加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 阿基米德的继承者们

阿基米德的继承者们.PDF

阿基米德的继承者们

用户3811711910
2013-09-27 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《阿基米德的继承者们pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THEHEIRSOFARCHIMEDESDibnerInstituteStudiesintheHistoryofScienceandTechnologyJedZBuchwald,generaleditorIsaacNewton’sNaturalPhilosophyJedZBuchwaldandIBernardCohen,editorsHistoriesoftheElectron:TheBirthofMicrophysicsJedZBuchwaldandAndrewWarwick,editorsScienceSerialized:RepresentationsoftheSciencesinNineteenthCenturyPeriodicalsGeoffreyCantorandSallyShuttleworth,editorsNaturalParticulars:NatureandtheDisciplinesinRenaissanceEuropeAnthonyGraftonandNancySiraisi,editorsTheEnterpriseofScienceinIslam:NewPerspectivesJPHogendijkandAISabra,editorsInstrumentsandExperimentationintheHistoryofChemistryFredericLHolmesandTrevorHLevere,editorsSystems,Experts,andComputers:TheSystemsApproachinManagementandEngineering,WorldWarIIandAfterAgathaCHughesandThomasPHughes,editorsTheHeirsofArchimedes:ScienceandtheArtofWarthroughtheAgeoftheEnlightenmentBrettDSteeleandTameraDorland,editorsAncientAstronomyandCelestialDivinationNLSwerdlow,editorTHEHEIRSOFARCHIMEDESScienceandtheArtofWarthroughtheAgeofEnlightenmentBrettDSteeleandTameraDorland,editorsTheMITPressCambridge,MassachusettsLondon,England©MassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedinanyformbyanyelectronicormechanicalmeans(includingphotocopying,recording,orinformationstorageandretrieval)withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherMITPressbooksmaybepurchasedatspecialquantitydiscountsforbusinessorsalespromotionaluseForinformation,pleaseemailspecialsalesmitpressmiteduorwritetoSpecialSalesDepartment,TheMITPress,CambridgeCenter,Cambridge,MASetinBembobyTheMITPressPrintedandboundintheUnitedStatesofAmericaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataTheheirsofArchimedes:scienceandtheartofwarthroughtheAgeofEnlightenmentBrettDSteeleandTameraDorland,editorspcm(DibnerInstitutestudiesinthehistoryofscienceandtechnology)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNX(alkpaper)MilitaryartandscienceEuropeHistoryScienceHistoryTechnologyHistoryISteele,BrettDIIDorland,TameraIIISeriesUEH'dcCONTENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTSVIIINTRODUCTIONBrettDSteeleandTameraDorlandITHEGLOBALDEVELOPMENTOFGUNPOWDERWEAPONRYFACINGTHENEWTECHNOLOGY:GUNPOWDERDEFENSESINMILITARYARCHITECTUREBEFORETHETRACEITALIENNE,–KellyDeVriesTHEFRENCHRELUCTANCETOADOPTFIREARMSTECHNOLOGYINTHEEARLYMODERNPERIODFredericJBaumgartnerGUNPOWDERANDTHECHANGINGMILITARYORDER:THEISLAMICGUNPOWDEREMPIRES,CA–CABartonCHackerBEHINDTHETURKISHWARMACHINE:GUNPOWDERTECHNOLOGYANDWARINDUSTRYINTHEOTTOMANEMPIRE,–GáborÁgostonIINAVALINNOVATIONS:HARDWAREANDSOFTWARETHEMARYROSE:ATALEOFTWOCENTURIESAlexzandraHildredContentsviMATHEMATICSANDEMPIRE:THEMILITARYIMPULSEANDTHESCIENTIFICREVOLUTIONLesleyBCormackHARRIOTANDDEEONEXPLORATIONANDMATHEMATICS:DIDSCIENTIFICIMAGERYMAKEFORNEWSCIENTIFICPRACTICEAmirAlexanderCHARTINGTHEGLOBEANDTRACKINGTHEHEAVENS:NAVIGATIONANDTHESCIENCESINTHEEARLYMODERNERAMichaelSMahoneyIIIGUNPOWDERPRODUCTION:THEREFINEMENTOFWASTE“THEARTANDMYSTERYOFMAKINGGUNPOWDER”:THEENGLISHEXPERIENCEINTHESEVENTEENTHANDEIGHTEENTHCENTURIESBrendaJBuchananCHEMISTRYINTHEWARMACHINE:SALTPETERPRODUCTIONINEIGHTEENTHCENTURYSWEDENThomasKaiserfeldCHEMISTRYINTHEARSENAL:STATEREGULATIONANDSCIENTIFICMETHODOLOGYOFGUNPOWDERINEIGHTEENTHCENTURYENGLANDANDFRANCESeymourHMauskopfIVMILITARYENGINEERINGANDARTILLERYEIGHTEENTHCENTURYFRENCHFORTIFICATIONTHEORYAFTERVAUBAN:THECASEOFMONTALEMBERTJanisLanginsMILITARY“PROGRESS”ANDNEWTONIANSCIENCEINTHEAGEOFENLIGHTENMENTBrettDSteeleABOUTTHEAUTHORSINDEXACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWewishtothankGeoffreySymcox,PeterReill,UCLA’sCenterforSeventeenthandEighteenthCenturyStudies,andtheClarkLibraryfororganizingtheconferenceScienceandWarfareintheOldRegime(),andBertHallandtheDibnerInstitutefortheHistoryofScienceandTechnologyfororganizingtheconferenceColonelsandQuartermasters()ThecontributorstothisvolumefirstpresentedtheirworkattheseconferencesWealsowishtoexpressappreciationtoJeremyBlack,MaryHenningerVoss,ThomasArnold,andJohnGuilmartinforcontributingtothesuccessoftheconferencesThisvolumedependedontheDibnerInstitute’spostdoctoralfellowshipandonaresearchgrantfromtheNationalScienceFoundation’sProgramofSocietalDimensionsofEngineering,Science,andTechnologyAppreciationalsogoestoRANDprojectmanagersJeffersonMarquisandThomasSzaynafortheirstimulatingquestions,andtotheGAOandANSER’sHomelandSecurityInstitutefortheirflexibilityduringthelaststageofthisprojectFinally,thisvolumeowesmuchtoEdwinTLaytonJroftheUniversityofMinnesotaforhismentorship,friendship,andencouragementtotakerisksThisvolumeisdedicatedtothememoryofGailElizabethSteele(–),aninspiringteacherandalovingmotherTHEHEIRSOFARCHIMEDESINTRODUCTIONBrettDSteeleandTameraDorland“Whatrighthaveyou,”heaskedthealgebraistsandthearithmeticians,“tooccupythepostinthevanguardofscienceAllEuropeiscuttingitsthroatwhatareyoudoingtostopthisbutcheryNothingWhatamIsayingItisyouwhoperformthemeansofdestructionyouwhodirecttheiruseinallthearmies”ComtedeSaintSimon,OnAugust,,VoltairecomposedapersonallettertoJacquesAntoineBaratierdeSaintAuban,aveteranartillerygeneralwhowasfamousforhispolemicsagainstGribeauval’sAustrianinspiredartillerysystemPerturbedbythesoberrealityofscientificknowledge,Voltaireconfessed:Youallowmeonlytomoanatmyageofyearsatseeingthatthetechniquesofdestroyingmenandtownsresultsfromallthemathematicalsciences,andthatitisnecessarytobeagreatphysicist,asyouareMonsieur,inordertobeafinemurderer,butitwassoatthetimeofArchimedeslikehim,youdefendyourcountryandthehappypeacefromwhichweenjoyourselvesBycharacterizingmilitarycombatas“fine”murder,VoltairewashardlytryingtooffendSaintAubanwithhisdarkhumorAsmuchasthegreatspokesmanofNewtonianscienceandthequintessentialEnlightenmentphilosophedespairedovertheseeminglypointlessaddictionofChristianmonarchstowarfare,hecouldsimultaneouslysalivateovertheprospectofCatherinetheGreatexterminatingtheOttomanTurksVoltaire’sostensiblyincongruouscouplingoftheoreticalphysicsandstrategicwarfareappearsdisturbinglymodern,buthewasactuallymakingahistoricalstatementWritingamonthaftertheDeclarationofIndependence,theFrenchphilosophemaintainedthatthisconnectionpertainednotonlytotheeraoftheAmericanRevolutionbutalsotothatoftheSecondPunicWar,asembodiedbyArchimedes(–BC),themostrenownedmathematicianoftheHellenisticworldSteeleandDorlandArchimedes’transformationofmechanicsintoarigorousgeometricalscienceemergedastheparagonofscientificrigorforearlymodernnaturalphilosopherssuchasGalileoandDescartesHisintellectualtriumphsincludetheformulationofthecenterofgravityanditsuseinderivingtheleverlawthedeterminationofthequadratureofaparabolathediscoveryofspecificgravity,ordensitythearticulationoffundamentalprinciplesofhydrostaticsand,finally,theinventionofthehydraulicscrewpumpYet,fromalatemedievalorearlyRenaissanceperspective,Archimedes’famederivedfromhisstatusasthemostcelebratedmilitaryengineerofantiquityThisoccurredinspiteofPlutarch’ssnobbishefforttodownplaysuchapracticalorientationandinsteadtoportrayArchimedesasanindifferentPlatonicidealistThemathematician’smilitaryreputationwassealedbyhisdesignandcoordinationofSyracuse’sdefensivesiegecraftduringtheRomansiegeoftheSecondPunicWar,whenthatcitystatesidedwiththeinvadingCarthaginianforcesunderHannibalThedefensivecampaignnonethelessconcludedcatastrophicallybecausetheRomansunexpectedlyattackedSyracuseduringareligiousfestivalInthesubsequentsackofthecity,aRomansoldiermurderedArchimedesNevertheless,Archimedes’defensivesystemshatteredRome’sinitialfrontalassaultsfrombothlandandsea,andtransformedtheirsiegeintoafrustratingblockadeAccordingtothegreatclassicalhistorianPolybius(c–BC),anearcontemporaryofArchimedes,theRomansunderMarcellus’commandinitiallylaunchedamassivenavalassaultthatdeployedshipsarmedwithheavycatapults,aswellasbowsandslingsOncetheRomanshadsucceededinclearingawaytheactivedefenses,Marcellusplannedtostormthecitywallsaftertransportingtheheavyassaulttroopsbywayoffloatingsiegetowers,orsambucaeYet,asMarcellus’navalsiegecraftapproachedthewalls,Archimedesreleasedawitheringbombardmentofprojectiles,followedbylighterstonesandheavycranehooksTheintensityofthedefensivefirewassodevastatingthatashakenMarcellussoonorderedallsurvivorstoregroupToevadeArchimedes’deadlymachinery,hethendecidedtoattackmoresubtlyunderthecoverofdarknessAsMarcellus’forcescreptuptothewalls,however,Archimedessubjectedthemtotheintense“smallarms”fireofarchersanddartlaunchers,who,withutterimpunity,dischargedtheirinstrumentsthroughconcealedloopholesAsimilarfateawaitedthelandbasedattackunderPulcher’scommandBothhissiegeenginesandhisassaulttroopsweredecimatedby“combinedarms”defensesthatArchimedeshadpreparedThetacticalmilitarysuccessofArchimedesattheSiegeofSyracusewasnotbasedoninnovativenewmachineryVirtuallyallthecranes,catapults,andfortificationelementshedeployedwerewellestablishedmilitaryinstrumentsIntroductionHisprowessreliedinsteadonmasteringthreecrucialdimensionsofsiegewarfare:correctlypredictingallthewaystheRomanswouldattackoptimizingthedefensivesiegecraftdesignstocountereachspecificthreatandintegratingallthemachineryandtroopsintoasynergistic“defenseindepth,”whichsubjectedtheirRomanopponentstothreedistinctlayersofattackNotsurprisingly,whenPlutarchwrotehisfamousaccountofArchimedes,hefocusedmoreonhismilitaryengineeringcapabilitythanonhismathematicaltheoremsandtheoreticalmechanicsLikewise,whentheArchimedeanmathematicalrevivalcommencedintheItaliancitystatesduringtheHabsburgValoisWars,itwasspearheadedbymathematiciansorientedtowardsmilitaryengineering,suchasMaurolico,whosoughttogainconceptualinsightsintothemindofantiquity’sgreatestmilitaryengineerArchimedesemerged,ofcourse,asaRenaissanceembodimentofscientificrigorthatwouldinitiallyinspireCommandino,Guidobaldo,andStevininthesixteenthcenturywithrespecttostatics,andultimatelyGalileo,Huygens,andNewtonwithrespecttokinematicsandkineticsYetArchimedesalsoembodiedforthemtheempowermentthatstemsfrominfusingmilitarypracticewithrigorousmechanisticreasoningThisesteemraisesaquestion:WasArchimedes’integrationofscientificknowledgeandmilitarypoweronlyinstitutionalizedinthetwentiethcentury(asdemonstratedbyorganicchemistsinWorldWarIandnuclearphysicistsinWorldWarII),orwasthisintegrationalreadyoccurringintheearlymodernChristianstatesDidRenaissanceandEnlightenmentmathematicians,engineers,andsoldiersinvokeArchimedesonlyforrhetoricalinspiration,ordidtheyrealizehisidealinpractice,asVoltaireseemedtoindicateInshort,whendidArchimedeshaverealintellectualheirswhorecreatedforthemselveshispersonalunionofscienceandtheartofwarToanswerthesequestions,wemustfirstdeterminethefundamentaldimensionsofthisunionTheessentialmilitaryaccomplishmentofArchimedesattheSiegeofSyracusewasthedevelopmentofahighlyeffectivedefensivesystembasedonoptimizing,constructing,andcoordinatingthesiegecraftofhisdayThisaccomplishmentdemandedconsiderationofthe“acquisitional,”operational,tactical,andpoliticaldomainsoftheartofwar“Acquisitional”herereferstothetechnologicaltransformationofcivilianresourcesintomilitaryassets,includingweapons,ammunition,andarmor,inadditiontosuitablevehicles,food,andfodderInArchimedes’situation,suchcivilianresourcescouldhaveincludedtheuseofanimaltendonsorhumanhairfortheelasticelementsoftorsioncatapults,aswellastheuseofrawstonesforprojectilesandofwood,metal,andhempforcranesandcatapultsByapplyingthelawsoftheleverandthecenterofgravity,nottomentiontheempiricalcatapultrule(acuberootoperation),ArchimedespresumablyminimizedthematerialdemandsoftheSteeleandDorlandmachinesbyformulatingthemostefficientdesignsOurfirstArchimedeanrelationshipbetweenscienceandwarfarethereforeentailstheacquisitionaluseofscientifictheorytooptimizetheconversionofrawmaterialsintoproductsthatcanbedirectlydeployedinmilitaryactionsThe“operational”domainoftheartofwarreferstothedistributionandcoordinationofmilitaryassetsinconductingacampaignAconceptthatwasformallydevelopedintheSovietUnionbeforeWorldWarII,itfocusesonsettingupanarmytoeffectthesystemicdisruptionorentropyoftheopposingenemyforceThisdomainthusinvolvesconcentrating,maneuvering,andsynchronizingmilitaryunitsagainstselectenemytargetsprimarilybeforetheactualcombatbeginsFromArchimedes’perspective,operationalplanningfirstentailedselectingandsituatingsiegecraftandtroops,alongwithdeterminingthesystemicvulnerabilitiesor“Achilles’heels”oftheRomanassaultForSyracuse,thismeanttargetingtheRomansastheyapproachedthecitywalls,beforetheycouldunleashtheoverwhelmingpoweroftheirdisciplinedheavyinfantryIntegraltooperationalplanningisthedeceptionordeliberateconfusionofenemyforces(alsoknownas“stratagem”)tomaximizetheirpsychologicalstressTheoperationalrealmthusdemandsanassessmentofthestrengthsandvulnerabilitiesoftheenemyforceinbothaphysicalandamentalsenseArchimedes’abilitytoshocktheRomanswithhisunexpectedlypowerfuldefenses,hiscorrectanticipationoftheinitialRomanassaultplans,andhisultimatesuccessindeterringadditionalassaultsforovertwoyearsrepresentsoperationalthinkingofthehighestorderDidadirectrelationshipexistbetweenhismechanicalprowessandhisabilitytodiscouragetheRomanssoeffectivelyWasitsimplyacoincidencethatantiquity’sgreatestmathematicalmindwassoproficientinnotonlytheacquisitionalbutalsotheoperationalrealmDidhisingeniousanalyticalbraincapableofdesigningamechanicalsystemthatallowedhisownbodytocountertheenormousstaticforceofabeachedshipalsoaidhimindevisingadefensivesystemwithmodestacquisitionalresourcesthatoverturnedadynamicRomanmilitaryforceFromanotherperspective:WasthereaconnectionbetweentheabilityofArchimedestocalculatethecenterofgravityofcomplexgeometricalobjectsandtheorganizational“centerofgravity”oftheRomanarmyunderMarcellusOrarethesemerelyfigurativecomparisonsTheprimarysourcesrequiredtoaddresssuchquestionshavelongbeenlostNevertheless,thisconcurrenceofmathematicalgeniusandoperationalprowesshighlightsthesecondArchimedeanrelationshipwewillinvokebetweenscienceandtheartofwar:theuseoftheoryinoperationalplanningandexecutionInthiscontext,“tactical”denotestheprocessofcontrolling,includingdestroying,enemymilitaryandcivilianresourcestherealmthatsoobsessedIntroductionClausewitzinhisclassicOnWarItinvolvesmaintainingdisciplineandcommandtomaximizethecontrolordestructionofenemyforcesandresourcesaswellastominimizethefriendly(orneutral)casualtiessufferedandequipmentdestroyedThereislittleevidence,ofcourse,thattheelderlyArchimedesplayedanactivetacticalroleintheSiegeofSyracuseThis,presumably,wastheresponsibilityoftheprofessionalmilitarycommandersNevertheless,hesupposedlydesignedthesiegecrafttofulfillspecifictacticalmissionsandsupervisedthetrainingofsoldiersintheirefficientanddisciplinedoperationInthisrealm,weseeacentralscientificfunctioninthetacticalrealm:theuseoftheorytooptimizetheoperatingperformanceoftheweaponsystems,subjecttothequantityandqualityofavailabletroopsArchimedesunmistakablyselectedtherangesofhissiegecrafttomaximizethedestructiveeffectofeachshotandtheoddsofhittingeachtargetHealsorestrictedtheuseoflightarrows,darts,andcranestolocationsalongthewalls,wheretheywouldalwaysstriketheirtargetwithvirtualimpunityinturn,herestrictedtheuseofthemediumweightandheavyweightprojectilestothemiddleanddistantranges,wheretheirlaunchingsweremostconvenientandtheRomansweremostvulnerableWhatemergedistheuseoftheclassictacticofacombinedarmsactiontoachieveanactivedefenseindepth,whilemakingonlymoderatedemandsontheSyracusiantroopsfordisciplineandselfsacrificeThefourthaspectofArchimedes’integrationofscienceandtheartofwarliesinthepoliticaldomainThisiswherecivilianresourcesfinancial,human,andmaterialaresecuredformilitaryuseArchimedeswasinvolvedinthepoliticaldomainofwarfareontwolevels:inventingmachinerytohelpboosttaxrevenuesanddevelopingaprocessforpreventingthetheftofsuchfinancialresourcesArchimedesisreputedtohaveinventedthehydraulicscrewpump,whichsoonpromotedagriculturalproductivity,especiallyinEgypt(andpossiblyinSicilyaswell),andboostedtaxrevenuesaccordinglyArchimedes’mostfamoushydraulicstudyoccurredwithinthesecondlevelofthepoliticaldomainInanearlycampaigntocombat“waste,fraudandabuse”amonggovernmentalcontractorsandtoconservefiscalresources,Herion,themilitarydictatororTyrantofSyracuse,formallyrequestedthatArchimedescalculatetheactualpercentageofsilverandgoldinarecentlycommissionedornamentalwreathAsabyproductofhissuccessfulsolutiontoHerion’sproblem,Archimedesstumbleduponthescientificconceptofspecificweight(ordensity)whiletakinghisfamousbathThesignificancehereisthattheinteractionofscientificknowledgeandmilitarypowermayleadtofundamentalnewdiscoveriesorinventionsthattranscendimmediatepolitical,acquisitional,operational,ortacticalsignificanceAsimilarsituationarosewhenArchimedesextendedtheimplicationsoftheleverlawbyproclaiming“GivemeaplacetoSteeleandDorlandstandandIwillmovetheworld”Herionthenchallengedtheselfassuredengineeringtheoristtoinventamachinethatwouldallowamantolaunchanavalvesselsingleha

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/49

阿基米德的继承者们

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利