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首页 微观经济学:行为、制度和演化

微观经济学:行为、制度和演化.pdf

微观经济学:行为、制度和演化

Elliott琦
2009-12-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《微观经济学:行为、制度和演化pdf》,可适用于企业制度领域

MicroeconomicsTheRoundtableSeriesinBehavioralEconomicsTheRoundtableSeriesinBehavioralEconomicsaimstoadvanceresearchinthenewinterdisciplinaryfieldofbehavioraleconomicsBehavioraleconomicsusesfacts,models,andmethodsfromneighboringsciencestoestablishdescriptivelyaccuratefindingsabouthumancognitiveabilityandsocialinteractionandtoexploretheimplicationsofthesefindingsforeconomicbehaviorThemostfertileneighboringscienceinrecentdecadeshasbeenpsychology,butsociology,anthropology,biology,andotherfieldscanusefullyinfluenceeconomicsaswellTheRoundtableSeriespublishesbooksineconomicsthataredeeplyrootedinempiricalfindingsormethodsfromoneormoreneighboringsciencesandadvanceeconomicsonitsowntermsgeneratingtheoreticalinsights,makingmoreaccuratepredictionsoffieldphenomena,andsuggestingbetterpolicyColinCamererandErnstFehr,editorsBehavioralGameTheory:ExperimentsinStrategicInteractionbyColinFCamererMicroeconomics:Behavior,Institutions,andEvolutionbySamuelBowlesAdvancesinBehavioralEconomics,editedbyColinFCamerer,GeorgeLoewenstein,andMatthewRabinTheBehavioralEconomicsRoundtableHenryAaronGeorgeLoewensteinGeorgeAkerlofSendhilMullainathanLindaBabcockMatthewRabinColinCamererThomasSchellingPeterDiamondEldarShafirJonElsterRobertShillerErnstFehrCassSunsteinDanielKahnemanRichardThalerDavidLaibsonRichardZeckhauserMicroeconomicsbehavior,institutions,andevolutionSamuelBowlesrussellsagefoundationnewyorkprincetonuniversitypressprincetonandoxfordCopyright�byRussellSageFoundationRequestsforpermissiontoreproducematerialsfromthisworkshouldbesenttoPermissions,PrincetonUniversityPressPublishedbyPrincetonUniversityPress,WilliamStreet,Princeton,NewJerseyIntheUnitedKingdom:PrincetonUniversityPress,MarketPlace,Woodstock,OxfordshireOXSYAndtheRussellSageFoundation,EastthStreet,NewYork,NewYorkAllRightsReservedLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBowles,SamuelMicroeconomics:behavior,institutions,andevolutionSamuelBowlespcm(Theroundtableseriesinbehavioraleconomics)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)MicroeconomicsInstitutionaleconomicsEvolutionaryeconomicsITitleIISeriesHBBdcBritishLibraryCataloginginPublicationDataisavailableThisbookhasbeencomposedinSabonPrintedonacidfreepaper�wwwpupressprincetoneduwwwrussellsageorgPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaListofCreditsQuotationfrom“MendingWall”byRobertFrostusedwithpermissionofHenryHoltandCompanyQuotationfrom“tons”byMerleTravisusedwithpermissionofWarnerChappellMusic,adivisionofWarnerBrothersMapofItalyinthefifteenthcentury(Figure)adaptedfromAtlasofMedievalEuropebyDonaldMatthew,usedwithpermissionofAndromeda,Oxford,LtdChaptermakessubstantialuseofworkcoauthoredwithJungKyooChoiandAstridHopfensitzthatappearedintheJournalofTheoreticalBiology():,pp–,andisusedherewithpermissionfromElsevierForLibbyandforHerbContentsPrefaceixPrologue:EconomicsandtheWealthofNationsandPeoplePartI:CoordinationandConflict:GenericSocialInteractionsChapterOneSocialInteractionsandInstitutionalDesignChapterTwoSpontaneousOrder:TheSelforganizationofEconomicLifeChapterThreePreferencesandBehaviorChapterFourCoordinationFailuresandInstitutionalResponsesChapterFiveDividingtheGainstoCooperation:BargainingandRentSeekingPartII:CompetitionandCooperation:TheInstitutionsofCapitalismChapterSixUtopianCapitalism:DecentralizedCoordinationChapterSevenExchange:Contracts,Norms,andPowerChapterEightEmployment,Unemployment,andWagesChapterNineCreditMarkets,WealthConstraints,andAllocativeInefficiencyChapterTenTheInstitutionsofaCapitalistEconomyPartIII:Change:TheCoevolutionofInstitutionsandPreferencesChapterElevenInstitutionalandIndividualEvolutionviii•ContentsChapterTwelveChance,CollectiveAction,andInstitutionalInnovationChapterThirteenTheCoevolutionofInstitutionsandPreferencesPartIV:ConclusionChapterFourteenEconomicGovernance:Markets,States,andCommunitiesProblemSetsAdditionalReadingsWorksCitedIndexPrefaceMicroeconomicsgrewoutoftwocoursesfordoctoralcandidatesattheUniversityofMassachusettsthatIhavetaughtoverthepastdecade,oneaddressedtonewdevelopmentsinmicroeconomictheory,andtheotheraseminarininstitutional,behavioral,andevolutionaryeconomicsThesecoursesdevelopeconomicmodelstoaddressrealworldproblemsusingaseriesofmathematicalproblemsolvingexercisesThebookisintendedforreadersnotonlyinterestedinasynthesisofcontemporarysocialsciencereasoningappliedtoproblemsofeconomicinstitutionsandbehaviorbutalsowantingtolearnthebasicmodelingskillsnecessarytoparticipateasauseroraproducerinfurtherdevelopmentofthefieldThebookisintendedforuseingraduatelevelmicroeconomicscourses,aswellascoursesininstitutionalandevolutionaryeconomicsandformalmodelingcoursesinsociology,anthropology,andpoliticalscienceItcouldalsobeusedinadvancedundergraduatecoursesinthesesubjectsGeneralreadersmayfindthebookausefulintroductiontotheemergingparadigmofevolutionarysocialscienceLittlepreviousexposuretoeconomicsispresumedThemathematicaltechniquesarelimitedtowhatisgenerallycoveredinatwosemestercalculussequenceThebookoriginatedlongagowhenoveraperiodofyearsItaughttheadvancedmicroeconomictheorycoursetodoctoralcandidatesatHarvardUniversityWhilethecontentofthecoursereflectedthethenunquestionedneoclassicalmodel,seedsofdoubtwerenurturedinlongdiscussionswithmycoteachers,WassilyLeontief,TiborScitovsky,andDavidKendrick,aswellasfromreflectiononourstudents’oftenpuzzledreactionstothematerialThedifferencebetweenthetextpublishedbasedonthatcourse(Bowles,Kendrick,andDixon)andthisbookmeasuresthedistancetraveledbyeconomictheoryintheinterveningdecadesButthetwobooksshareacommonemphasisontheimportanceofacquiringbasicmodelingskillsthroughexposuretointellectuallychallengingyetmathematicallytractableproblemsolvingexercisesTheextensiveproblemsetsattheendofthisbookofferpracticeindevelopingtheseskillsaswellasexamplesofapplicationsofthetheorytoimportantrealworldproblemsInthebodyofthetextIhaveitalicizedfrequentlyusedtermswheretheyarefirstintroduced(anddefined)inthetext(thedefinitionscanbelocatedbyconsultingtheindex)Toreducefootnoteclutter,Ihavegatheredextensivesuggestionsforreadingsonx•PrefacerelatedsubjectsattheendofthebookTheepigraphsthatopeneachchapterservetoremindyouthattheproblemsaddressedinthesepageshavebeenaroundforawhileandprobablywillnotbefullyresolvedanytimesoon,andthattheyextendfarbeyondeconomics(IfyoususpecttheauthorsoftheepigraphsareamongthosewithwhomIconductimaginaryconversations,youwouldnotbefarwrong,thoughIwouldnotwanttoinvitethemalltodinneronthesameevening!)Idrawonrecentdevelopmentsinevolutionaryeconomics,gametheory,thetheoryofeconomicinstitutions,behavioralandexperimentaleconomics,andothercontributionstomicroeconomicsWhilethetoolsofanalysisarefromeconomics(withsomeborrowingfrombiology),thesubjectmatterisnondisciplinary,augmentingtheusualeconomicsubjectmatterwithconcernsofculture,power,asymmetricsocialrelationships,socialnetworks,andnormsIalsomakeconsiderablereferencetoempiricalstudies,beginningeachchapterwithanempiricalpuzzlethatanadequatetheoryshouldbeabletoaddressIdothisbothbecauseeconomictheorybenefitsfromthechallengeofilluminatingrealworldproblems,andtogroundtheassumptionsofthemodelsinwhatisknownaboutactualhumanbehaviorsandinstitutionsWhiletheexerciseofpowerintheeconomyplaysanimportantroleinthemodelsIdevelop,theneedtolimitthelengthofthebookhasprecludedmorethanpassingattentiontogovernmentsandothercentralizedallocationprocesses,andpoliticaldecisionmakingManyoftheideaspresentedhereweredevelopedjointlywithHerbertGintis(especiallythoseinchapters,,,and)Histextingametheory(Gintis)constitutesavaluablecomplementtothisbookImportantcontributionstothesepageshavealsocomefrommygraduatestudentsattheUniversityofMassachusetts,whosesuggestionsandcriticismsaccountformanyimprovementsinthetextSomeofthematerialinchapters,,anddrawsonmycollaborationwithJungKyooChoi,AstridHopfensitz,andYongJinParkIhavealsobenefittedfromthecommentsofthedoctoralcandidatesIhavetaughtattheUniversityofSienaMyteachingassistantsovertheyearsespeciallyKatieBaird,JungKyooChoi,MinsikChoi,AlperDuman,ChristinaFong,JamesHeintz,MehreneLarudee,EdwardMcPhail,YongJinPark,DoriPosel,andEricVerhoogenarealsoresponsiblefornumerousimprovementsCommentsontheentiremanuscriptbyKaushikBasu,GregDow,KarlaHoff,SureshNaidu,UgoPagano,PeterSkott,andMichaelWallersteinhavemadethebookmuchbetterIamespeciallygratefultoJungKyooChoiandElisabethWoodwhoreadmultipleversionsofthemanuscript,correctingmanyerrorsandsuggestingimportantimprovementsIhavealsobenefittedfromthecontributionsofRobertBoyd,StevenBurks,JeffreyCarpenter,HenryFarber,ErnstFehr,DuncanPreface•xiFoley,GeraldFriedman,HerbertGintis,CarolHeim,JackHirshleifer,JamesJaspers,ArjunJayadev,DonaldKatzner,RichardLewontin,MehreneLarudee,PaulMalherbe,JohnMiller,KarlOveMoene,MelissaOsborne,PeterRicherson,ArielRubinstein,CosmaShalizi,DEricSmith,EricAldenSmith,KennethSokoloff,JorgenWeibull,PeytonYoung,andJunfuZhangIwouldalsoliketothanktheMacArthurFoundationforfinancialsupportaswellastheUniversityofSiena(andespeciallytheCertosadiPontignano),theSantaFeInstitute,andtheUniversityofMassachusettsforprovidingidealresearchenvironmentsIamindebtedtomyverycompetentresearchassistantsBridgetLongridgeand(especially)BaeSmith,toMargaretAlexanderandTimothyTayloroftheSantaFeInstituteLibrary,andtoLollyBrown,MarcusDaniels,KevinDrennan,BrentJones,SethMcMillan,andCarolynResnickeoftheSantaFeInstituteFinallyIwanttothankPeterDougherty,TimSullivan,andBrigittePelnerofPrincetonUniversityPressforbringingthisworktofruitionAdditionalmaterialsrelatedtothisbookcanbefoundathttp:wwwsantafeedu�bowlesIdedicatethisbooktomydearfriendHerbertGintisandtomybelovedwifeElisabethWoodCollaboratingwithHerboverthreedecadeshasenrichedmythinkingoneveryaspectofmicroeconomicsHeisavirtualcoauthorLibby’sunwaveringenthusiasmfortheprojectandhertrenchantcriticismsofitscontentarereflectedineverypageSantaFe,NewMexicoAugustMicroeconomicsPROLOGUEEconomicsandtheWealthofNationsandPeopleEconomicsisthestudyofhumanbehaviorasarelationshipbetweengivenendsandscarcemeansLionelRobbins,AnEssayontheNatureandSignificanceofEconomics()AneconomictransactionisasolvedpoliticalproblemEconomicshasgainedthetitleQueenoftheSocialSciencesbychoosingsolvedpoliticalproblemsasitsdomainAbbaLerner,“TheEconomicsandPoliticsofConsumerSovereignty”()Toitsfounders,thesubjectofpoliticaleconomywasthewealthofnationsandpeopleInthefourteenthcentury,IbnBattuta,oneoftheleadinggeographersandexplorersofhisage,traveledwidelyinAsia,Africa,theMiddleEast,Russia,andSpainIn,hevisitedthelandwenowcallBangladesh“Thisisacountryaboundinginrice,”hewroteHedescribedtravelingalongitswaterways,passing“betweenvillagesandorchards,justasifweweregoingthroughabazaar”Sixcenturieslater,athirdofthepeopleofBangladeshareundernourishedandthecountryisamongtheworld’spoorestAtthetimeofIbnBattuta’svisittoBangladesh,Europewasreelingundertheimpactofthebubonicplague,whichtookthelivesofaquarterormoreinmanycitiesManualworkersinLondon,probablyamongthebetteroffanywhereonthecontinent,consumedfewerthancaloriesperdayTheshortageoflaborfollowingtheplaguesomewhatboostedrealwagesthroughthemiddleofthenextcentury,butoverthenextfourcenturies,realwagesoflaborersdidnotriseinThefirstepigraphcomesfromRobbins(:),thesecondfromLerner(:)HisaccountispublishedinIbnBattuta(:,)Asecondsource(Yule:)quoteshimasobserving,“Ihaveseennoregionoftheearthinwhichprovisionsaresoplentiful,”butthismaybeamistranslationduetoYuleortotheFrenchsourceonwhichhereliedThisaccountfollowsAllen()Thewageseriesbelowcanbefoundathttp:wwweconoxacukmembersrobertallenwagespriceshtm•PrologueanyEuropeancityforwhichrecordsexistinmost,wagesfellbysubstantialamountsinNorthernItalytohalftheirearlierlevelOverthepasttwocenturies,however,realwagesrosedramatically,firstinEngland,wheretheyincreasedtenfold,andsomewhatlaterbutbyevengreateramountsinotherEuropeancitiesWhataccountsforthesedramaticreversalsoffortuneThemostplausibleanswer,verybriefly,runsasfollowsTheemergenceanddiffusionofanovelsetofinstitutionsthatcametobecalledcapitalismbroughtaboutavastexpansionintheproductivityofhumanlaborThisledtohigherwageswhenworkers’bargainingpowerwaseventuallyaugmentedbytheexpansionofworkers’politicalrightsandbythedryingupofthepoolofnewrecruitsfromagriculture,householdproduction,andotherpartsoftheeconomythatwerenotorganizedaccordingtothesenewinstitutionsThishappenedinEuropeandnotinBangladeshWhatdidhappeninBangladesh,asinmuchoftheMughalEmpireandwhatbecameBritishIndia,wasagrowingentrenchmentofthepowerandpropertyrightsofpowerfullandlordsTheirinfluencewasalreadysubstantialbeforetheBritish,butduringtheBengalPresidencyitwasgreatlystrengthenedbythePermanentSettlementofThisactofthecolonialrulersconferreddefactogovernmentalpowersonthelandlordsbygivingthemtherighttocollecttaxes(andtokeepasubstantialfractionforthemselves)ThefactthatBritishtaxationandlandtenurepolicywasnotuniformthroughouttheRajprovidesanaturalexperimenttotesttheimportanceoftheseinstitutionsforsubsequentpatternsofbackwardnessordevelopmentBanerjeeandIyer()comparedthepostIndependenceeconomicperformanceandsocialindicatorsofdistrictsofmoderndayIndiainwhichlandlordshadbeenempoweredbythecoloniallandtenureandtaxationsystemswithotherdistrictsinwhichthelandlordshadbeenbypassedinfavorofthevillagecommunityordirecttaxationoftheindividualcultivatorTheyfoundthatthelandlordcontrolleddistrictshadsignificantlylowerratesofagriculturalproductivitygrowthstemmingfromlowerratesofinvestmentandlesseruseofmoderninputsThelandlordcontrolleddistrictsalsolaggedsignificantlyineducationalandhealthimprovementsThesefindingssuggestaremarkablepersistenceoftheeffectsofaninstitutionalinnovationthatoccurredacenturyormoreearlierThedetailsofthecausalconnectionbetweenlandlordcontrolandthesesubsequentresultsremaintobeexploredBecausecolonialpracticeschangedovertimeinresponsetoexogenousevents(suchastherevoltbyIndiansoldiersin)andoverspaceinresponsetotheidiosyncraciesoflocaladministrators,BanerjeeandIyerwereabletoidentifyindependentsourcesofvariationinthelandtenureandtaxationpoliciesnotduetopreexistingconditionsPrologue•TheeffectsofinstitutionsoneconomicperformanceisfurtheraffirmedbyadramaticturninlandtenureintheIndianstateofWestBengalFollowingitselectionin,theLeftFrontgovernmentofthestateimplementedareformunderwhichsharecropperswhoregisteredwiththeDepartmentofLandRevenuewereguaranteedpermanentandinheritabletenureintheplotstheycultivatedaslongastheypaidthelandlordaquarterofthecropPriortothereform,themodallandlord’scropsharehadbeenonehalf,andlandlord’shadroutinelyusedthethreatofevictiontoenhancetheirbargainingpowerwiththesharecroppersThecultivators’increasedcropsharesignificantlyincreasedtheincentivestoworkthelandproductivelyThesecurityoftenurehadtwopossiblyoffsettingeffects:itenhancedthecultivators’incentivetoinvestintheland,whilerestrictingtheabilityofthelandlordtoelicithighlevelsofoutputbythreatofevictionAfurtherindirecteffectmayhavealsobeenatworkTheincreasedeconomicsecurityofthesharecroppersledtotheirmoreactiveparticipationinlocalpoliticspartlyasaresult,thelocalcouncilsthepanchayatsbecamemoreeffectiveadvocatesoftheinterestsofthelesswelloffintheacquisitionofagriculturalinputs,credit,andschoolingTheeffectsofthereformhavebeenestimatedfromacomparisonofagriculturalproductivitybetweenWestBengalandneighboringBangladesh(asimilarregioninwhichnosuchreformswereimplemented)andbyexploitingthefactthattheimplementationofthereform(measuredbythefractionofsharecroppersregisteringforitsbenefits)variedconsiderablywithinWestBengalTheresultingestimatesareimprecise,anditremainsdifficulttodeterminewhichcausalmechanismswereatwork,buttheeffectsofthereformappeartohavebeenverysubstantial:riceyieldsperhectareonsharecroppedlandwereincreasedbyaboutfiftypercentHavinglaggedbehindmostIndianstatespriortothereform,agriculturalproductivitygrowthinWestBengalhasbeenamongthemostrapidsincethereformTheenduringimportanceofinstitutionsislikewisesuggestedbytheworkofSokoloffandEngerman()concerningananalogousNewWorldreversaloffortuneTheyestimatethatinMexico’spercapitaincomewasaboutthatoftheBritishcoloniesthatweretobecometheUnitedStates,whileCubaandBarbadoswereatleasthalfagainricherAtthecloseoftheeighteenthcenturyCubahadslightlyhigherpercapitaincomesthantheUnitedStates,andHaitiwasprobablytherichestsocietyintheworldAttheopeningofthetwentyfirstcentury,however,thepercapitaincomeofMexicowaslessthanathirdoftheUnitedStates’,andHaiti’swasloweryetInaseriesofpapers,SokoloffThisaccountisbasedonBanerjee,Gertler,andGhatak()

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微观经济学:行为、制度和演化

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