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首页 时间空间隐藏的本质

时间空间隐藏的本质

时间空间隐藏的本质

metaphor
2009-12-09 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《时间空间隐藏的本质pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

PREPUBLICATIONCOPYSUBJECTTOEDITORIALCORRECTIONSRevealingtheHiddenNatureofSpaceandTimeChartingtheCourseforElementaryParticlePhysicsCommitteeonElementaryParticlePhysicsinthestCenturyBoardonPhysicsandAstronomyDivisiononEngineeringandPhysicalSciencesTHENATIONALACADEMIESPRESSFifthStreet,NWWashington,DCNOTICE:TheprojectthatisthesubjectofthisreportwasapprovedbytheGoverningBoardoftheNationalResearchCouncil,whosemembersaredrawnfromthecouncilsoftheNationalAcademyofSciences,theNationalAcademyofEngineering,andtheInstituteofMedicineThemembersofthecommitteeresponsibleforthereportwerechosenfortheirspecialcompetencesandwithregardforappropriatebalanceThisstudywassupportedbyGrantNoPHYbetweentheNationalAcademyofSciencesandtheNationalScienceFoundationandContractNoDEFGERbetweentheNationalAcademyofSciencesandtheDepartmentofEnergyAnyopinions,findings,conclusions,orrecommendationsexpressedinthispublicationarethoseoftheauthor(s)anddonotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsoftheorganizationsoragenciesthatprovidedsupportfortheprojectInternationalStandardBookNumber(Book)AdditionalcopiesofthisreportareavailablefromtheNationalAcademiesPress,FifthStreet,NW,Lockbox,Washington,DC()or()(intheWashingtonmetropolitanarea)Internet,http:wwwnapeduCover:IndustrialdesignerJanHenrikAnderson,workingwithparticlephysicists,portraysthecollisionofaprotonandanantiprotonintheFermilabTevatronacceleratorByparameterizingthedifferentpropertiesofsubatomicparticleswithdifferentvisualelements(color,numberanddirectionofhelicalturns,visualweightofsolidandvoidspace,andsoon),AndersoncreatesavisualinterpretationoftheparticlephysicsatworkCourtesyofJHAndersonCopyrightbytheNationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaTheNationalAcademyofSciencesisaprivate,nonprofit,selfperpetuatingsocietyofdistinguishedscholarsengagedinscientificandengineeringresearch,dedicatedtothefurtheranceofscienceandtechnologyandtotheiruseforthegeneralwelfareUpontheauthorityofthechartergrantedtoitbytheCongressin,theAcademyhasamandatethatrequiresittoadvisethefederalgovernmentonscientificandtechnicalmattersDrRalphJCiceroneispresidentoftheNationalAcademyofSciencesTheNationalAcademyofEngineeringwasestablishedin,underthecharteroftheNationalAcademyofSciences,asaparallelorganizationofoutstandingengineersItisautonomousinitsadministrationandintheselectionofitsmembers,sharingwiththeNationalAcademyofSciencestheresponsibilityforadvisingthefederalgovernmentTheNationalAcademyofEngineeringalsosponsorsengineeringprogramsaimedatmeetingnationalneeds,encourageseducationandresearch,andrecognizesthesuperiorachievementsofengineersDrWmAWulfispresidentoftheNationalAcademyofEngineeringTheInstituteofMedicinewasestablishedinbytheNationalAcademyofSciencestosecuretheservicesofeminentmembersofappropriateprofessionsintheexaminationofpolicymatterspertainingtothehealthofthepublicTheInstituteactsundertheresponsibilitygiventotheNationalAcademyofSciencesbyitscongressionalchartertobeanadvisertothefederalgovernmentand,uponitsowninitiative,toidentifyissuesofmedicalcare,research,andeducationDrHarveyVFinebergispresidentoftheInstituteofMedicineTheNationalResearchCouncilwasorganizedbytheNationalAcademyofSciencesintoassociatethebroadcommunityofscienceandtechnologywiththeAcademy’spurposesoffurtheringknowledgeandadvisingthefederalgovernmentFunctioninginaccordancewithgeneralpoliciesdeterminedbytheAcademy,theCouncilhasbecometheprincipaloperatingagencyofboththeNationalAcademyofSciencesandtheNationalAcademyofEngineeringinprovidingservicestothegovernment,thepublic,andthescientificandengineeringcommunitiesTheCouncilisadministeredjointlybybothAcademiesandtheInstituteofMedicineDrRalphJCiceroneandDrWmAWulfarechairandvicechair,respectively,oftheNationalResearchCouncilwwwnationalacademiesorgivCOMMITTEEONELEMENTARYPARTICLEPHYSICSINTHESTCENTURYHAROLDTSHAPIRO,PrincetonUniversity,ChairSALLYDAWSON,BrookhavenNationalLaboratory,ViceChairNORMANRAUGUSTINE,LockheedMartinCorporation(retired)JONATHANABAGGER,JohnsHopkinsUniversityPHILIPNBURROWS,OxfordUniversitySANDRAMFABER,UniversityofCaliforniaObservatoriesSTUARTJFREEDMAN,UniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyJEROMEIFRIEDMAN,MassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyDAVIDJGROSS,KavliInstituteforTheoreticalPhysicsJOSEPHSHEZIR,EOPGroup,IncNORBERTHOLTKAMP,OakRidgeNationalLaboratoryTAKAAKIKAJITA,UniversityofTokyoNEALFLANE,RiceUniversityNIGELLOCKYER,UniversityofPennsylvaniaSIDNEYRNAGEL,UniversityofChicagoHOMERANEAL,UniversityofMichiganJRITCHIEPATTERSON,CornellUniversityHELENQUINN,StanfordLinearAcceleratorCenterCHARLESVSHANK,LawrenceBerkeleyNationalLaboratoryPAULSTEINHARDT,PrincetonUniversityHAROLDEVARMUS,MemorialSloanKetteringCancerCenterEDWARDWITTEN,InstituteforAdvancedStudyStaffDONALDCSHAPERO,DirectorTIMOTHYIMEYER,SeniorProgramOfficerDAVIDBLANG,ResearchAssociateVANAN,FinancialAssociateSTEVEOLSON,ConsultantEditorUneditedPrepublicationDraftvBOARDONPHYSICSANDASTRONOMYBURTONRICHTER,StanfordUniversity,ChairANNEILALSARGENT,CaliforniaInstituteofTechnology,ViceChairELIHUABRAHAMS,RutgersUniversityJONATHANABAGGER,JohnsHopkinsUniversityRONALDCDAVIDSON,PrincetonUniversityRAYMONDJFONCK,UniversityofWisconsinatMadisonANDREAMGHEZ,UniversityofCaliforniaatLosAngelesPETERFGREEN,UniversityofMichiganLAURAHGREENE,UniversityofIllinoisatUrbanaChampaignWICKHAXTON,UniversityofWashingtonFRANCESHELLMAN,UniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyERICHPIPPEN,MassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyMARCAKASTNER,MassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyCHRISTOPHERFMcKEE,UniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyJULIAMPHILLIPS,SandiaNationalLaboratoriesWILLIAMPHILLIPS,NationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnologyTHOMASMTHEIS,IBMTJWatsonResearchCenterCMEGANURRY,YaleUniversityStaffDONALDCSHAPERO,DirectorTIMOTHYIMEYER,SeniorProgramOfficerMICHAELHMOLONEY,SeniorProgramOfficerROBERTLRIEMER,SeniorProgramOfficerNATALIAJMELCER,ProgramOfficerBRIANDDEWHURST,SeniorProgramAssociateDAVIDBLANG,ResearchAssociatePAMELAALEWIS,ProgramAssociatePHILLIPDLONG,SeniorProgramAssistantVANAN,FinancialAssociateviiPrefaceheprincipalchargetotheCommitteeonElementaryParticlePhysicsinthestCenturywastorecommendprioritiesfortheUSparticlephysicsprogramforthenextyearsDescribedintheExecutiveSummaryandmorefullypresentedintheOverview,thecommittee’sconsideredresponseislaidoutindetailinthemaintextofthisreport,whichbeginsbydiscussingthescientificchallengesinparticlephysicsandconveyingthecurrentstatusoftheUSprogram,andthenpresentsthecommittee’sconsensusonthebestwaytosustainacompetitiveandgloballyrelevantUSparticlephysicsprogramGiventhecharge(seeAppendixB),thecompositionofthiscommitteewassomethingofanexperimentfortheNationalAcademiesThecommitteeincludedbutwentwellbeyondparticlephysicistsandacceleratorscientiststocomprisecondensedmatterphysicists,astrophysicists,astronomers,biologists,industrialists,andavarietyofexpertsinpublicpolicy,particularlysciencepolicyAsaresult,agooddealofeducationwasnecessaryduringthecourseofthestudy,andthoseofuswhoarenotparticlephysicistwouldliketoexpressourgratitudefortheintellectualgenerosityandpatienceofthecommittee’sphysicistsastheyprovideduswiththelevelofunderstandingnecessarytoproceedwithourtaskInthesamevein,thecommitteeowesagreatdealfortheirassistancetoourcolleaguesatthemajorparticlephysicslaboratoriesintheUnitedStates(ArgonneNationalLaboratory,BrookhavenNationalLaboratory,CornellLaboratoryforElementaryParticlePhysics,FermiNationalAcceleratorLaboratory,LawrenceBerkeleyNationalLaboratory,andStanfordLinearAcceleratorCenter),andtocolleaguesabroadattheDESYlaboratoryinHamburg,theCERNlaboratoryinGeneva,andtheJPARCandKEKlaboratoriesinJapanForthenonphysicistsonthecommittee,thetaskwasbothintellectuallyexcitingandsoberingSimplystated,wewerenotfullyawareofthechallengefacedbytheUSparticlephysicsprograminsustainingitstraditionofleadershipGiventheglobalizationofparticlephysics(andwithEuropeinvestingtwiceasmuchastheUnitedStatesandJapaninvestingnearlyhalfoftheUSannualbudgetforparticlephysics),identifyingacompellingleadershiprolefortheUnitedStateswasnotsimpleSincetheunfortunatedemiseoftheSuperconductingSuperColliderintheearlysandthesubsequentstagnationofsupportforUSeffortsinparticlephysics,theUSprogramhaslackedalongtermanddistinguishingstrategicfocusthatwouldgiveitacompetitiveanddistinctivepositionwithintheworldwideeffortinparticlephysicsTheentirecommitteecametobelievethatitwasessentialtoadoptacompellingsetofnationalprioritieswithinawelldefined,longtermstrategicframeworkEquallyimportant,weacceptedtheneedtoshouldersomeriskinordertomaximizetheopportunitytomeettheleadershipandscientificchallengesinparticlephysicsWithrespecttotheunusualcompositionofthecommittee(seeAppendixD),otherswilljudgewhetherthisexperimentshouldberepeated,butitisourjudgmentthatallmembersofthecommitteecontributeddistinctiveandimportantperspectivesthathelpedthegroupasawholetodeviseamorecompellingsetofrecommendationsInparticular,membersfromoutsideparticlephysicsposedchallengingquestionstothoseinsidethefieldandlistenedcarefullytotheargumentsTheresultwasanoverallsharpeningofeveryone’sthinkingaswellasstrongerconnectionstoabroadercontextTUneditedPrepublicationDraftviiiFinally,webothwanttopersonallyacknowledgeandthankeverycommitteememberforthetremendousattentionandefforteachdevotedtothisactivitySomememberstraveledgreatdistancestoparticipateinourmeetings,andeveryonemadedifficultchoicesaboutothercommitmentstomakethisprojectakeypriorityItisonlythroughthesegenerousandcombinedeffortsthatthisreportachievedclarityandclosureHaroldTShapiro,ChairSallyDawson,ViceChairCommitteeonElementaryParticlePhysicsinthestCenturyUneditedPrepublicationDraftixAcknowledgmentshisreportistheproductoflargeamountsofworkbymanypeopleThecommitteeextendsitsthanksandappreciationtoallwhoparticipatedinthisendeavoritwouldbeimpossibletonamethemallindividuallyThecommitteethanksthespeakerswhomadeformalpresentationsateachofthemeetingstheirpresentationsandtheensuingdiscussionswereextremelyinformativeandhadasignificantimpactonthecommittee’sdeliberationsThecommitteeisespeciallyappreciativeofeffortsbymembersoftheinternationalcommunity(RobertAymar,IanHalliday,YojiTotsuka,andAlbrechtWagner)toparticipateinitsMaymeetinginIllinoisanditsAugustmeetinginNewYorkAndingeneral,thecommitteeacknowledgestheextraworkrequiredtoprepareremarksaddressingthebroadspectrumofexpertiseonthecommitteeThecommitteealsoexpressesitdeepgratitudetothehostsandfacilitatorsforeachofitsmeetingsattheparticlephysicslaboratorieswithintheUnitedStates(JonathanDorfanatSLAC,MichaelWitherellandPiermariaOddoneatFermilab,andMauryTigneratCornell)Mostespecially,thecommitteeisgratefulforthehospitalityandwarmthofitshostsatsitevisitsabroad(RobertAymaratCERN,BrianFosteroftheUnitedKingdom,ShojiNagamiyaatJPARC,RobertoPetronzioofINFN,YojiTotsukaatKEK,andAlbrechtWagneratDESY)ThesevisitsoverseasweretremendouslyvaluableThecommitteealsothanksthosewhosentinlettersandemailmessagesinresponsetoquestionsposedbythecommitteeInparticular,theexcellenteffortsoftheLykkenSiegristsubpaneloftheHighEnergyPhysicsAdvisoryPanelwereveryhelpfulFinally,thecommitteethankstheBPAstaff(DonaldShapero,TimothyMeyer,andDavidLang)fortheirguidanceandassistancethroughoutthisprocessTUneditedPrepublicationDraftxAcknowledgmentofReviewershisreporthasbeenreviewedindraftformbyindividualschosenfortheirdiverseperspectivesandtechnicalexpertise,inaccordancewithproceduresapprovedbytheNationalResearchCouncil’sReportReviewCommitteeThepurposeofthisindependentreviewistoprovidecandidandcriticalcommentsthatwillassisttheinstitutioninmakingitspublishedreportassoundaspossibleandtoensurethatthereportmeetsinstitutionalstandardsforobjectivity,evidence,andresponsivenesstothestudychargeThereviewcommentsanddraftmanuscriptremainconfidentialtoprotecttheintegrityofthedeliberativeprocessWewishtothankthefollowingindividualsfortheirreviewofthisreport:WFBrinkman,PrincetonUniversityPersisDrell,StanfordLinearAcceleratorCenterRalphEichler,PaulScherrerInstitutePaulHGilbert,ParsonsBrinckerhoffQuadeandDouglas,IncIanHalliday,EuropeanScienceFoundationandScottishUniversitiesPhysicsAlliance,UniversityofEdinburghWickCHaxton,UniversityofWashingtonBernadinePHealy,USNewsandWorldReportRolfDieterHeuer,DeutschesElektronenSynchrotron,DESYJohnPHuchra,HarvardSmithsonianCenterforAstrophysicsSirChristopherLlewellynSmith,UnitedKingdomAtomicEnergyAuthority,CulhamDivisionJosephLykken,FermiNationalAcceleratorLaboratorySatoshiOzaki,BrookhavenNationalLaboratoryJohnPeoples,FermiNationalAcceleratorLaboratoryBurtonRichter,StanfordLinearAcceleratorCenterYojiTotsuka,HighEnergyAcceleratorResearchOrganization,KEKCharlesMVest,MassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyBruceDWinstein,UniversityofChicagoAlthoughthereviewerslistedabovehaveprovidedmanyconstructivecommentsandsuggestions,theywerenotaskedtoendorsetheconclusionsorrecommendations,nordidtheyseethefinaldraftofthereportbeforeitsreleaseThereviewofthisreportwasoverseenbyLouisJLanzerottiofNewJerseyInstituteofTechnologyandWilliamHapperofPrincetonUniversityAppointedbytheNationalResearchCouncil,theywereresponsibleformakingcertainthatanindependentexaminationofthisreportwascarriedoutinaccordancewithinstitutionalproceduresandthatallreviewcommentswerecarefullyconsideredResponsibilityforthefinalcontentofthisreportrestsentirelywiththeauthoringcommitteeandtheinstitutionTxiContentsExecutiveSummaryOverviewTheScientificExcitementandChallengesChallengestotheStandardModelRespondingtotheChallengesTheRoleoftheUnitedStatesinParticlePhysicsKeyQuestionsinParticlePhysicsCanAlltheForcesBetweenParticlesBeUnderstoodinaUnifiedFrameworkWhatDothePropertiesofParticlesRevealAbouttheNatureandOriginofMatterandthePropertiesofSpaceandTimeWhatAreDarkEnergyandDarkMatterandHowHasQuantumMechanicsInfluencedtheStructureoftheUniverseConclusionTheExperimentalOpportunitiesHighEnergyBeams:DirectExplorationoftheTerascaleDiscoveriesattheTerascaleToolsforExploringtheTerascalePhysicsattheTerascaleTowardtheTerascaleHighIntensityBeamsNature’sParticleSourcesInternationalCooperationinParticlePhysicsInternationalCooperationontheILCAPathForwardMechanismsforPlanningfortheFutureConclusionTheStrategicFrameworkTheScientificChallengeThePositionoftheUSProgramTheStrategicPrinciplesTheBudgetaryFrameworkRecentTrendsinSupportfortheUSParticlePhysicsProgramMultiyearPlansandBudgets

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