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首页 Family labor supply, commuting time, and reside…

Family labor supply, commuting time, and residential decisions.pdf

Family labor supply, commuting …

上传者: fengqiyaoye 2013-10-10 评分 4.5 0 93 13 423 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Family labor supply, commuting time, and residential decisionspdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含Familylaborsupply,commutingtime,oftheTokyoMetropolitanAreaqsity,KiRamlltim符等。

Familylaborsupply,commutingtime,oftheTokyoMetropolitanAreaqsity,KiRamlltimn’spaaregatedtreseneTokSeveralstudieshaveinvestigatedtherelationshipbetweenwomen’semploymentandhousingpurchasesYoshikawaandOhtake(),Fortin(),andDelBocaandLusardi()empiricallyexaminehowtheworking$seefrontmatterElsevierIncAllrightsreservedbereleasedduetothetermsofusageofthedataIthankKazuyasuSakamoto,YasuhiroSato,andseminarparticipantsatNagoyaUniversityandToyamaUniversityforhelpfulcommentsThispaperwaspresentedattheSpringMeetingoftheJapaneseEconomicAssociationatKyotoUniversity(June,)andFESAMESMeetingatUniversityofTokyo(August,)RemainingerrorsaremyownThisresearchissupportedbytheJapanSocietyforPromotionofScienceGrantinAidforScientificResearch(GrantNumberBandC)Fax:Emailaddress:abeyeconhokudaiacjpComptonandPollak()alsoshowthattheconcentrationofpowercouplesinMSAsdeclinedslightlybetweenandJournalofHousingEconomics()–ContentslistsavailableatScienceDirectJournalofHousingEconomicsjournalhomepage:wwweldoi:jjheAreainJapanIpresentanoptimizingmodeloffamilylaborsupplyandresidentialchoicesthatincorporatesanimportantinstitutionalfeatureoftheJapaneselabormarket:thedecisionbywomentoworkfulltimeorparttimeTheTokyoMetropolitanAreaisalsouniqueinthatrealtoTheyattributethischangetothecolocationproblem,ie,thedifficultyoffindingaresidenceconvenienttobothspouses’workplacesIncontrast,ComptonandPollak()analyzepaneldataandshowthatpowercouplesarenomorelikelythanothertypestomigratetolargemetropolitanareasAccordingly,theyarguethatcolocationisnotamajorcauseoftheconcentrationofpowercouplesinlargeMSAsNeitherofthesestudies,however,isveryexplicitabouttherelationshipbetweenresidentialdecisionsandhousingpricesqThispaperusesmicrodataoftheEmploymentStatusSurvey(ESS)madeavailablethroughtheMinistryofInternalAffairsandCommunicationofJapanunderArticleoftheStatisticsActMicrodatacannotKeywords:CommutingFamilylaborsupplyParttimeworkIntroductionHowiswomen’semploymentrelcaldistributionofhouseholdsThepthisquestioninaspecificcontext:thothegeographitpaperexploresyoMetropolitanestatepricesaremuchhigherforlocationsclosetotheCentralBusinessDistrict(CBD)CostaandKahn()showthathighlyeducated‘‘powercouples’’intheUnitedStatesbecamemorelikelytolocateintheMetropolitanStatisticalAreas(MSAs)fromJELclassification:JRgeststhathighcommutingcostscouldbeoneofthemainobstaclesforwomen’sfulltimeemploymentinplacesliketheTokyoMetropolitanAreaElsevierIncAllrightsreservedYukikoAbeGraduateSchoolofEconomicsandBusinessAdministration,HokkaidoUniverarticleinfoArticlehistory:ReceivedJanuaryAvailableonlineJanuaryabstractInthispaper,Ibuildincorporatesthefuexplainwhywomecantlyinareasthatandresidentialdecisions:ThecasetaNishi,Kitaku,Sapporo,JapanodeloffamilylaborsupplyandresidentialchoicesthatexplicitlyeorparttimeworkdecisionsofmarriedwomenThemodelcanrticipationpatternsinfulltimeandparttimeworkvarysignifieographicallyclosebutdifferinrealestatepricesThemodelsugseviercomlocatejhecfactorsmakefulltimeandparttimeworkverydistinct,whereasthemiddlegroundbetweenthesetwooptionsisalmostnonexistentThemodelshowsthatthehousingmarketoperatesinawaytofurtherstrengthenthisdiscretefeatureinthelabormarketDiscretenessinthelabormarketcansometimesbemitigatedbyother‘‘markets’’Forinstance,ifannualfulltimeearningsarehigherthanparttimeearnings,inamultiperiodsettingfulltimeworkersretireearlybutparttimeworkersretirelateThenlifetimeearningsfromthetwoTheremainderofthepaperisorganizedasfollowsSecYAbeJournalofHousingEconomics()–statusofmarriedwomenisrelatedtohousingpurchasesbytheirhouseholdsIntheregionalscienceliterature,Mok()askswhetherincomesofspousesarepooledornotindecidinghousinglocationUsingtheCanadianCensusdatafortheTorontoMetropolitanArea,shefindsthatincomesarenotpooledforcoupleswithoutchildrenIwataandTamada()buildamodelofcommutingbehaviorofmarriedwomenandargueforanonmonotonicrelationshipbetweenthewagerateofworkingmarriedwomenandtheircommutingtimeSakanishi(,)buildsamodelinwhichhouseholdlocationisdeterminedbythehusband’schoiceandthewifechoosesheremploymentstatusgiventhehusband’slocationInthispaper,IpresentamodeloffamilylaborsupplythatpermitsmarriedwomentochoosefromfulltimeandparttimejobopportunitiesThecommutingcosts,wagelevels,andworkinghoursforthetwoemploymentoptionsareexplicitlymodeledsoastoreflecttherealconstraintsfacedbycouplesinJapanThemodelexplainswhythedistributionofwomen’semploymentstatusdifferssignificantlyacrossprefecturesintheTokyoMetropolitanAreaAlthoughthetheoreticalmodelisconstructedtoexplainthefactsfortheTokyoMetropolitanArea,theimplicationsofthemodelarebroadlyconsistentwithempiricalpatternsobservedintheNewYorkMetropolitanArea:evidencefromtheNewYorkareaisreportedintheAppendixThepapermakestwonovelcontributionstotheliteratureFirst,itexplicitlyconsiderstheoptimizationovermarriedwomen’swork(eitherfulltimeorparttime)andresidentiallocationInmodelingthis,the‘‘discreteness’’ofthesetwochoicesisparticularlyemphasizedThiselementofthemodelisespeciallyrelevantintheTokyoMetropolitanArea,wherefulltimeworkismorecommonamongwomenlivingclosetotheCBDthanamongwomenlivinginthesuburbsSuchregionaldifferencesinparticipationarenotobservedformen(Section)Bymodelingthefamily’shousinglocationandlaborsupplydecisionssimultaneously,thismodelprovidesanaturalexplanationforsuchpatternsSecond,thepaperhighlightstheimportanceofcommutingcostsinunderstandingwomen’sworkinJapanSeveralimportantmeasures(legalandotherwise)topromotewomen’sparticipationintheworkplacehavebeenadoptedinJapaninrecentdecades(eg,theEqualEmploymentOpportunityLaw,theMaternityLeaveLaw,andvariouspoliciestomakebalancingworkandfamilyeasier)Nonetheless,theproportionofwomenworkinginregularfulltimejobsinJapanhasnotincreasedmuch,especiallyoverageMostoftheincreaseinwomen’semploymentaftermiddleagehastakentheformofnonregular,parttimework(Abe,inpress)Commutingcosts(includingthetimeandenergynecessaryforcommuting)havenotfallenmuchforfemaleworkersinthepastseveraldecades,whichmayexplainthesluggishincreaseinregularfulltimeemploymentforwomenTheuniqueaspectofthemodelisthatitexplicitlyincorporatesthediscretenessofthelabormarketintermsoffulltimeorparttimestatusInJapan,fulltimewagesaremuchhigherthanparttimewagesFurthermore,itisdifficultforwomenwholeftthelaborforceatchildbearingagetoreturntoregularemployment(Ueda,)ThesetionpresentsstylizedfactsonregionaldifferencesinlabormarketparticipationSectionpresentsamodelthatexplainsthestylizedfactsSectionprovidesnumericalexamplesofthemodelandSectionconcludesTheAppendixreportsevidencefromtheNewYorkMetropolitanAreaStylizedfactsDiscretenessinwomen’semploymentchoices:fulltimeandparttimeworkintheJapaneselabormarketTointroducethestylizedfactstobeexplainedinthetheoreticalmodel,IbeginwithanoverviewoffulltimeandparttimeworkintheJapaneselabormarketInsubsectionsand,participationinthetwotypesofwage–salaryearnersisconsidered:()regularfulltimeemployeesand()parttimeandcasualemployeesParttimeandcasualemployeescomprisethetypicalnonregularworkforceinJapanandtheirnumbershaveincreaseddramaticallyinrecentdecadesAccordingtotheESS,amongwomenaged–years,thenumberofparttimeorcasualworkerswasmillioninandAbe(),albeitinadifferentsettingfromthispaper,presentsamodelthatexplainsthispointInthedatausedinthispaper,parttimeandcasualarethetermsforemploymentstatusintheworkplaceBothparttimeandcasualemployeesarenonregularworkersThereisnocleardistinctionintasksorworkingconditionsforthetwotypesofworkers,althoughcasualworkersaregenerallyyoungerthanparttimeworkersStudentswhoworkparttimenormallyworkundercasualstatusInthequestionnaireoftheEmploymentStatusSurvey(ESS,StatisticsBureau,MinistryofInternalAffairsandCommunicationsofJapan),casualworkersarereferredtoas‘‘arbeitworkers’’employmentstatusesaremoreequalizedthanforsingleperiodearnings,implyingthatintertemporalsubstitutionmitigatesdiscretenessinasingleperiodWhatisuniqueaboutthehousingmarketinthispaperisthatitoperatestomagnifythediscretenessinthelabormarketThepropertywherebyhighwageworkersliveclosetotheCBDwhereaslowwageworkerslivefartherfromtheCBDiscommoninmanymonocentricmodelsbecausethebidrentgradientishigherforhighwageearnersBycontrast,themodelinthispaperassumesthatallmenworkattheCBDwhilewomenhavetheoptiontoengageinparttimeemploymentforwhichthecommutingtimeiszeroInthismodel,thedistancefromtheCBDcreateslargerdifferencesonwomen’sbehaviorthanformen’sThelargediscrepancyinwomen’sbehavioriscausedbythediscretenessinthelabormarket,magnifiedbythehousingmarketRegularParttimearningurce:oftheinJapYAbeJournalofHousingEconomics()–millioninRegularemployeesarethosewithnotermlimitsintheiremploymentcontractsParttimeandcasualemployeestypicallyholdacontractofnolongerthanyearinduration,althoughsuchcontractsareoftenrenewedmultipletimesRegularemployeesareeligibleforemployerprovidedfringebenefits,includingpublicpensioncontributions,acorporatepension,andemployerprovidedhealthinsuranceparttimeandcasualemployeesaremuchlesslikelytoobtainsuchcoverageRegularemployeesnormallyworkhweekormore,whereasparttimeandcasualemployeesworkfewerhoursHourlywageratesarehigherforregularemployeesthanforparttimeemployeesaccordingtothestatisticsreportedinAbeandTanaka(),theparttimefulltimewageratioforfemaleworkersinwasHereafter,theterm‘‘parttimeworkers’’denotesbothparttimeandcasualworkersAlthoughtheparttimefulltimewagegapisonesourceofthediscretenessbetweenthetwooptions,amoreshareAnnualeFigEarningsdistributionsofregularandparttimefemaleemployeesSointheESS,andthehorizontalaxisofthefigurecorrespondstothemidpointthatappearinthefigurearenotevenlyspacedDataarefromallregionsimportantsourceisprobablythesocalledmillionyenceilingTheJapanesetaxandSocialSecuritysystem,aswellasthefringebenefitpoliciesofemployers,createsanenvironmentinwhichmarriedwomenwhoaredependentsoftheirhusbandshaveastrongincentivetorestricttheirearningstolessthanmillionyen(forrecentevidenceonthis,see,eg,NagaseandNawata,Akabayashi,SakataandMcKenzie,Abe,)Asaresult,theannualearningsofmarriedwomenarequitedifferentdependingontheiremploymentstatusFigshowstheearningsdistributionsforfulltimeandparttimeworkingwomenfromtheESSinParttimeearningsareheavilyconcentratedaroundmillionyen,whereasfulltimeearningsshownosuchaconcentrationEarningsarehigherforfulltimethanforparttimeworkersintheESSdatausedinFig,theaverageearningsofDuringthesameperiod,thenumberoffemaleregularworkersinthesameagerangechangedfromtomillionAnextensiveliteratureonparttimejobsinJapanprovidesevidenceoftheseissuessee,eg,HousemanandOsawa(,),Abe(),GastonandKishi()femalefulltimeemployeesaremillionyen,whereasthoseoffemaleparttimeemployeesaremillionFurthermore,offemaleparttimeemployeeshaveearningsoflessthanmillionyen,whereasoffemaleregularemployeesearnlessthanthisamountThesearethemainfeaturesofthediscretenessinthetwoemploymentchoicesforwomeninJapanParticipationinfulltimeandparttimeworkbyregionTounderstandthefeaturesofregionalvariationsinwomen’sparticipation,IusethedatafromtheESSforTheESSisahouseholdsurveyandtheregionbasedstatisticsreportedherearebasedontheplaceofresidence(notonplaceofwork)IcomparetheparticipationpatternsforthefourprefecturesintheTokyoMetropolitanArea:Saitama,Chiba,Tokyo,andKanagawaTokyoprefectureincludestheTokyos(inmillion)EES(publishedversion)Notes:TheearningsaresurveyedinintervalsearningsintervalSincetheintervalsarenotevenlyspaced,themidpointsanCBDtheotherthreeprefecturesaregenerallysuburban,althoughtheydocontainsomelargecitiessuchasSaitama(inSaitamaprefecture),YokohamaandKawasaki(inKanagawaprefecture)Inthefollowingdiscussion,threemeasuresofparticipationareused:theemploymenttopopulationratio(E–Pratio),theregularemploymentratio,andtheparttimeemploymentratioTheregularemploymentratioisthenumberofregularemployeesdividedbythepopulation,forwhichregularemployeesincluderegularwageandsalaryearners,aswellasexecutivesofprivatecorporationsTheparttimeemploymentratioisthenumberofparttimeandcasualemployeesdividedbythepopulationThethreemeasuresareplottedagainstageformarriedwomen(FigA–C)andtheregularemploymentratioforTheESSisconductedeveryyearsbytheMinistryofInternalAffairsandCommunicationsofJapanIn,thesurveywasconductedforadultsinabout,householdsthesizeoftheoriginalsamplewasapproximatelymillionpersonsagedandoverTheESSdatadonotcontaininformationonthelocationoftheemploymentmarriedmenisplottedagainstage(FigD),usingmicrodatafromtheESSThedatashowseveralinterestingpatternsFirst,theE–PratioforwomenbelowageishigherinTokyothaninthethreeothersuburbanprefecturesThisratioissimilarinallfourprefecturesafterageThetypesoffemaleemploymentobservedinthefourregionsarequitedifferent:regularemploymentismorecommoninTokyo,whereasparttimeemploymentismorecommonintheotherthreeprefectures,independentofageSecond,overofmarriedmenworkasregularfulltimeemployees,whilelessthanofmarriedwomenworkundersuchastatus(FigsBandD)Finally,theregularemploymentraAgeSaitamaChibaTokyoKanagawaAEPRatiosofMarriedWomeninTokyoMAAgeSaitamaChibaTokyoKanagawaBRegularEmploymentRatiosofMarriedWomeninTokyoMAAgeSaitamaChibaTokyoKanagawaCParttimeEmploymentRatiosofMarriedWomeninTokyoMAAgeSaitamaChibaTokyoKanagawaDRegularEmploymentRatiosofMarriedMeninTokyoMAFigEmploymentpopulationratio,regularemploymentratio,andparttimeemploymentratioofmarriedwomenandmeninfourprefecturesintheTokyoMetropolitanAreaSource:ESS(microdata)YAbeJournalofHousingEconomics()–tioformendoesnotdiffermuchacrossthefourprefectures,althoughitisslightlylowerinTokyothanelsewhereOverall,theregionaldifferencesinwomen’semploymentareclearlygreaterItisnaturaltoexpectthatthesesignificantdifferencesarecausedbyendogenouschoiceofresidentiallocationHousingpricesarehigherinTokyoandfulltimeemployeesearnmuchmorethanparttimeemployeesOntheotherhand,workschedulesarelessflexibleforfulltimejobsHighearningsbyfulltimeworkingwivesmaybeusedtofinancethehighcostofhousingclosetotheCBDHouseholdsinwhichthewifedoesnotworkfulltimewilllocatefartherfromtheCBDtospendlessonhousingEducationalcompositionandlaborsupplychoicesacrossprefecturesMostlargescaledatasetsforJapaneseworkersdonotcontaininformationonbothwageandplaceofresidence,soitisdifficulttodirectlytestthehypothesisintheprevioussubsectionInthissubsection,IthereforeuseeducationasaproxyforwagelevelsItiswellknownthateducationishighlycorrelatedwithfulltimewagesIfirstlookattheproportionofeducatedpeopleamongresidents,andthenconsidertheproportionofeducatedworkersamongresidentsFigshowstheproportionofpeoplewithmorethanauniversityeducation(yearsormore)amongresidentsinthefourprefecturesbyagegroupAmongbothmenandwomenofallagegroups,theproportionofhighlyeducatedpersons(‘‘power’’individualsintheterminologyofCostaandKahn()andComptonandPollak())ishighestinTokyo,followedbyKanagawa,Chiba,andSaitamaThesedatasupportthenotionthathighwageearnerstendtoliveclosertotheTokyoCBDTheeducationaldistributiondoesnotshowwhetherlaborsupplyisrelatedtoresidentialchoicebecausethepopuIomittheE–PratioandtheparttimeemploymentratioformarriedmenbecauseregionalvariationsintheE–PratioaresmallerthanthoseintheregularemploymentratioandbecausetheparttimeemploymentratioislowMoregenerally,itisknownthatwomen’sparticipationinthelabormarket,especiallywithrespecttoregularfulltimework,hassignificantregionalvariationswithinJapan(Takeishi,Abeetal,)RegionalvariationsaresmallformenCostaandKahn()define‘‘powercouples’’ascouplesinwhichbothspouseshavemorethanacollegedegreeTheavailabledatadonotallowmetoinvestigatethecombinationofeducationalattainmentofhusbandandwifeInthispaper,‘‘power’’menandwomenarethosewhohaveatleastauniversitydegree,and‘‘powerworking’’menandwomenarethosewhohaveatleastauniversitydegreeandworkAgeSaitamaChibaTokyoKanagawaShareofresidentswithauniversitydegreeormorebyPrefecture:WomenShareofresidentswithauniversitydegreeormorebyPrefecture:MentureinYAbeJournalofHousingEconomics()–AgeSaitamaChibaTokyoKanagawaFigShareofresidentswithauniversitydegreeormore,byprefecProportionofpowermenamon

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