加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 地球的起源和演化

地球的起源和演化

地球的起源和演化

metaphor
2009-12-09 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《地球的起源和演化pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

VisittheNationalAcademiesPressonline,theauthoritativesourceforallbooksfromtheNationalAcademyofSciences,theNationalAcademyofEngineering,theInstituteofMedicine,andtheNationalResearchCouncil:•DownloadhundredsoffreebooksinPDF•Readthousandsofbooksonlineforfree•Exploreourinnovativeresearchtools–trythe“ResearchDashboard”now!•Signuptobenotifiedwhennewbooksarepublished•PurchaseprintedbooksandselectedPDFfilesThankyoufordownloadingthisPDFIfyouhavecomments,questionsorjustwantmoreinformationaboutthebookspublishedbytheNationalAcademiesPress,youmaycontactourcustomerservicedepartmenttollfreeat,visitusonline,orsendanemailtofeedbacknapeduThisbookplusthousandsmoreareavailableathttp:wwwnapeduCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedUnlessotherwiseindicated,allmaterialsinthisPDFFilearecopyrightedbytheNationalAcademyofSciencesDistribution,posting,orcopyingisstrictlyprohibitedwithoutwrittenpermissionoftheNationalAcademiesPressRequestreprintpermissionforthisbookISBN:,pages,x,()ThisPDFisavailablefromtheNationalAcademiesPressat:http:wwwnapeducataloghtmlhttp:wwwnapeducataloghtmlWeshipprintedbookswithinbusinessdaypersonalPDFsareavailableimmediatelyOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanetCommitteeonGrandResearchQuestionsintheSolidEarthSciences,NationalResearchCouncilCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtmlCommitteeonGrandResearchQuestionsintheSolidEarthSciencesBoardonEarthSciencesandResourcesDivisiononEarthandLifeStudiesORIGINANDEVOLUTIONOFEARTHRESEARCHQUESTIONSFORACHANGINGPLANETCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtmlTheNaTioNalacademiesPressFifthstreet,NWWashington,dcNOTICE:TheprojectthatisthesubjectofthisreportwasapprovedbytheGoverningBoardoftheNationalResearchCouncil,whosemembersaredrawnfromthecouncilsoftheNationalAcademyofSciences,theNationalAcademyofEngineering,andtheInstituteofMedicineThemembersofthecommitteeresponsibleforthereportwerechosenfortheirspecialcompetencesandwithregardforappropriatebalanceThisstudywassupportedbytheNationalScienceFoundation,AwardNoEARNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration,AwardNoNNHCEB,TO#USDepartmentofEnergy,AwardNoDEFGERandUSDepartmentofInteriorUSGeologicalSurvey,AwardNoHQGRAnyopinions,findings,conclusions,orrecommendationsexpressedinthispublicationarethoseoftheauthor(s)anddonotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsoftheorganizationsoragenciesthatprovidedsupportfortheprojectInternationalStandardBookNumber:(Book)InternationalStandardBookNumber:(Book)InternationalStandardBookNumber:(PDF)InternationalStandardBookNumber:(PDF)LibraryofCongressCatalogNumber:AdditionalcopiesofthisreportareavailablefromtheNationalAcademiesPress,FifthStreet,NW,Lockbox,Washington,DC()or()(intheWashingtonmetropolitanarea)Internet,http:wwwnapeduCover:SelectionofscalesanddisciplinesrelevanttoEarthscienceTop:Artist’sconceptionofanemergingsolarsystemaroundthestarBetaPictorisCourtesyofLynetteRCookandtheNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministrationBottomright:OutcropofNeoproterozoic(millionyearsold)platformcarbonates(left)andsubjacentinterbeddedcarbonaceousshalesandstromatoliticcarbonates(right)exposedbyrecedingglacier,northeasternSpitsbergenCourtesyofAndrewKnoll,HarvardUniversityBottommiddle:Asphericalglobalview(orthographicprojection)ofthewesternhemispheremillionyearsagoCourtesyofRonaldBlakey,NorthernArizonaUniversityBottomleft:GroundmotionintensitiesforasimulatedmagnitudeearthquakeontheSanAndreasFaultintheLosAngelesareaVisualizationcourtesyofAmitChourasiaandSteveCutchin,SanDiegoSupercomputerCenter,UniversityofCalifornia,SanDiego,basedondataprovidedbyKimOlsenandcolleagues,SouthernCaliforniaEarthquakeCenterBack:Repeatedimagesofthecrystalstructureofstishovite,amantlemineralthatcanstorewaterinEarth’sinteriorCourtesyofLarsStixrude,UniversityofMichiganCopyrightbytheNationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtmlTheNationalacademyofsciencesisaprivate,nonprofit,selfperpetuatingsocietyofdistinguishedscholarsengagedinscientificandengineeringresearch,dedicatedtothefurtheranceofscienceandtechnologyandtotheiruseforthegeneralwelfareUpontheauthorityofthechartergrantedtoitbytheCongressin,theAcademyhasamandatethatrequiresittoadvisethefederalgovernmentonscientificandtechnicalmattersDrRalphJCiceroneispresidentoftheNationalAcademyofSciencesTheNationalacademyofengineeringwasestablishedin,underthecharteroftheNationalAcademyofSciences,asaparallelorganizationofoutstandingengineersItisautonomousinitsadministrationandintheselectionofitsmembers,sharingwiththeNationalAcademyofSciencestheresponsibilityforadvisingthefederalgovernmentTheNationalAcademyofEngineeringalsosponsorsengineeringprogramsaimedatmeetingnationalneeds,encourageseducationandresearch,andrecognizesthesuperiorachievementsofengineersDrCharlesMVestispresidentoftheNationalAcademyofEngineeringTheinstituteofmedicinewasestablishedinbytheNationalAcademyofSciencestosecuretheservicesofeminentmembersofappropriateprofessionsintheexaminationofpolicymatterspertainingtothehealthofthepublicTheInstituteactsundertheresponsibilitygiventotheNationalAcademyofSciencesbyitscongressionalchartertobeanadvisertothefederalgovernmentand,uponitsowninitiative,toidentifyissuesofmedicalcare,research,andeducationDrHarveyVFinebergispresidentoftheInstituteofMedicineTheNationalresearchcouncilwasorganizedbytheNationalAcademyofSciencesintoassociatethebroadcommunityofscienceandtechnologywiththeAcademy’spurposesoffurtheringknowledgeandadvisingthefederalgovernmentFunctioninginaccordancewithgeneralpoliciesdeterminedbytheAcademy,theCouncilhasbecometheprincipaloperatingagencyofboththeNationalAcademyofSciencesandtheNationalAcademyofEngineeringinprovidingservicestothegovernment,thepublic,andthescientificandengineeringcommunitiesTheCouncilisadministeredjointlybybothAcademiesandtheInstituteofMedicineDrRalphJCiceroneandDrCharlesMVestarechairandvicechair,respectively,oftheNationalResearchCouncilwwwnationalacademiesorgCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtmlCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtml�COMMITTEEONGRANDRESEARCHQUESTIONSINTHESOLIDEARTHSCIENCESDONALDJDePAOLO,Chair,UniversityofCalifornia,BerkeleyTHUREECERLING,UniversityofUtah,SaltLakeCitySIDNEYRHEMMING,ColumbiaUniversity,Palisades,NewYorkANDREWHKNOLL,HarvardUniversity,Cambridge,MassachusettsFRANKMRICHTER,TheUniversityofChicagoLEIGHHROYDEN,MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology,CambridgeROBERTALRUDNICK,UniversityofMaryland,CollegeParkLARSSTIXRUDE,UniversityofMichigan,AnnArborJAMESSTREFIL,GeorgeMasonUniversity,Fairfax,VirginiaNationalresearchcouncilstaffANNEMLINN,StudyDirectorJAREDPENO,ResearchAssociateCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtml�iBOARDONEARTHSCIENCESANDRESOURCESGEORGEMHORNBERGER,Chair,UniversityofVirginia,CharlottesvilleGREGORYBBAECHER,UniversityofMaryland,CollegeParkKEITHCCLARKE,UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbaraDAVIDJCOWEN,UniversityofSouthCarolina,ColumbiaWILLIAMEDIETRICH,UniversityofCalifornia,BerkeleyROGERMDOWNS,ThePennsylvaniaStateUniversity,UniversityParkJEFFDOZIER,UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbaraKATHERINEHFREEMAN,ThePennsylvaniaStateUniversity,UniversityParkRUSSELLJHEMLEY,CarnegieInstitutionofWashington,Washington,DCMURRAYWHITZMAN,ColoradoSchoolofMines,GoldenLOUISEHKELLOGG,UniversityofCalifornia,DavisCLAUDIAINÉSMORA,LosAlamosNationalLaboratory,NewMexicoBRIJMMOUDGIL,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleVRAMAMURTHY,UniversityofMinnesota(retired),MinneapolisCLAYTONRNICHOLS,IdahoNationalEngineeringandEnvironmentalLaboratory(retired),StandpointRAYMONDAPRICE,Queen’sUniversity,Kingston,Ontario,CanadaBARBARAAROMANOWICZ,UniversityofCalifornia,BerkeleyJOAQUINRUIZ,UniversityofArizona,TucsonWILLIAMWSHILTS,IllinoisStateGeologicalSurvey,ChampaignRUSSELLESTANDSOVERBULL,AnadarkoPetroleumCorporation,Billings,MontanaTERRYCWALLACE,Jr,LosAlamosNationalLaboratory,NewMexicoHERMANBZIMMERMAN,NationalScienceFoundation(retired),Arlington,VirginiaNationalresearchcouncilstaffANTHONYRdeSOUZA,DirectorELIZABETHAEIDE,SeniorProgramOfficerDAVIDAFEARY,SeniorProgramOfficerANNEMLINN,SeniorProgramOfficerSAMMANTHALMAGSINO,ProgramOfficerCAETLINMOFIESH,AssociateProgramOfficerVERNAJBOWEN,AdministrativeandFinancialAssociateJENNIFERTESTEP,FinancialAssociateJAREDPENO,ResearchAssociateNICHOLASDROGERS,ResearchAssociateTONYAEFONGYEE,ProgramAssistantCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtml�ii�iiOverthepastfourdecades,Earthscientistshavemadegreatstridesinunderstandingourplanet’sworkingsandhistoryWeunderstandasneverbeforehowplatetectonicsshapesourplanet’ssurface,howlifecanbesustainedoverbillionsofyears,andhowgeological,biological,atmospheric,andoceanicprocessesinteracttoproduceclimateandclimaticchangeYetatthemostbasiclevel,thisprogresshasservedprincipallytolaybaremorefundamentalquestionsaboutEarthExpandingknowledgeisgeneratingnewquestions,whileinnovativetechnologiesandnewpartnershipswithothersciencesprovidenewpathstowardanswersTheCommitteeonGrandResearchQuestionsintheSolidEarthScienceswasestablishedattherequestoftheUSDepartmentofEnergy,NationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration,NationalScienceFoundation,andUSGeologicalSurveytoframesomeofthegreatintellectualchallengesinherentinthestudyofEarthandotherplanetsAlthoughmanyreportshaveidentifiedresearchprioritiesinEarthscience,fewhavecastthemascompelling,fundamentalsciencequestionsSuch“bigpicture”questionsmayrequiredecadestoanswerandresearchsupportfrommanyagenciesandorganizationsTheanswerstothesequestionscouldprofoundlyaffectourunderstandingoftheplanetonwhichweliveThecommitteebeganbydrafting“strawman”questionsandpublishingthemforcommentinEos,TransactionsoftheAmericanGeophysicalUnion(Linn,),ontheNationalAcademieswebsite,andinelectronicnewslettersoftheAmericanGeologicalInstituteandtheAssociationofWomenGeoscientistsWritteninputwasalsogatheredfromcolleaguesThecommitteemetfourtimestogatherinput,discusscommunityfeedback,andwriteitsreportAsmallcommitteecannothopetohavealltheexpertiseneededtocoverthebroadrangeoftopicsdiscussedinthisreportConsequently,thecommitteesolicitedessaysfromcolleaguesOfparticularnoteweretheessaysprovidedbyGregBeroza,KatharineCashman,andKevinZahnleOthercolleagueswhodevotedmanyhourshelpingthecommitteesortthroughideasincludeAlanAnderson,RichardBambach,KatherineFreeman,JamesKasting,BarbaraRomanowicz,SeanSolomon,andMaryLouZobackThecommitteeisdeeplyappreciativeoftheircontributionsThecommitteealsothanksthemanyotherindividualswhoprovidedinputorfeedbackonthequestions:RichardAllen,PaulBarton,StevenBenner,DavidBercovici,RobertBerner,RobertBlair,Jr,GudmundurBodvarsson,AlanBoss,GabrielBowen,SusanBrantley,DouglasBurbank,FrankBurke,KennethCaldeira,RichardCarlson,JohnChambers,FrederickColwell,KevinCrowley,GedeonDagan,AndrewDavis,WilliamDickinson,WilliamDietrich,DavidDiodato,BruceDoe,RobertDott,Jr,BenjaminEdwards,PeterEichhubl,MichaelEllis,WGaryErnst,DouglasErwin,RodneyEwing,FredrickFrey,ArthurGoldstein,LindaGundersen,DavidHalpern,WayneHamilton,TMarkHarrison,JohnHayes,JamesHead,MichaelHochella,Jr,VanceHolliday,RichardIverson,AHopeJahren,RaymondJeanloz,GeraldJoyce,JosephKirschvink,JohnLaBrecque,ThorneLay,AntonioLazcano,PrefaceCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtml�iiiPREFACECinTyLee,WilliamLeeman,JonathanLunine,ErnestMajer,MichaelManga,AnthonyMannucci,WilliamMcDonough,DanMcKenzie,MarciaMcNutt,HJayMelosh,PeterMolnar,IsabelMontanez,AlexandraNavrotsky,ShlomoNeuman,GaryOlhoeft,CarolynOlson,PeterOlson,MinoruOzima,NazarioPavoni,DonaldPorcelli,JonathanPrice,StevenPride,GeorgeRedden,PaulRenne,RobinReichlin,MarkRichards,DanielSchrag,NormanSleep,DKipSolomon,GerilynSoreghan,FrankSpear,GarySposito,StevenStanley,RossStein,RobertStern,DavidStevenson,LynnSykes,JackSzostak,ThomasTharp,LeonThomsen,OliverTschauner,TerryTullis,GregValentine,RichardVonHerzen,JosephWang,JamesWhitcomb,RaymondWillemann,MGordonWolman,NicholasWoodward,EvaZanzerkia,XiaobingZhou,andHermanZimmermanDonaldJDePaolo,ChairCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtmlixAcknowledgmentofReviewersThisreporthasbeenreviewedindraftformbyindividualschosenfortheirdiverseperspectivesandtechnicalexpertise,inaccordancewithproceduresapprovedbytheNationalResearchCouncil’sReportReviewCommitteeThepurposeofthisindependentreviewistoprovidecandidandcriticalcommentsthatwillassisttheinstitutioninmakingitspublishedreportassoundaspossibleandtoensurethatthereportmeetsinstitutionalstandardsforobjectivity,evidence,andresponsivenesstothestudychargeThereviewcommentsanddraftmanuscriptremainconfidentialtoprotecttheintegrityofthedeliberativeprocessWewishtothankthefollowingindividualsfortheirparticipationinthereviewofthisreport:DouglasErwin,SmithsonianInstitutionJonathanFink,ArizonaStateUniversityJeffreyFreymueller,UniversityofAlaskaRusselHemley,CarnegieInstitutionofWashingtonThomasJordan,UniversityofSouthernCaliforniaLouiseKellogg,UniversityofCalifornia,DavisRosamondKinzler,AmericanMuseumofNaturalHistoryJayMelosh,UniversityofArizonaFranklinOrr,StanfordUniversityNormanSleep,StanfordUniversityStevenStanley,UniversityofHawaiiDavidStevenson,CaliforniaInstituteofTechnologyRobertvanderHilst,MassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyAlthoughthereviewerslistedabovehaveprovidedmanyconstructivecommentsandsuggestions,theywerenotaskedtoendorsetheconclusionsorrecommendationsnordidtheyseethefinaldraftofthereportbeforeitsreleaseThereviewofthisreportwasoverseenbyMarciaMcNutt,MontereyBayAquariumResearchInstituteAppointedbytheNationalResearchCouncil,shewasresponsibleformakingcertainthatanindependentexaminationofthisreportwascarriedoutinaccordancewithinstitutionalproceduresandthatallreviewcommentswerecarefullyconsideredResponsibilityforthefinalcontentofthisreportrestsentirelywiththeauthoringcommitteeandtheinstitutionCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtmlCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtmlxiContentsSUMMARYORIGINSQuestion:HowdidEarthandotherplanetsformQuestion:WhathappenedduringEarth’s“darkage”(thefirstmillionyears)Question:HowdidlifebeginEARTH’SINTERIORQuestion:HowdoesEarth’sinteriorwork,andhowdoesitaffectthesurfaceQuestion:WhydoesEarthhaveplatetectonicsandcontinentsQuestion:HowareEarthprocessescontrolledbymaterialpropertiesAHABITABLEPLANETQuestion:WhatcausesclimatetochangeandhowmuchcanitchangeQuestion:HowhaslifeshapedEarthandhowhasEarthshapedlifeHAZARDSANDRESOURCESQuestion:Canearthquakes,volcaniceruptions,andtheirconsequencesbepredictedQuestion:HowdofluidflowandtransportaffectthehumanenvironmentREFERENCESAPPENDIXESABiographicalSketchesofCommitteeMembersBAcronymsandAbbreviationsCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtmlCopyright©NationalAcademyofSciencesAllrightsreservedOriginandEvolutionofEarth:ResearchQuestionsforaChangingPlanethttp:wwwnapeducataloghtml�SummaryModernsciencehasitsrootsinfundamentalquestionsabouttheoriginsofEarthandlifeThesegrandquestionsarerecordedintextsoftheancientGreeks,wholaidthefoundationsofEarthscienceandwhoselanguageprovidesmanyofitstermsAnalyticalapproachestoansweringthesequestionsdatebacktothethcenturyforplanetaryscienceandthethcenturyforgeologicalsciencePerhapsthefirst,andcertainlyoneofthemostcontroversial,ofthemoremoderngrandresearchquestionsingeologycamefromobservationsofsedimentaryrocksThethicknessofsedimentarybeds,theirvariablecharacterandstructure

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/30

地球的起源和演化

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利