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English Grammar - IELTS 2002 Handbook.pdf

English Grammar - IELTS 2002 Ha…

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简介:本文档为《English Grammar - IELTS 2002 Handbookpdf》,可适用于外语学习领域,主题内容包含InternationalEnglishLanguageTestingSystemHandbookJanuaryEnglishforinternat符等。

[ International EnglishLanguage Testing System Handbook January 2002 English for international opportunity IELTS Subject Manager (IELTS) University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 1 Hills Road Cambridge CB1 2EU United Kingdom Tel: 44 1223 553355 Fax: 44 1223 460278 E-mail: ielts@ucles.org.uk The British Council Bridgewater House 58 Whitworth Street Manchester M1 6BB United Kingdom Tel: 44 161 957 7755 Fax: 44 161 957 7762 E-mail: general.enquiries@britishcouncil.org The Manager, IELTS Australia IDP Education Australia GPO Box 2006 Canberra ACT 2601 Australia Tel: 61 2 6285 8222 Fax: 61 2 6285 3233 E-mail: ielts@idp.edu.au Manager, North America Cambridge Examinations and IELTS International 100 East Corson Street Suite 200 Pasadena, CA 91103 USA Tel: 1 626 564 2954 Fax: 1 626 564 2981 E-mail: bmeiron@ceii.org ]4 Test Centres Test Dates Academic and General Training candidates Test Centres At the time of going to print IELTS can be taken at 251 approved test centres in over 105 different countries. The test is administered centrally by UCLES but the test centres supervise the local administration of the test and ensure the provision of qualified and trained examiners. The shaded areas on the map below indicate countries where IELTS test centres are located. For a full address list of centres please refer to pages 27 to 36. IELTS is not held on set dates during the year. Test centres can arrange an IELTS administration at any time, according to local need. Most centres conduct a testing session at least once a month and more often at peak times. Special test sessions are easily arranged for particular sponsors or institutions. Individual test centres should be contacted for their current programmes. Candidates are not allowed to repeat the test within three months at any centre. Candidates must select either the Academic or General Training Reading and Writing Modules depending on the stated requirement of their sponsor or receiving institution. The Academic Reading and Writing Modules assess whether a candidate is ready to study or train in the medium of English at an undergraduate or postgraduate level. Admission to undergraduate and postgraduate courses should be based on the results of Academic Modules. The General Training Reading and Writing Modules are not designed to test the full range of formal language skills required for academic purposes. The emphasis of General Training is on basic survival skills in a broad social and educational context. It is suitable for candidates who are going to English speaking countries to complete their Secondary education, to undertake work experience or training programmes not at degree level, or for immigration purposes to Australia and New Zealand. Shaded areas indicate countries with IELTS test centres. [5 Test Format All candidates are tested in listening, reading, writing and speaking. All candidates take the same Listening and Speaking Modules. There is a choice of Reading and Writing Modules. The first three modules – Listening, Reading and Writing – must be completed in one day. The Speaking Module may be taken, at the discretion of the test centre, either seven days before or after the other three modules (effective from February 2002). A computerised version of IELTS Listening, Reading and Writing Modules (CBIELTS) will be available at selected centres during 2002. Candidates who choose to take CBIELTS Listening and Reading can opt to take the Writing Module on screen or on paper. CBIELTS centres will continue to offer paper-based IELTS; candidates will be given the choice of the medium in which they wish to take the test. More information on CBIELTS will be made available prior to the implementation of live CBIELTS testing. Test Format Listening Time: 30 minutes Candidates listen to a number of recorded texts, which increase in difficulty as the test progresses. These include a mixture of conversations and dialogues and feature a variety of English accents and dialects. The recording is heard only once, but candidates are given time to read the questions and record their answers. Academic Reading Time: 60 minutes There are three reading passages with tasks. Texts are taken from books, magazines, journals and newspapers, all written for a non-specialist audience. At least one of the texts contains a detailed argument. Academic Writing Time: 60 minutes For the first task, candidates write a report of around 150 words based on material found in a table or diagram, demonstrating their ability to describe and explain data. For the second task candidates write a short essay of around 250 words in response to an opinion or a problem. They are expected to demonstrate an ability to discuss issues, construct an argument and use the appropriate tone and register. General Training Writing Time: 60 minutes The format of the test is the same as the equivalent Academic module. The first task requires candidates to write a letter either asking for information, or explaining a situation. The second task is a short essay of around 250 words, and is written in response to a given point of view or problem. Candidates are expected to be able to present their own ideas and challenge other ideas, using appropriate tone and register. Speaking Time: 11–14 minutes The test takes the form of a face to face interview between one candidate and one examiner. Candidates are assessed on their use of spoken English to answer short questions, speak at length on a familiar topic, and also to ask questions and interact with the examiner. General Training Reading Time: 60 minutes The texts are based on the type of material candidates would be expected to encounter on a daily basis in an English speaking country. They are taken from sources such as newspapers, advertisements, instruction manuals and books, and test the candidate’s ability to understand and use information. The test includes one longer text, which is descriptive rather than argumentative. The modules are always taken in the following order. The Speaking Module may be administered before or after the other three test modules. ]6 Listening Listening The Listening Module takes around 30 minutes. There are 40 questions. There are four sections. The first two sections are concerned with social needs. There is a conversation between two speakers and then a monologue. For example – a conversation about travel arrangements or decisions on a night out, and a speech about student services on a University campus or arrangements for meals during a conference. The final two sections are concerned with situations related more closely to educational or training contexts. There is a conversation between up to four people and then a further monologue. For example – a conversation between a tutor and a student about an assignment or between three students planning a research project, and a lecture or talk of general academic interest. All the topics are of general interest and it makes no difference what subjects candidates study. Texts and tasks become more difficult as the sections progress. A range of English accents and dialects are used in the recordings which reflects the international usage of IELTS. A variety of questions are used, chosen from the following types: multiple choice short-answer questions sentence completion notes/summary/diagram/flow chart/table completion labelling a diagram which has numbered parts classification matching. Instructions are clear and easy to follow. They require as little reading time as possible. Examples of any unfamiliar question types are given. The Listening Module is recorded on a tape and is heard ONCE only. During the test, time is given for candidates to read the questions and enter and then check their answers. Answers are entered, as candidates listen, on the Question Paper. When the tape ends ten minutes are allowed for candidates to transfer their answers to an Answer Sheet. One mark is awarded for each of the 40 items in the test. A Band Score conversion table is produced for each version of the Listening Module which translates scores out of 40 onto the IELTS 9-band scale. Scores are reported as a whole band or a half band. Candidates should note that care should be taken when writing their answers on the Answer Sheet as poor spelling and grammar are penalised. SECTION 2 Questions 11– 20 Questions 11– 15 Circle the correct letters A– C. 11 The most important reason for a settlement at the Rocks was A fresh water. B flat rock. C a sea wall. 12 The plague was brought to Sydney by A rat-catchers. B convicts. C sailors 13 The Harbour Bridge was built A in 10 years with 7 deaths. B in 10 years with 17 deaths. C in 17 years with 10 deaths. 14 The Chinese community arrived in the Rocks in A 1825. B 1844. C 1870. 15 The Chinese shops were mainly A restaurants and laundries. B soap shops and general stores. C general stores and laundries. Questions 16 – 20 Complete the table below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Number of convicts brought to 16 .................................. NewSouth Wales Date of last convict ship 17 .................................. Age of youngest convict nine Crime of youngest convict 18 .................................. Age of oldest convict 19 .................................. Crime of oldest convict telling lies Most serious crime murder Reason for most crimes 20 .................................. [7 Academic Reading The Academic Reading Module takes 60 minutes. There are 40 questions. There are three reading passages with a total of 2,000 to 2,750 words. Texts are taken from magazines, journals, books, and newspapers. Texts have been written for a non-specialist audience. All the topics are of general interest. They deal with issues which are interesting, recognisably appropriate and accessible to candidates entering postgraduate or undergraduate courses. At least one text contains detailed logical argument. One text may contain non-verbal materials such as diagrams, graphs or illustrations. If texts contain technical terms then a simple glossary is provided. Texts and tasks become increasingly difficult through the paper. Some of the questions may appear before a passage, some may come after, depending on the nature of the questions. A variety of questions are used, chosen from the following types: multiple choice short-answer questions sentence completion notes/summary/diagram/flow chart/table completion choosing from a ‘heading bank’ for identified paragraphs/sections of the text identification of writer’s views/claims – yes, no or not given identification of information in the text – yes, no or not given/true, false or not given classification matching lists/phrases. Instructions are clear and easy to follow. Examples of any unfamiliar question types are given. Texts and questions appear on a Question Paper which candidates can write on but not remove from the test room. All answers must be entered on an Answer Sheet during the 60-minute test. No extra time is allowed to transfer answers. One mark is awarded for each of the 40 items in the test. A Band Score conversion table is produced for each version of the Academic Reading Module which translates scores out of 40 onto the IELTS 9-band scale. Scores are reported as a whole band or a half band. Candidates should note that care should be taken when writing their answers on the Answer Sheet as poor spelling and grammar are penalised. Academic Reading ]8 Academic Reading Academic Reading Questions 6–10 Look at the following lists of issues (Questions 6–10) and implications (A–C). Match each issue with one implication. Write the appropriate letters A–C in boxes 6–10 on your answer sheet. Example Answer The current price of one wind-generated kilowatt … ...A... 6 The recent installation of systems taking advantage of economies of scale … 7 The potential of meeting one fifth of current U.S. energy requirements by wind power … 8 The level of acceptance of current wind turbine technology … 9 A comparison of costs between conventional and wind power sources … 10 The view of wind power in the European Union … IMPLICATIONS AA provides evidence against claims that electricity produced from wind power is relatively expensive. BB supports claims that wind power is an important source of energy. CC opposes the view that wind power technology requires further development. Wind Power in the U.S. Prompted by the oil crises of the 1970s, a wind- power industry flourished briefly in the United States. But then world oil prices dropped, and funding for research into renewable energy was cut. By the mid 1980s U.S. interest in wind ener- gy as a large-scale source of energy had almost disappeared. The development of wind power at this time suffered not only from badly designed equipment, but also from poor long-term planning, economic projections that were too optimistic and the difficulty of finding suitable locations for the wind turbines. Only now are technological advances beginning to offer hope that wind power will come to be accepted as a reliable and important source of electricity.There have been significant successes in California, in particular, where wind farms now have a capacity of 1500 megawatts, comparable to a large nuclear or fossil-fuelled power station, and produce 1.5 per cent of the state’s electricity. Nevertheless, in the U.S., the image of wind power is still distorted by early failures. One of the most persistent criticisms is that wind power is not a significant energy resource. Researchers at the Battelle Northwest Laboratory, however, estimate that today wind turbine technology could supply 20 per cent of the electrical power the country needs. As a local resource, wind power has even greater potential.Minnesota’s energy commission calculates that a wind farm on one of the state’s south western ridges could supply almost all that state’s electricity. North Dakota alone has enough sites suitable for wind farms to supply more than a third of all electricity consumed in the continen- tal U.S. The prevailing notion that wind power is too costly results largely from early research which focused on turbines with huge blades that stood hundreds of metres tall.These machines were not designed for ease of production or maintenance, and they were enormously expensive. Because the major factors influencing the overall cost of wind power are the cost of the turbine and its supporting sys- tems, including land, as well as operating and maintenance costs, it is hardly surprising that it was thought at the time that wind energy could not be supplied at a commercially competitive price. More recent developments such as those seen on California wind farms have dramatically changed the economic picture for wind energy. These systems, like installations in Hawaii and several European countries, have benefited from the economies of scale that come through standardised manufacturing and purchasing. The result has been a dramatic drop in capital costs: the installed cost of new wind turbines stood at $1000 per kilowatt in 1993, down from about $4000 per kilowatt in 1980, and continues to fall. Design improvements and more efficient main- tenance programs for large numbers of turbines have reduced operating costs as well.The cost of electricity delivered by wind farm turbines has decreased from about 30 cents per kilowatt-hour to between 7 and 9 cents, which is generally less than the cost of electricity from conventional power stations. Reliability has also improved dramatically.The latest turbines run more than 95 per cent of the time, compared with around 60 per cent in the early 1980s. Another misconception is that improved designs are needed to make wind power feasible. Out of the numerous wind turbine designs proposed or built by inventors or developers, the propeller- blade type, which is based on detailed analytical models as well as extensive experimental data, has emerged as predominant among the more than 20,000 machines now in commercial opera- tion world-wide. Like the gas-driven turbines that power jet aircraft, these are sophisticated pieces of rotating machinery. They are already highly efficient, and there is no reason to believe that other configurations will produce major benefits. Like other ways of generating electricity, wind power does not leave the environment entirely unharmed. There are many potential problems, ranging from interference with telecommunica- tions to impact on wildlife and natural habitats.But these effects must be balanced against those associated with other forms of electricity genera- tion. Conventional power stations impose hidden costs on society, such as the control of air pollution, the management of nuclear waste and global warming. As wind power has been ignored in the U.S. over the past few years, expertise and commercial exploitation in the field have shifted to Europe. The European Union spends 10 times as much as the U.S. government on research and devel- opment of wind energy. It estimates that at least 10 per cent of Europe’s electrical power could be supplied by land-based wind-turbines using current technology. Indeed, according to the American Wind Energy Association, an indepen- dent organisation based in Washington, Denmark, Britain, Spain and the Netherlands will each surpass the U.S. in the generating capacity of wind turbines installed during the rest of the decade. Glossary fossil fuel: coal, oil and natural gas kilowatt: 1,000 watts; a watt is a unit of power kilowatt-hour: one kilowatt for a period of one hour megawatt: one million watts wind farm: a group of wind turbines in one location producing a large amount of electricity wind turbine: a machine which produces energy when the wind turns its blades Questions 1– 5 Complete the summary below. Choose your answers from the box below the summary and write them in boxes 1–5 on your answer sheet. Example The failure during the late 1970s and early 1980s of an attempt to establish a widespread wind power industry in the United States resulted largely from the ...1... in oil prices during this period. The industry is now experiencing a steady ...2... due to improvements in technology and an increased awareness of the potential in the power of wind. The wind turbines that are now being made, based in part on the ...3... of wide-ranging research in Europe, are easier to manufacture and maintain than their predecessors. This has led wind-turbine makers to be able to standardise and thus minimise ...4... . There has been growing ...5... of the importance of wind power as an energy source. criticism success design costs production costs failure stability operating costs fall growth recognition scepticism decisions effects decline results [9 General Training Reading The General Training Reading Module takes 60 minutes. There are 40 questions. There are three sections of increasing difficulty with a total of 2,000 to 2,750 words. Texts are taken from notices, advertisements, official documents, booklets, newspapers, instruction manuals, leaflets, timetables, books and magazines. The first section, social survival, contains texts relevant to basic linguistic survival in English with tasks mainly about retrieving and providing general factual information. Training survival, the second section, focuses on the training context, for example on the training programme itself or on welfare needs. This section involves a text or texts of more complex language with some precise or elaborated expression. The third section, general reading, involves reading more extended prose with a more complex structure but with the emphasis on des

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