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[InternationalEnglishLanguageTestingSystemHandbookJanuary2002EnglishforinternationalopportunityIELTSSubjectManager(IELTS)UniversityofCambridgeLocalExaminationsSyndicate1HillsRoadCambridgeCB12EUUnitedKingdomTel:441223553355Fax:441223460278E-mail:ielts@ucles.org.ukTheBritishCouncilBridgewaterHouse58WhitworthStreetManchesterM16BBUnitedKingdomTel:441619577755Fax:441619577762E-mail:general.enquiries@britishcouncil.orgTheManager,IELTSAustraliaIDPEducationAustraliaGPOBox2006CanberraACT2601AustraliaTel:61262858222Fax:61262853233E-mail:ielts@idp.edu.auManager,NorthAmericaCambridgeExaminationsandIELTSInternational100EastCorsonStreetSuite200Pasadena,CA91103USATel:16265642954Fax:16265642981E-mail:bmeiron@ceii.org]4TestCentresTestDatesAcademicandGeneralTrainingcandidatesTestCentresAtthetimeofgoingtoprintIELTScanbetakenat251approvedtestcentresinover105differentcountries.ThetestisadministeredcentrallybyUCLESbutthetestcentressupervisethelocaladministrationofthetestandensuretheprovisionofqualifiedandtrainedexaminers.TheshadedareasonthemapbelowindicatecountrieswhereIELTStestcentresarelocated.Forafulladdresslistofcentrespleaserefertopages27to36.IELTSisnotheldonsetdatesduringtheyear.TestcentrescanarrangeanIELTSadministrationatanytime,accordingtolocalneed.Mostcentresconductatestingsessionatleastonceamonthandmoreoftenatpeaktimes.Specialtestsessionsareeasilyarrangedforparticularsponsorsorinstitutions.Individualtestcentresshouldbecontactedfortheircurrentprogrammes.Candidatesarenotallowedtorepeatthetestwithinthreemonthsatanycentre.CandidatesmustselecteithertheAcademicorGeneralTrainingReadingandWritingModulesdependingonthestatedrequirementoftheirsponsororreceivinginstitution.TheAcademicReadingandWritingModulesassesswhetheracandidateisreadytostudyortraininthemediumofEnglishatanundergraduateorpostgraduatelevel.AdmissiontoundergraduateandpostgraduatecoursesshouldbebasedontheresultsofAcademicModules.TheGeneralTrainingReadingandWritingModulesarenotdesignedtotestthefullrangeofformallanguageskillsrequiredforacademicpurposes.TheemphasisofGeneralTrainingisonbasicsurvivalskillsinabroadsocialandeducationalcontext.ItissuitableforcandidateswhoaregoingtoEnglishspeakingcountriestocompletetheirSecondaryeducation,toundertakeworkexperienceortrainingprogrammesnotatdegreelevel,orforimmigrationpurposestoAustraliaandNewZealand.ShadedareasindicatecountrieswithIELTStestcentres.[5TestFormatAllcandidatesaretestedinlistening,reading,writingandspeaking.AllcandidatestakethesameListeningandSpeakingModules.ThereisachoiceofReadingandWritingModules.Thefirstthreemodules–Listening,ReadingandWriting–mustbecompletedinoneday.TheSpeakingModulemaybetaken,atthediscretionofthetestcentre,eithersevendaysbeforeoraftertheotherthreemodules(effectivefromFebruary2002).AcomputerisedversionofIELTSListening,ReadingandWritingModules(CBIELTS)willbeavailableatselectedcentresduring2002.CandidateswhochoosetotakeCBIELTSListeningandReadingcanopttotaketheWritingModuleonscreenoronpaper.CBIELTScentreswillcontinuetoofferpaper-basedIELTS;candidateswillbegiventhechoiceofthemediuminwhichtheywishtotakethetest.MoreinformationonCBIELTSwillbemadeavailablepriortotheimplementationofliveCBIELTStesting.TestFormatListeningTime:30minutesCandidateslistentoanumberofrecordedtexts,whichincreaseindifficultyasthetestprogresses.TheseincludeamixtureofconversationsanddialoguesandfeatureavarietyofEnglishaccentsanddialects.Therecordingisheardonlyonce,butcandidatesaregiventimetoreadthequestionsandrecordtheiranswers.AcademicReadingTime:60minutesTherearethreereadingpassageswithtasks.Textsaretakenfrombooks,magazines,journalsandnewspapers,allwrittenforanon-specialistaudience.Atleastoneofthetextscontainsadetailedargument.AcademicWritingTime:60minutesForthefirsttask,candidateswriteareportofaround150wordsbasedonmaterialfoundinatableordiagram,demonstratingtheirabilitytodescribeandexplaindata.Forthesecondtaskcandidateswriteashortessayofaround250wordsinresponsetoanopinionoraproblem.Theyareexpectedtodemonstrateanabilitytodiscussissues,constructanargumentandusetheappropriatetoneandregister.GeneralTrainingWritingTime:60minutesTheformatofthetestisthesameastheequivalentAcademicmodule.Thefirsttaskrequirescandidatestowritealettereitheraskingforinformation,orexplainingasituation.Thesecondtaskisashortessayofaround250words,andiswritteninresponsetoagivenpointofvieworproblem.Candidatesareexpectedtobeabletopresenttheirownideasandchallengeotherideas,usingappropriatetoneandregister.SpeakingTime:11–14minutesThetesttakestheformofafacetofaceinterviewbetweenonecandidateandoneexaminer.CandidatesareassessedontheiruseofspokenEnglishtoanswershortquestions,speakatlengthonafamiliartopic,andalsotoaskquestionsandinteractwiththeexaminer.GeneralTrainingReadingTime:60minutesThetextsarebasedonthetypeofmaterialcandidateswouldbeexpectedtoencounteronadailybasisinanEnglishspeakingcountry.Theyaretakenfromsourcessuchasnewspapers,advertisements,instructionmanualsandbooks,andtestthecandidate’sabilitytounderstandanduseinformation.Thetestincludesonelongertext,whichisdescriptiveratherthanargumentative.Themodulesarealwaystakeninthefollowingorder.TheSpeakingModulemaybeadministeredbeforeoraftertheotherthreetestmodules.]6ListeningListeningTheListeningModuletakesaround30minutes.Thereare40questions.Therearefoursections.Thefirsttwosectionsareconcernedwithsocialneeds.Thereisaconversationbetweentwospeakersandthenamonologue.Forexample–aconversationabouttravelarrangementsordecisionsonanightout,andaspeechaboutstudentservicesonaUniversitycampusorarrangementsformealsduringaconference.Thefinaltwosectionsareconcernedwithsituationsrelatedmorecloselytoeducationalortrainingcontexts.Thereisaconversationbetweenuptofourpeopleandthenafurthermonologue.Forexample–aconversationbetweenatutorandastudentaboutanassignmentorbetweenthreestudentsplanningaresearchproject,andalectureortalkofgeneralacademicinterest.Allthetopicsareofgeneralinterestanditmakesnodifferencewhatsubjectscandidatesstudy.Textsandtasksbecomemoredifficultasthesectionsprogress.ArangeofEnglishaccentsanddialectsareusedintherecordingswhichreflectstheinternationalusageofIELTS.Avarietyofquestionsareused,chosenfromthefollowingtypes:multiplechoiceshort-answerquestionssentencecompletionnotes/summary/diagram/flowchart/tablecompletionlabellingadiagramwhichhasnumberedpartsclassificationmatching.Instructionsareclearandeasytofollow.Theyrequireaslittlereadingtimeaspossible.Examplesofanyunfamiliarquestiontypesaregiven.TheListeningModuleisrecordedonatapeandisheardONCEonly.Duringthetest,timeisgivenforcandidatestoreadthequestionsandenterandthenchecktheiranswers.Answersareentered,ascandidateslisten,ontheQuestionPaper.WhenthetapeendstenminutesareallowedforcandidatestotransfertheiranswerstoanAnswerSheet.Onemarkisawardedforeachofthe40itemsinthetest.ABandScoreconversiontableisproducedforeachversionoftheListeningModulewhichtranslatesscoresoutof40ontotheIELTS9-bandscale.Scoresarereportedasawholebandorahalfband.CandidatesshouldnotethatcareshouldbetakenwhenwritingtheiranswersontheAnswerSheetaspoorspellingandgrammararepenalised.SECTION2Questions11–20Questions11–15CirclethecorrectlettersA–C.11ThemostimportantreasonforasettlementattheRockswasAfreshwater.Bflatrock.Caseawall.12TheplaguewasbroughttoSydneybyArat-catchers.Bconvicts.Csailors13TheHarbourBridgewasbuiltAin10yearswith7deaths.Bin10yearswith17deaths.Cin17yearswith10deaths.14TheChinesecommunityarrivedintheRocksinA1825.B1844.C1870.15TheChineseshopsweremainlyArestaurantsandlaundries.Bsoapshopsandgeneralstores.Cgeneralstoresandlaundries.Questions16–20Completethetablebelow.WriteNOMORETHANTHREEWORDSforeachanswer.Numberofconvictsbroughtto16..................................NewSouthWalesDateoflastconvictship17..................................AgeofyoungestconvictnineCrimeofyoungestconvict18..................................Ageofoldestconvict19..................................CrimeofoldestconvicttellingliesMostseriouscrimemurderReasonformostcrimes20..................................[7AcademicReadingTheAcademicReadingModuletakes60minutes.Thereare40questions.Therearethreereadingpassageswithatotalof2,000to2,750words.Textsaretakenfrommagazines,journals,books,andnewspapers.Textshavebeenwrittenforanon-specialistaudience.Allthetopicsareofgeneralinterest.Theydealwithissueswhichareinteresting,recognisablyappropriateandaccessibletocandidatesenteringpostgraduateorundergraduatecourses.Atleastonetextcontainsdetailedlogicalargument.Onetextmaycontainnon-verbalmaterialssuchasdiagrams,graphsorillustrations.Iftextscontaintechnicaltermsthenasimpleglossaryisprovided.Textsandtasksbecomeincreasinglydifficultthroughthepaper.Someofthequestionsmayappearbeforeapassage,somemaycomeafter,dependingonthenatureofthequestions.Avarietyofquestionsareused,chosenfromthefollowingtypes:multiplechoiceshort-answerquestionssentencecompletionnotes/summary/diagram/flowchart/tablecompletionchoosingfroma‘headingbank’foridentifiedparagraphs/sectionsofthetextidentificationofwriter’sviews/claims–yes,noornotgivenidentificationofinformationinthetext–yes,noornotgiven/true,falseornotgivenclassificationmatchinglists/phrases.Instructionsareclearandeasytofollow.Examplesofanyunfamiliarquestiontypesaregiven.TextsandquestionsappearonaQuestionPaperwhichcandidatescanwriteonbutnotremovefromthetestroom.AllanswersmustbeenteredonanAnswerSheetduringthe60-minutetest.Noextratimeisallowedtotransferanswers.Onemarkisawardedforeachofthe40itemsinthetest.ABandScoreconversiontableisproducedforeachversionoftheAcademicReadingModulewhichtranslatesscoresoutof40ontotheIELTS9-bandscale.Scoresarereportedasawholebandorahalfband.CandidatesshouldnotethatcareshouldbetakenwhenwritingtheiranswersontheAnswerSheetaspoorspellingandgrammararepenalised.AcademicReading]8AcademicReadingAcademicReadingQuestions6–10Lookatthefollowinglistsofissues(Questions6–10)andimplications(A–C).Matcheachissuewithoneimplication.WritetheappropriatelettersA–Cinboxes6–10onyouranswersheet.ExampleAnswerThecurrentpriceofonewind-generatedkilowatt…...A...6Therecentinstallationofsystemstakingadvantageofeconomiesofscale…7ThepotentialofmeetingonefifthofcurrentU.S.energyrequirementsbywindpower…8Thelevelofacceptanceofcurrentwindturbinetechnology…9Acomparisonofcostsbetweenconventionalandwindpowersources…10TheviewofwindpowerintheEuropeanUnion…IMPLICATIONSAAprovidesevidenceagainstclaimsthatelectricityproducedfromwindpowerisrelativelyexpensive.BBsupportsclaimsthatwindpowerisanimportantsourceofenergy.CCopposestheviewthatwindpowertechnologyrequiresfurtherdevelopment.WindPowerintheU.S.Promptedbytheoilcrisesofthe1970s,awind-powerindustryflourishedbrieflyintheUnitedStates.Butthenworldoilpricesdropped,andfundingforresearchintorenewableenergywascut.Bythemid1980sU.S.interestinwindener-gyasalarge-scalesourceofenergyhadalmostdisappeared.Thedevelopmentofwindpoweratthistimesufferednotonlyfrombadlydesignedequipment,butalsofrompoorlong-termplanning,economicprojectionsthatweretoooptimisticandthedifficultyoffindingsuitablelocationsforthewindturbines.Onlynowaretechnologicaladvancesbeginningtoofferhopethatwindpowerwillcometobeacceptedasareliableandimportantsourceofelectricity.TherehavebeensignificantsuccessesinCalifornia,inparticular,wherewindfarmsnowhaveacapacityof1500megawatts,comparabletoalargenuclearorfossil-fuelledpowerstation,andproduce1.5percentofthestate’selectricity.Nevertheless,intheU.S.,theimageofwindpowerisstilldistortedbyearlyfailures.Oneofthemostpersistentcriticismsisthatwindpowerisnotasignificantenergyresource.ResearchersattheBattelleNorthwestLaboratory,however,estimatethattodaywindturbinetechnologycouldsupply20percentoftheelectricalpowerthecountryneeds.Asalocalresource,windpowerhasevengreaterpotential.Minnesota’senergycommissioncalculatesthatawindfarmononeofthestate’ssouthwesternridgescouldsupplyalmostallthatstate’selectricity.NorthDakotaalonehasenoughsitessuitableforwindfarmstosupplymorethanathirdofallelectricityconsumedinthecontinen-talU.S.Theprevailingnotionthatwindpoweristoocostlyresultslargelyfromearlyresearchwhichfocusedonturbineswithhugebladesthatstoodhundredsofmetrestall.Thesemachineswerenotdesignedforeaseofproductionormaintenance,andtheywereenormouslyexpensive.Becausethemajorfactorsinfluencingtheoverallcostofwindpowerarethecostoftheturbineanditssupportingsys-tems,includingland,aswellasoperatingandmaintenancecosts,itishardlysurprisingthatitwasthoughtatthetimethatwindenergycouldnotbesuppliedatacommerciallycompetitiveprice.MorerecentdevelopmentssuchasthoseseenonCaliforniawindfarmshavedramaticallychangedtheeconomicpictureforwindenergy.Thesesystems,likeinstallationsinHawaiiandseveralEuropeancountries,havebenefitedfromtheeconomiesofscalethatcomethroughstandardisedmanufacturingandpurchasing.Theresulthasbeenadramaticdropincapitalcosts:theinstalledcostofnewwindturbinesstoodat$1000perkilowattin1993,downfromabout$4000perkilowattin1980,andcontinuestofall.Designimprovementsandmoreefficientmain-tenanceprogramsforlargenumbersofturbineshavereducedoperatingcostsaswell.Thecostofelectricitydeliveredbywindfarmturbineshasdecreasedfromabout30centsperkilowatt-hourtobetween7and9cents,whichisgenerallylessthanthecostofelectricityfromconventionalpowerstations.Reliabilityhasalsoimproveddramatically.Thelatestturbinesrunmorethan95percentofthetime,comparedwitharound60percentintheearly1980s.Anothermisconceptionisthatimproveddesignsareneededtomakewindpowerfeasible.Outofthenumerouswindturbinedesignsproposedorbuiltbyinventorsordevelopers,thepropeller-bladetype,whichisbasedondetailedanalyticalmodelsaswellasextensiveexperimentaldata,hasemergedaspredominantamongthemorethan20,000machinesnowincommercialopera-tionworld-wide.Likethegas-driventurbinesthatpowerjetaircraft,thesearesophisticatedpiecesofrotatingmachinery.Theyarealreadyhighlyefficient,andthereisnoreasontobelievethatotherconfigurationswillproducemajorbenefits.Likeotherwaysofgeneratingelectricity,windpowerdoesnotleavetheenvironmententirelyunharmed.Therearemanypotentialproblems,rangingfrominterferencewithtelecommunica-tionstoimpactonwildlifeandnaturalhabitats.Buttheseeffectsmustbebalancedagainstthoseassociatedwithotherformsofelectricitygenera-tion.Conventionalpowerstationsimposehiddencostsonsociety,suchasthecontrolofairpollution,themanagementofnuclearwasteandglobalwarming.AswindpowerhasbeenignoredintheU.S.overthepastfewyears,expertiseandcommercialexploitationinthefieldhaveshiftedtoEurope.TheEuropeanUnionspends10timesasmuchastheU.S.governmentonresearchanddevel-opmentofwindenergy.Itestimatesthatatleast10percentofEurope’selectricalpowercouldbesuppliedbyland-basedwind-turbinesusingcurrenttechnology.Indeed,accordingtotheAmericanWindEnergyAssociation,anindepen-dentorganisationbasedinWashington,Denmark,Britain,SpainandtheNetherlandswilleachsurpasstheU.S.inthegeneratingcapacityofwindturbinesinstalledduringtherestofthedecade.Glossaryfossilfuel:coal,oilandnaturalgaskilowatt:1,000watts;awattisaunitofpowerkilowatt-hour:onekilowattforaperiodofonehourmegawatt:onemillionwattswindfarm:agroupofwindturbinesinonelocationproducingalargeamountofelectricitywindturbine:amachinewhichproducesenergywhenthewindturnsitsbladesQuestions1–5Completethesummarybelow.Chooseyouranswersfromtheboxbelowthesummaryandwritetheminboxes1–5onyouranswersheet.ExampleThefailureduringthelate1970sandearly1980sofanattempttoestablishawidespreadwindpowerindustryintheUnitedStatesresultedlargelyfromthe...1...inoilpricesduringthisperiod.Theindustryisnowexperiencingasteady...2...duetoimprovementsintechnologyandanincreasedawarenessofthepotentialinthepowerofwind.Thewindturbinesthatarenowbeingmade,basedinpartonthe...3...ofwide-rangingresearchinEurope,areeasiertomanufactureandmaintainthantheirpredecessors.Thishasledwind-turbinemakerstobeabletostandardiseandthusminimise...4....Therehasbeengrowing...5...oftheimportanceofwindpowerasanenergysource.criticismsuccessdesigncostsproductioncostsfailurestabilityoperatingcostsfallgrowthrecognitionscepticismdecisionseffectsdeclineresults[9GeneralTrainingReadingTheGeneralTrainingReadingModuletakes60minutes.Thereare40questions.Therearethreesectionsofincreasingdifficultywithatotalof2,000to2,750words.Textsaretakenfromnotices,advertisements,officialdocuments,booklets,newspapers,instructionmanuals,leaflets,timetables,booksandmagazines.Thefirstsection,socialsurvival,containstextsrelevanttobasiclinguisticsurvivalinEnglishwithtasksmainlyaboutretrievingandprovidinggeneralfactualinformation.Trainingsurvival,thesecondsection,focusesonthetrainingcontext,forexampleonthetrainingprogrammeitselforonwelfareneeds.Thissectioninvolvesatextortextsofmorecomplexlanguagewithsomepreciseorelaboratedexpression.Thethirdsection,generalreading,involvesreadingmoreextendedprosewithamorecomplexstructurebutwiththeemphasisondes

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