanatesandisconfirmedinthesexualizedsubordinationofwomen)afeministviewarguesthatgendershouldbeoverthrown,eliminated,orrenderedfatallyambiguouspreciselybecauseitisalwaysasignofsubordinationforwomenThelatteracceptsthepoweroftheformer’sorthodoxdescription,acceptsthattheformer’sdescriptionalreadyoperatesaspowerfulideology,butseekstoopposeitIbelaborthispointbecausesomequeertheoristshavedrawnananalyticdistinctionbetweengenderandsexuality,refusingacausalorstructurallinkbetweenthemThismakesgoodsensefromonePrefacexiiiperspective:ifwhatismeantbythisdistinctionisthatheterosexualnormativityoughtnottoordergender,andthatsuchorderingoughttobeopposed,IamfirmlyinfavorofthisviewIf,however,whatismeantbythisisthat(descriptivelyspeaking),thereisnosexualregulationofgender,thenIthinkanimportant,butnotexclusive,dimensionofhowhomophobiaworksisgoingunrecognizedbythosewhoareclearlymosteagertocombatitItisimportantformetoconcede,however,thattheperformanceofgendersubversioncanindicatenothingaboutsexualityorsexualpracticeGendercanberenderedambiguouswithoutdisturbingorreorientingnormativesexualityatallSometimesgenderambiguitycanoperatepreciselytocontainordeflectnonnormativesexualpracticeandtherebyworktokeepnormativesexualityintactThus,nocorrelationcanbedrawn,forinstance,betweendragortransgenderandsexualpractice,andthedistributionofhetero,bi,andhomoinclinationscannotbepredictablymappedontothetravelsofgenderbendingorchangingMuchofmyworkinrecentyearshasbeendevotedtoclarifyingandrevisingthetheoryofperformativitythatisoutlinedinGenderTroubleItisdifficulttosaypreciselywhatperformativityisnotonlybecausemyownviewsonwhat“performativity”mightmeanhavechangedovertime,mostofteninresponsetoexcellentcriticisms,butbecausesomanyothershavetakenitupandgivenittheirownformulationsIoriginallytookmyclueonhowtoreadtheperformativityofgenderfromJacquesDerrida’sreadingofKafka’s“BeforetheLaw”Theretheonewhowaitsforthelaw,sitsbeforethedoorofthelaw,attributesacertainforcetothelawforwhichonewaitsTheanticipationofanauthoritativedisclosureofmeaningisthemeansbywhichthatauthorityisattributedandinstalled:theanticipationconjuresitsobjectIwonderedwhetherwedonotlaborunderasimilarexpectationconcerninggender,thatitoperatesasaninterioressencethatmightbedisclosed,anexpectationthatendsupproducingtheveryphenomenonthatitanticipatesInthefirstinstance,then,theperformativityofgenderrevolvesaroundthismetalepsis,thewayinwhichGenderTroublexivtheanticipationofagenderedessenceproducesthatwhichitpositsasoutsideitselfSecondly,performativityisnotasingularact,butarepetitionandaritual,whichachievesitseffectsthroughitsnaturalizationinthecontextofabody,understood,inpart,asaculturallysustainedtemporaldurationSeveralimport

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性别麻烦—女性主义与身份的颠覆(英文版) 朱迪思·巴特勒著

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