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The effects of public housing on internal mobility in Hong Kong.pdf

The effects of public housing o…

上传者: fengqiyaoye 2013-10-10 评分 4.5 0 93 13 424 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《The effects of public housing on internal mobility in Hong Kongpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含rnlichopantchanimisalstheElsevierIncAllrightsreservedlesuedamrcesecausheir符等。

rnlichopantchanimisalstheElsevierIncAllrightsreservedlesuedamrcesecausheirpthefirstprospectivetenantWhenrentsarefixedatsubsicientincentiveforsellerstoproducethegoodTheresultingundersupplyofthesubsidizedgoodleadstothefamous‘‘deadweightloss’’illustratedineconomicstextbooksLesswellrecognizedisthefactthatcompetitionforthepricesubsidygenerallyleadstothedissipationofvalueBarzel()showshowequilibriumcanbeachievedthroughsociallywastefulrationingbywaitingInthecontextofpublichousing,prospectivetenantsmay$seefrontmatterElsevierIncAllrightsreservedqWethanktheEditorandananonymousrefereeforusefulcommentsandsuggestionsthatsignificantlyimprovedthequalityofthepaperCorrespondingauthorAddress:DepartmentofMarketingInternationalBusiness,LingnanUniversity,TuenMun,HongKong,ChinaFax:Emailaddress:hkluilneduhk(HKLui)JournalofHousingEconomics()–ContentslistsavailableatScienceDirectJournalofHousijournalhomepage:wwweldoi:jjhesider,forexample,twootherwiseidenticalhousingflatsavailableforallocationbetweentwoprospectivetenantsFlatAislocatedinamoredesirableneighborhoodthanFlatB,sobothprospectivetenantsarewillingtopayapremiumrentforFlatASupposethefirstpersonalsohappenstoworkinthesameneighborhoodasthelocationofFlatA,andheispreparedtopayahigherpremiumforFlatAthanisthesecondprospectivetenantInanopenmarket,FlatAwillbeallocatedtothepersonwhovaluesitmore,namelymechanismThepurposeofthispaperistostudysomeoftheinefficienciesinducedbytheuseofnonpricemethodsofallocationintheprovisionofpublichousinginHongKongThemisallocationofresourcesundernonpricemethodsofallocationdrawsfromalargeandwellestablishedliteratureineconomics(eg,Cheung,Weitzman,Suen,GlaeserandLuttmer,)Whenagoodisallocatedatbelowmarketprice,thereisinsuffiKeywords:PublichousingMobilityAllocativeinefficienciesIntroductionPublichousingrepresentsasizabcostandithastobestrictlyrationusersWhenrationingoccurs,resoucatedtotheirmostvaluableusesbeffectivelyconveytheintensityoftbsidytohousingongcompetingmaynotbealloepeoplecannotreferencesCondizedlevelsandflatsareallocatedbynonmarketmeans,however,bothprospectivetenantswillreveal(truthfully)thattheypreferFlatAtoFlatBThereisnomeanstoadministrativelydeterminewhichofthetwoisthehighervalueuserforthemoredesirableflatInpractice,subsidizedhousingisoftenallocatedonthebasisofstatedpreferencessupplementedbysomelotteryorqueuingRIHthanprivatehousingoccupants,butconditionalonmoving,theyaremorelikelytorelocatefartherawayfromtheiroriginalplaceofresidenceTheyarealsolesslikelytoworkinthesameplaceastheyliveTheeffectsofpublichousingoninteHonKwongLui,WingSuenLingnanUniversity,ChinaTheUniversityofHongKong,ChinaarticleinfoArticlehistory:ReceivedJuneAvailableonlineNovemberJELCode:abstractTherationingofpubunitsandtheiroccuthroughapricemeperspectiveofthemisallocationaffectalmobilityinHongKongqusingreducestheefficiencyofthematchbetweenpublichousings,ascompetinguserscannoteffectivelyconveytheirpreferencessmThisstudyinvestigatesthecostsofpublichousingfromthelocationofhousingunitstohouseholdsandexamineshowthisirlivesWeshowthatpublichousingoccupantsarelessmobilengEconomicsseviercomlocatejhecdistorttheirlaborsupplydecisionslesttheirincomeexceedstheeligibilitythreshold,whileincumbenttenantsmaychoosetoinefficientlystayintheirflatsuponchangHKLui,WSuenJournalofHousingEconomics()–ingcircumstanceslesttheylosethevaluablesubsidyYetathirdsourceofinefficiencyisthat,whenindividualscannotexpresstheirintensityofpreferencesthroughtheirwillingnesstopay,nonpricemethodsofallocationgenerallyfailtoallocatescarceresourcestothehighestvalueusersIfaflatwortharentalofHK$,amonthisbeingrentedatHK$,anyprospectivetenantwhosevaluefortheflatexceedsHK$willbeinterestedinbiddingforitDependingontheallocationmethodbeingadopted,theflatmaywellendupinthehandsofsomeonewhosevalueforitiswellbelowHK$,DeaconandSonstelie(,)andSuen()analyzethewelfarecostsarisingfromsuchmisallocationofresourceswhenrationingisbywaitingInamorerecentstudy,GlaeserandLuttmer()studythemisallocationofhousinginNewYorkCityunderrentcontrolTheyfindthatthematchingofthecharacteristicsoftenantstothecharacteristicsoftheirhousingunitsisdistortedforflatsunderrentcontrolSincerentcontrolalsorepresentsahousingsubsidytoexistingtenants,GlaeserandLuttmer’s()insightisequallyapplicabletotheanalysisofgovernmentsubsidizedhousingInHongKong,publichousingaffectsalargefractionofthepopulationIn,ofthehouseholdsweretenantsingovernmentprovidedhousing,andanotherownedsubsidizedhousingthroughtheHomeOwnershipSchemeandrelatedprograms(HongKongHousingAuthority,a)CriticsofpublichousingpolicyoftenfocusonthefiscalburdenimposedbysuchmassivesubsidiesLesswellresearchedarecostsfromtheallocativeinefficienciesinducedbyrationingsubsidizedhousingAlthoughthesecostsmaybelesstangiblethanthedirectfiscalcosts,theycanhaveamoreimmediateimpactonpeople’severydaylivesInthispaper,wefocusondistortionsonlocationchoicesinducedbypublichousingPublichousingbenefitstendtotiedowntenantstotheircurrentlocationresidentsinpublichousingareexpectedtobelesslikelytomovetomoreconvenientlocationsormoresuitablehousingunitsevenaftertheirlifecircumstanceshavechangedThishypothesisisrelatedtotheliteratureonthe‘‘joblock’’effectonjobmobility(eg,Madrian,GilleskieandLutz,Adams,BansakandRaphael,)Thatliteratureexaminestheeffectofemployerprovidedhealthinsuranceonjobmobility,thehypothesisbeingthatworkersarereluctanttoswitchtheirjobslesttheylosetheirinsurancecoverageInasimilarvein,weexaminethehypothesisthatpublichousingbenefitsdeterinternalmobilitybecauseoccupantsdonotwanttolosetheirsubstantialhousingsubsidyIntheurbanstudiesliterature,thereisasubstantialbodyofworkdocumentingtheempiricalpatternsofinternalmigration(eg,Greenwood,Elliott,Painter,)BoyleandShen()studytheeffectofpublic(council)housingoninternalmigrationinBritainIftheywanttomovetoanothersubsidizedunit,theadministrativehurdlesandwaitingtimearesubstantialbecauseofthepersistentshortageinducedbybelowmarketpricesandfindthatpublichousingoccupantsarelesslikelytomigratelongdistancesoutsidetheareaofthelocalcouncilInarecentpaper,Kimetal()demonstratethattransportrelatedattributeshavesignificantimpactsonresidentiallocationchoiceandindividualspreferlocationswithacombinationofshortercommutingtime,lowertransportcosts,lowerdensityandhigherqualityofschoolIntheUnitedStates,publichousingcomplexesareoftenclusteredincentralcitylocationswithhighconcentrationofpoverty(Quigley,)Manybelievethatlivinginsuchneighborhoodslimitsone’seconomicopportunity(Wilson,)Toreduceeconomicsegregationinducedbyprojectbasedpublichousingprovision,theUSDepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopmenthasexperimentedwithtenantbasedrentalsubsidiestoencouragethemtomovefromhighpovertytolowpovertyareas(eg,theMovingtoOpportunityProgram)Johnsonetal()reportthatfamilieswhotakeadvantageoftheseprogramstomovetolowpovertyareasexperiencereductionsinwelfaredependenceandimprovementsinhealthstatusThereisalsoevidencethatsuchmovesmayimprovechildren’sschoolingoutcomesandreducetheirproblembehaviors(seealsoFeinsandShroder,Ludwigetal,RosenbaumandHarris,)Inadditiontothelackofinternalmobility,anothermanifestationofthedistortionsinlocationchoicesinducedbypublichousingisthemismatchbetweenplaceofresidenceandplaceofworkAcompetitiverentalmarketsolvestheefficientassignmentproblemashousingunitsgototheirhighestvalueusers(KoopmansandBeckmann,)ThepricesystemfailstoperformthisfunctionwhenrentsforpublichousingunitsarefixedandtheallocationofunitsinexcessdemandisdeterminedbynonpricemeansMoreover,evenwhenthereisnoinitialmismatchbetweenplaceofresidenceandplaceofwork,people’scircumstanceschangeWhencircumstances(eg,changetoanewjob)prescribemovingtoanotherarea,thelackofmobilityonthepartofpublichousingtenantsmayhindertheoptimalreallocationofresourcesThedeterminationofresidentialandworklocationisawellresearchedtopicinurbaneconomics(eg,Vickerman,Siegel,Simpson,Kan,Kan,)Alsoofsomerelevancetoourpresentworkistheliteratureonthe‘‘spatialmismatchhypothesis’’ofKain()Kain’sworkwasoriginallyrelatedtohowresidentialsegregationadverselyaffectedtheemploymentopportunitiesofblacksintheUnitedStates(seealsoHoltzer())AlthoughresidentialsegregationbyraceisnotamajorproblemforHongKong,thefactthatpublichousingestatesareoftenlocatedfarfromcentersofeconomicactivitiesmayhaveimplicationsforthemismatchbetweenplaceofresidenceandplaceofworkMoreover,housingtenurealsoplaysanimportantroleindeterminingresidentialmobilityandemployment(eg,IoannidesandKan,Kan,Dohmen,)Battuetal()studytheeffectsofhousingtenureonindividuals’jobandunemploymentdurationsintheUnitedKingdomTheyarguethathomeownershipandpublicrentalhousingimposemoreconstraintonemployedandunemployed,respectivelyMunchetal()arguethathomeownershiphasanegativeeffectontheunemploymentrisklikelythantheirprivatehousingcounterpartstohavetoapplicants,applicantscanonlychooseonedistrictfromamongthethreenonurbanareasfortheirfuturehousingallocationAsofJuly,thereweremorethan,applicantsonthewaitinglist(HongKongHousingAuthority,b)TheHousingAuthoritysetsatargetofmaintainingtheaveragewaitingtimeatyearsIntheprocessofpublichousingallocation,applicationsareprocessedstrictlyinaccordancewiththeapplicationsequencenumbersandtheapplicants’choicesofdistrictHKLui,WSuenJournalofHousingEconomics()–moveoutsidetheiroriginaldistrictorregionofresidenceTheyarealsolesslikelytoworkinthesameplaceastheyliveOurconclusionsarebasedonprobitregressionsofmobilityandtravelbehaviorsonpublicoccupancystatusWetrytocontrolforotherdeterminantsofsuchbehaviorsbyincludinganextensivesetofcontrolvariablesinourregressionsManyofourregressionmodelsareestimatedusinghundredsofvariablesHowever,wecannotexcludethepossibilitythattherearesomeremainingunobserveddifferencesacrossoccupancygroupsthataffectmobilityTheempiricalresultspresentedinthispapershouldbeinterpretedwiththiscaveatinmindAbriefreviewofthepublichousingallocationsystemInHongKongthereareapproximatelytwomillionpeople(aboutofHongKong’spopulation)livingin,publicrentalflatsprovidedbytheHousingAuthority(HongKongHousingAuthority,b)PublichousingapplicantsortheirfamilymembersmustnotdirectlyorindirectlyownorcoownanydomesticpropertyMoreover,applicantsaresubjecttoincomeandtotalnetassetvaluelimitsaslaiddownbytheHousingAuthorityTheHousingAuthoritymaintainsawaitinglistofpublicrentalhousingapplicantsFromthislist,eligibleapplicantsareofferedaccommodationinpublicrentalhousingestatesWhenanapplicant’sturncomes,theapplicantwillbegivenamaximumofthreeoffers(oneoptionineachoffer)ofpublicrentalhousinginthedistrictofhisherchoiceTheapplicationwillbecancellediftheapplicantfailstoprovideacceptablereasonforrefusingallthethreehousingoffers(HongKongHousingAuthority,b)Publicrentalhousingestatesaregroupedintofourbroaddistricts,namelyUrban,ExtendedUrban,theNewTerritories,andtheIslandsSincethereareinsufficientpublicrentalhousingunitsintheUrbandistrictthatcanbeallocatedtoallandapositiveimpactonwagesHuangandDeng()showthathousingtenurehasconsistentbutdifferenteffectsonmobilityovertimeinChinaHeldermanetal()arguethatthereisadecreaseintheeffectofhomeownershiponresidentialmobilitygivenarapidriseinhomeownershipintheNetherlandsMunchetal()suggestthathomeownershiphampersthepropensitytomoveforjobreasonsbutimprovesthechancesoffindinglocaljobsAstheavailabilityofsubsidizedsaleflatsinHongKongismorerestrictivethanthatofprivatesector,publichomeownerswillfaceahigherdistortioninlocationchoicethanprivatecounterpartsThismayalsohaveimplicationsforthemismatchbetweenplaceofresidenceandplaceofworkamonghomeownersInthispaper,weusethecensussampleofHongKongtoexaminetheallocativeinefficienciesinducedbyrationingsubsidizedhousingandhowthismisallocationaffectsthesetenants’behaviorconcerninginternalmobilityandtraveltoworkTheempiricalresultssuggestthatpublichousingoccupantsaremoreimmobileandarelesslikelytoworkinthesamedistrictorregionastheirplaceofresidencethantheirprivatehousingcounterpartsMoreover,conditionalonmoving,publichousingoccupantsaremoreHowever,thosewhofulfilltheeligibilitycriteriaoftheExpressFlatAllocationSchememayhaveanearlierchancetobeallocatedpublicrentalhousingunitsTherearealsoseparatecriteriaandallocationschemesforpeopleaffectedbysquatterclearanceandpublichousingredevelopmentAccordingtoexistingpublichousingpolicies,publichousingtenantsmayapplyforflattransferundervarioussituationssuchasincreasedfamilysize,specialmedicalorsocialgrounds,ormajorimprovementorredevelopmentprogramsimplementedbytheHousingAuthority(HongKongHousingAuthority,c)Wheneverpossible,eligibletenantswillbetransferredtosuitableflatswithinthesameestateTenantsmayalsoapplyforspecialtransfertoanotherestateDuetopersistentshortageofpublicrentalhousingunits,evenifatenantiseligibleforflattransfer,thewaitingtimecanbequitelongandthereisnoguaranteethatthenewflatwillmatchthetenant’spreferencesBesidesapplyingforapublicrentalhousingunit,eligiblehouseholdscanalsoapplytobuysubsidizedflatsthroughtheHomeOwnershipScheme(HOS)InsettingthepriceofHOSflats,theHousingAuthorityfollowsthreeguidingprinciples:(i)themortgagetoincomeratioshouldnotbemorethan(ii)oftheflatsshouldbeaffordabletothetargetgroupand(iii)flatsshouldbeofferedatadiscountofmarketvalueStartingfromtherdyearofoccupancy,HOSflatownersmayselltheirflatsintheopenmarketafterpayingapremiumtotheHousingAuthorityThepremiumisbasicallyequaltotheprevailingmarketvaluemultipliedbythediscountenjoyedbytheowneratthetimeofpurchaseForexample,iftheprevailingmarketvalueofaHOSflatisHK$,andtheflatwasofferedatadiscountofatthetimeofpurchase,thenthepremiumisequaltoHK$,OwnersofHOSflatscanalsoselltheirflatstoexistingpublicrentalhousingtenantsInthiscase,theoriginalHOSownerwillnotberequiredtopaythepremiumtotheHousingAuthoritybeforesellingtheflat,butthepurchaserwillinherittheliabilitytopaythepremiumshouldheorsheseektoselltheflatintheopenmarketlateronWiththeserestrictionsinplace,thesecondarymarketforHOSflatsisquiteinactiveInthepast,publichousingtenantscouldparticipateintheTenantMutualExchangeScheme,whichwouldarrangeamaximumoffourmatchesinordertoenablethemtoexchangetheirflatsHowever,theschemeceasedoperationinearlyItshouldbenotedthatunauthorizedexchangesamongtenantsareregardedasbreachoftenancyagreements,resultinginterminationoftheirtenanciesDuetothecollapseofthepropertymarket,thegovernmentsuspendedtheproductionandsaleofHOSflatsindefinitelyfromonwardsHKLui,WSuenJournalofHousingEconomics()–EmpiricalframeworkThedatasetweuseinthisstudyisarandomsubsampleoftheHongKongPopulationCensusRelyingoninformationfromthepopulationcensusfile,wecomparethepatternofinternalmobilitybetweenpublichousingandprivatehousingoccupantsAstudyofpublichousinginHongKong(WongandLiu,)adoptsasimilarapproach,butthefocusofthatstudyisonthedistortioninthelevelofhousingconsumptionWong()elaboratesthisandotherdistortionsinducedbypublichousing,andmakesacaseforprivatizationByintroducinganotherdimensiontothemisallocationproblem(namely,mobilityandlocationchoice),ourstudyaddstothedebateconcerningvariouspolicyalternativessuchasprivatizationorprivatemarketrentsubsidyAlthoughhousingtenureplaysanimportantroleinmobility,thecrosssectionaldatasetusedinthisstudydoesnotcontainsadequateinformationformoreindepthanalysisHence,thispapershouldbereadwiththislimitationinmindBecauseofapersistentshortageofsubsidizedhousing,itismuchmoredifficultforapublichousingtenanttoobtainrelocationtoanotherpublichousingunitthanforaprivatehousingoccupanttomovetoanotherflatMoreover,itisoftenanunrealisticoptionforpublichousingtenantstomovetoaprivateflatbecausedoingsoentailslosingasubstantialgovernmentsubsidyThisissimilartotheideaofthe‘‘joblock’’effectinlaboreconomics(Madrian,GruberandMadrian,)Inthe‘‘joblock’’effect,onemayarguethatthevalueofhealthinsuranceprovidedbytheemployerisnotapuresubsidybecauseofpossiblecompensatingwagedifferencesInthecaseofgovernmenthousing,thelowrentalisindeedasubsidyWethereforeexpectthe‘‘housinglock’’effectoninternalmigrationtobeevenstrongerthanthe‘‘joblock’’effectonjobmobilityWehypothesizethat,otherthingsequal,publichousingoccupantsaremoreimmobilethanprivatehousingoccupants(HypothesisI)WearguethatpublichousingoccupantsarelessmobilethanprivatehousingoccupantsbecausetherangeofoptionsavailabletothemismorelimitedBythesamelogic,ifwecomparepeoplewhoactuallymadeamove,weexpecttofindthatatenantinpublichousingislesslikelytomovetoaunitthatmatcheshispreferencesTherefore,c

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