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English Grammar - IELTS 2002 Handbook.pdf

English Grammar - IELTS 2002 Ha…

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简介:本文档为《English Grammar - IELTS 2002 Handbookpdf》,可适用于外语学习领域,主题内容包含InternationalEnglishLanguageTestingSystemHandbookJanuaryEnglishforinternat符等。

InternationalEnglishLanguageTestingSystemHandbookJanuaryEnglishforinternationalopportunityIELTSSubjectManager(IELTS)UniversityofCambridgeLocalExaminationsSyndicateHillsRoadCambridgeCBEUUnitedKingdomTel:Fax:Email:ieltsuclesorgukTheBritishCouncilBridgewaterHouseWhitworthStreetManchesterMBBUnitedKingdomTel:Fax:Email:generalenquiriesbritishcouncilorgTheManager,IELTSAustraliaIDPEducationAustraliaGPOBoxCanberraACTAustraliaTel:Fax:Email:ieltsidpeduauManager,NorthAmericaCambridgeExaminationsandIELTSInternationalEastCorsonStreetSuitePasadena,CAUSATel:Fax:Email:bmeironceiiorgTestCentresTestDatesAcademicandGeneralTrainingcandidatesTestCentresAtthetimeofgoingtoprintIELTScanbetakenatapprovedtestcentresinoverdifferentcountriesThetestisadministeredcentrallybyUCLESbutthetestcentressupervisethelocaladministrationofthetestandensuretheprovisionofqualifiedandtrainedexaminersTheshadedareasonthemapbelowindicatecountrieswhereIELTStestcentresarelocatedForafulladdresslistofcentrespleaserefertopagestoIELTSisnotheldonsetdatesduringtheyearTestcentrescanarrangeanIELTSadministrationatanytime,accordingtolocalneedMostcentresconductatestingsessionatleastonceamonthandmoreoftenatpeaktimesSpecialtestsessionsareeasilyarrangedforparticularsponsorsorinstitutionsIndividualtestcentresshouldbecontactedfortheircurrentprogrammesCandidatesarenotallowedtorepeatthetestwithinthreemonthsatanycentreCandidatesmustselecteithertheAcademicorGeneralTrainingReadingandWritingModulesdependingonthestatedrequirementoftheirsponsororreceivinginstitutionTheAcademicReadingandWritingModulesassesswhetheracandidateisreadytostudyortraininthemediumofEnglishatanundergraduateorpostgraduatelevelAdmissiontoundergraduateandpostgraduatecoursesshouldbebasedontheresultsofAcademicModulesTheGeneralTrainingReadingandWritingModulesarenotdesignedtotestthefullrangeofformallanguageskillsrequiredforacademicpurposesTheemphasisofGeneralTrainingisonbasicsurvivalskillsinabroadsocialandeducationalcontextItissuitableforcandidateswhoaregoingtoEnglishspeakingcountriestocompletetheirSecondaryeducation,toundertakeworkexperienceortrainingprogrammesnotatdegreelevel,orforimmigrationpurposestoAustraliaandNewZealandShadedareasindicatecountrieswithIELTStestcentresTestFormatAllcandidatesaretestedinlistening,reading,writingandspeakingAllcandidatestakethesameListeningandSpeakingModulesThereisachoiceofReadingandWritingModulesThefirstthreemodules–Listening,ReadingandWriting–mustbecompletedinonedayTheSpeakingModulemaybetaken,atthediscretionofthetestcentre,eithersevendaysbeforeoraftertheotherthreemodules(effectivefromFebruary)AcomputerisedversionofIELTSListening,ReadingandWritingModules(CBIELTS)willbeavailableatselectedcentresduringCandidateswhochoosetotakeCBIELTSListeningandReadingcanopttotaketheWritingModuleonscreenoronpaperCBIELTScentreswillcontinuetoofferpaperbasedIELTScandidateswillbegiventhechoiceofthemediuminwhichtheywishtotakethetestMoreinformationonCBIELTSwillbemadeavailablepriortotheimplementationofliveCBIELTStestingTestFormatListeningTime:minutesCandidateslistentoanumberofrecordedtexts,whichincreaseindifficultyasthetestprogressesTheseincludeamixtureofconversationsanddialoguesandfeatureavarietyofEnglishaccentsanddialectsTherecordingisheardonlyonce,butcandidatesaregiventimetoreadthequestionsandrecordtheiranswersAcademicReadingTime:minutesTherearethreereadingpassageswithtasksTextsaretakenfrombooks,magazines,journalsandnewspapers,allwrittenforanonspecialistaudienceAtleastoneofthetextscontainsadetailedargumentAcademicWritingTime:minutesForthefirsttask,candidateswriteareportofaroundwordsbasedonmaterialfoundinatableordiagram,demonstratingtheirabilitytodescribeandexplaindataForthesecondtaskcandidateswriteashortessayofaroundwordsinresponsetoanopinionoraproblemTheyareexpectedtodemonstrateanabilitytodiscussissues,constructanargumentandusetheappropriatetoneandregisterGeneralTrainingWritingTime:minutesTheformatofthetestisthesameastheequivalentAcademicmoduleThefirsttaskrequirescandidatestowritealettereitheraskingforinformation,orexplainingasituationThesecondtaskisashortessayofaroundwords,andiswritteninresponsetoagivenpointofvieworproblemCandidatesareexpectedtobeabletopresenttheirownideasandchallengeotherideas,usingappropriatetoneandregisterSpeakingTime:–minutesThetesttakestheformofafacetofaceinterviewbetweenonecandidateandoneexaminerCandidatesareassessedontheiruseofspokenEnglishtoanswershortquestions,speakatlengthonafamiliartopic,andalsotoaskquestionsandinteractwiththeexaminerGeneralTrainingReadingTime:minutesThetextsarebasedonthetypeofmaterialcandidateswouldbeexpectedtoencounteronadailybasisinanEnglishspeakingcountryTheyaretakenfromsourcessuchasnewspapers,advertisements,instructionmanualsandbooks,andtestthecandidate’sabilitytounderstandanduseinformationThetestincludesonelongertext,whichisdescriptiveratherthanargumentativeThemodulesarealwaystakeninthefollowingorderTheSpeakingModulemaybeadministeredbeforeoraftertheotherthreetestmodulesListeningListeningTheListeningModuletakesaroundminutesTherearequestionsTherearefoursectionsThefirsttwosectionsareconcernedwithsocialneedsThereisaconversationbetweentwospeakersandthenamonologueForexample–aconversationabouttravelarrangementsordecisionsonanightout,andaspeechaboutstudentservicesonaUniversitycampusorarrangementsformealsduringaconferenceThefinaltwosectionsareconcernedwithsituationsrelatedmorecloselytoeducationalortrainingcontextsThereisaconversationbetweenuptofourpeopleandthenafurthermonologueForexample–aconversationbetweenatutorandastudentaboutanassignmentorbetweenthreestudentsplanningaresearchproject,andalectureortalkofgeneralacademicinterestAllthetopicsareofgeneralinterestanditmakesnodifferencewhatsubjectscandidatesstudyTextsandtasksbecomemoredifficultasthesectionsprogressArangeofEnglishaccentsanddialectsareusedintherecordingswhichreflectstheinternationalusageofIELTSAvarietyofquestionsareused,chosenfromthefollowingtypes:multiplechoiceshortanswerquestionssentencecompletionnotessummarydiagramflowcharttablecompletionlabellingadiagramwhichhasnumberedpartsclassificationmatchingInstructionsareclearandeasytofollowTheyrequireaslittlereadingtimeaspossibleExamplesofanyunfamiliarquestiontypesaregivenTheListeningModuleisrecordedonatapeandisheardONCEonlyDuringthetest,timeisgivenforcandidatestoreadthequestionsandenterandthenchecktheiranswersAnswersareentered,ascandidateslisten,ontheQuestionPaperWhenthetapeendstenminutesareallowedforcandidatestotransfertheiranswerstoanAnswerSheetOnemarkisawardedforeachoftheitemsinthetestABandScoreconversiontableisproducedforeachversionoftheListeningModulewhichtranslatesscoresoutofontotheIELTSbandscaleScoresarereportedasawholebandorahalfbandCandidatesshouldnotethatcareshouldbetakenwhenwritingtheiranswersontheAnswerSheetaspoorspellingandgrammararepenalisedSECTIONQuestions–Questions–CirclethecorrectlettersA–CThemostimportantreasonforasettlementattheRockswasAfreshwaterBflatrockCaseawallTheplaguewasbroughttoSydneybyAratcatchersBconvictsCsailorsTheHarbourBridgewasbuiltAinyearswithdeathsBinyearswithdeathsCinyearswithdeathsTheChinesecommunityarrivedintheRocksinABCTheChineseshopsweremainlyArestaurantsandlaundriesBsoapshopsandgeneralstoresCgeneralstoresandlaundriesQuestions–CompletethetablebelowWriteNOMORETHANTHREEWORDSforeachanswerNumberofconvictsbroughttoNewSouthWalesDateoflastconvictshipAgeofyoungestconvictnineCrimeofyoungestconvictAgeofoldestconvictCrimeofoldestconvicttellingliesMostseriouscrimemurderReasonformostcrimesAcademicReadingTheAcademicReadingModuletakesminutesTherearequestionsTherearethreereadingpassageswithatotalof,to,wordsTextsaretakenfrommagazines,journals,books,andnewspapersTextshavebeenwrittenforanonspecialistaudienceAllthetopicsareofgeneralinterestTheydealwithissueswhichareinteresting,recognisablyappropriateandaccessibletocandidatesenteringpostgraduateorundergraduatecoursesAtleastonetextcontainsdetailedlogicalargumentOnetextmaycontainnonverbalmaterialssuchasdiagrams,graphsorillustrationsIftextscontaintechnicaltermsthenasimpleglossaryisprovidedTextsandtasksbecomeincreasinglydifficultthroughthepaperSomeofthequestionsmayappearbeforeapassage,somemaycomeafter,dependingonthenatureofthequestionsAvarietyofquestionsareused,chosenfromthefollowingtypes:multiplechoiceshortanswerquestionssentencecompletionnotessummarydiagramflowcharttablecompletionchoosingfroma‘headingbank’foridentifiedparagraphssectionsofthetextidentificationofwriter’sviewsclaims–yes,noornotgivenidentificationofinformationinthetext–yes,noornotgiventrue,falseornotgivenclassificationmatchinglistsphrasesInstructionsareclearandeasytofollowExamplesofanyunfamiliarquestiontypesaregivenTextsandquestionsappearonaQuestionPaperwhichcandidatescanwriteonbutnotremovefromthetestroomAllanswersmustbeenteredonanAnswerSheetduringtheminutetestNoextratimeisallowedtotransferanswersOnemarkisawardedforeachoftheitemsinthetestABandScoreconversiontableisproducedforeachversionoftheAcademicReadingModulewhichtranslatesscoresoutofontotheIELTSbandscaleScoresarereportedasawholebandorahalfbandCandidatesshouldnotethatcareshouldbetakenwhenwritingtheiranswersontheAnswerSheetaspoorspellingandgrammararepenalisedAcademicReadingAcademicReadingAcademicReadingQuestions–Lookatthefollowinglistsofissues(Questions–)andimplications(A–C)MatcheachissuewithoneimplicationWritetheappropriatelettersA–Cinboxes–onyouranswersheetExampleAnswerThecurrentpriceofonewindgeneratedkilowatt…ATherecentinstallationofsystemstakingadvantageofeconomiesofscale…ThepotentialofmeetingonefifthofcurrentUSenergyrequirementsbywindpower…Thelevelofacceptanceofcurrentwindturbinetechnology…Acomparisonofcostsbetweenconventionalandwindpowersources…TheviewofwindpowerintheEuropeanUnion…IMPLICATIONSAAprovidesevidenceagainstclaimsthatelectricityproducedfromwindpowerisrelativelyexpensiveBBsupportsclaimsthatwindpowerisanimportantsourceofenergyCCopposestheviewthatwindpowertechnologyrequiresfurtherdevelopmentWindPowerintheUSPromptedbytheoilcrisesofthes,awindpowerindustryflourishedbrieflyintheUnitedStatesButthenworldoilpricesdropped,andfundingforresearchintorenewableenergywascutBythemidsUSinterestinwindenergyasalargescalesourceofenergyhadalmostdisappearedThedevelopmentofwindpoweratthistimesufferednotonlyfrombadlydesignedequipment,butalsofrompoorlongtermplanning,economicprojectionsthatweretoooptimisticandthedifficultyoffindingsuitablelocationsforthewindturbinesOnlynowaretechnologicaladvancesbeginningtoofferhopethatwindpowerwillcometobeacceptedasareliableandimportantsourceofelectricityTherehavebeensignificantsuccessesinCalifornia,inparticular,wherewindfarmsnowhaveacapacityofmegawatts,comparabletoalargenuclearorfossilfuelledpowerstation,andproducepercentofthestate’selectricityNevertheless,intheUS,theimageofwindpowerisstilldistortedbyearlyfailuresOneofthemostpersistentcriticismsisthatwindpowerisnotasignificantenergyresourceResearchersattheBattelleNorthwestLaboratory,however,estimatethattodaywindturbinetechnologycouldsupplypercentoftheelectricalpowerthecountryneedsAsalocalresource,windpowerhasevengreaterpotentialMinnesota’senergycommissioncalculatesthatawindfarmononeofthestate’ssouthwesternridgescouldsupplyalmostallthatstate’selectricityNorthDakotaalonehasenoughsitessuitableforwindfarmstosupplymorethanathirdofallelectricityconsumedinthecontinentalUSTheprevailingnotionthatwindpoweristoocostlyresultslargelyfromearlyresearchwhichfocusedonturbineswithhugebladesthatstoodhundredsofmetrestallThesemachineswerenotdesignedforeaseofproductionormaintenance,andtheywereenormouslyexpensiveBecausethemajorfactorsinfluencingtheoverallcostofwindpowerarethecostoftheturbineanditssupportingsystems,includingland,aswellasoperatingandmaintenancecosts,itishardlysurprisingthatitwasthoughtatthetimethatwindenergycouldnotbesuppliedatacommerciallycompetitivepriceMorerecentdevelopmentssuchasthoseseenonCaliforniawindfarmshavedramaticallychangedtheeconomicpictureforwindenergyThesesystems,likeinstallationsinHawaiiandseveralEuropeancountries,havebenefitedfromtheeconomiesofscalethatcomethroughstandardisedmanufacturingandpurchasingTheresulthasbeenadramaticdropincapitalcosts:theinstalledcostofnewwindturbinesstoodat$perkilowattin,downfromabout$perkilowattin,andcontinuestofallDesignimprovementsandmoreefficientmaintenanceprogramsforlargenumbersofturbineshavereducedoperatingcostsaswellThecostofelectricitydeliveredbywindfarmturbineshasdecreasedfromaboutcentsperkilowatthourtobetweenandcents,whichisgenerallylessthanthecostofelectricityfromconventionalpowerstationsReliabilityhasalsoimproveddramaticallyThelatestturbinesrunmorethanpercentofthetime,comparedwitharoundpercentintheearlysAnothermisconceptionisthatimproveddesignsareneededtomakewindpowerfeasibleOutofthenumerouswindturbinedesignsproposedorbuiltbyinventorsordevelopers,thepropellerbladetype,whichisbasedondetailedanalyticalmodelsaswellasextensiveexperimentaldata,hasemergedaspredominantamongthemorethan,machinesnowincommercialoperationworldwideLikethegasdriventurbinesthatpowerjetaircraft,thesearesophisticatedpiecesofrotatingmachineryTheyarealreadyhighlyefficient,andthereisnoreasontobelievethatotherconfigurationswillproducemajorbenefitsLikeotherwaysofgeneratingelectricity,windpowerdoesnotleavetheenvironmententirelyunharmedTherearemanypotentialproblems,rangingfrominterferencewithtelecommunicationstoimpactonwildlifeandnaturalhabitatsButtheseeffectsmustbebalancedagainstthoseassociatedwithotherformsofelectricitygenerationConventionalpowerstationsimposehiddencostsonsociety,suchasthecontrolofairpollution,themanagementofnuclearwasteandglobalwarmingAswindpowerhasbeenignoredintheUSoverthepastfewyears,expertiseandcommercialexploitationinthefieldhaveshiftedtoEuropeTheEuropeanUnionspendstimesasmuchastheUSgovernmentonresearchanddevelopmentofwindenergyItestimatesthatatleastpercentofEurope’selectricalpowercouldbesuppliedbylandbasedwindturbinesusingcurrenttechnologyIndeed,accordingtotheAmericanWindEnergyAssociation,anindependentorganisationbasedinWashington,Denmark,Britain,SpainandtheNetherlandswilleachsurpasstheUSinthegeneratingcapacityofwindturbinesinstalledduringtherestofthedecadeGlossaryfossilfuel:coal,oilandnaturalgaskilowatt:,wattsawattisaunitofpowerkilowatthour:onekilowattforaperiodofonehourmegawatt:onemillionwattswindfarm:agroupofwindturbinesinonelocationproducingalargeamountofelectricitywindturbine:amachinewhichproducesenergywhenthewindturnsitsbladesQuestions–CompletethesummarybelowChooseyouranswersfromtheboxbelowthesummaryandwritetheminboxes–onyouranswersheetExampleThefailureduringthelatesandearlysofanattempttoestablishawidespreadwindpowerindustryintheUnitedStatesresultedlargelyfromtheinoilpricesduringthisperiodTheindustryisnowexperiencingasteadyduetoimprovementsintechnologyandanincreasedawarenessofthepotentialinthepowerofwindThewindturbinesthatarenowbeingmade,basedinpartontheofwiderangingresearchinEurope,areeasiertomanufactureandmaintainthantheirpredecessorsThishasledwindturbinemakerstobeabletostandardiseandthusminimiseTherehasbeengrowingoftheimportanceofwindpowerasanenergysourcecriticismsuccessdesigncostsproductioncostsfailurestabilityoperatingcostsfallgrowthrecognitionscepticismdecisionseffectsdeclineresultsGeneralTrainingReadingTheGeneralTrainingReadingModuletakesminutesTherearequestionsTherearethreesectionsofincreasingdifficultywithatotalof,to,wordsTextsaretakenfromnotices,advertisements,officialdocuments,booklets,newspapers,instructionmanuals,leaflets,timetables,booksandmagazinesThefirstsection,socialsurvival,containstextsrelevanttobasiclinguisticsurvivalinEnglishwithtasksmainlyaboutretrievingandprovidinggeneralfactualinformationTrainingsurvival,thesecondsection,focusesonthetrainingcontext,forexampleonthetrainingprogrammeitselforonwelfareneedsThissectioninvolvesatextortextsofmorecomplexlanguagewithsomepreciseorelaboratedexpressionThethirdsection,generalreading,involvesreadingmoreextendedprosewithamorecomplexstructurebutwiththeemphasisondes

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