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首页 尼克尔森-微观经济学理论(第八版)(英文原版)

尼克尔森-微观经济学理论(第八版)(英文原版)

尼克尔森-微观经济学理论(第八版)(英文原版)

淡淡的晴天
2009-12-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《尼克尔森-微观经济学理论(第八版)(英文原版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

IEIGHTHEDITIONhTHEORsicPRINCIPLESANDXTENSIONSuEIGHTHEDITIONMICROECONOMICTHEORYBASICPRINCIPLESANDEXTENSIONSWALTERNICHOLSONSOUTHWESTERNTHOMSONLEARNINGAustralia•Canada•Mexico•Singapore•SpainUnitedKingdom•UnitedStatesPrefaceTheeightheditionofMicroeconomicTheory:BasicPrinciplesandExtensionsisintendedtoprovidestudentswithacomprehensiveandaccessiblesummaryofmodernmicroeconomictheoryThisgeneralgoalforthetexthasremainedconstantoverthepastthirtyyearsdespitevastchangesintheactualtopicscoveredIdeallythisisaccomplishedbyincludingclear,intuitiveexplanationsoftheprincipalresultsandbystressingthemathematicalstructurecommontomostmicroeconomicproblemsThetextalsoseekstoprovidealinktomoreadvancedliteraturebyincludinganumberof"extensions"thatgatherinoneplaceresultsthatarefrequentlyassumedinthatliteratureNewtotheEighthEditionThiseditioncontinuesthegeneralpruningandrefocusingofthetextthatwasstartedintheSeventhEditiontogetherwithsomeextensiverewritingofseveralchaptersImportantadditionsinclude:•Acompletelyreworkedchapteronexternalitiesthatraisesthetheoreticallevelofthismaterialtobemoreconsistentwithotherpartsofthetext•Arevisedchapteronpubliceconomicsthatnowstressessomerecentresultsinthe"NewPoliticalEconomy"•Majorstreamliningofmuchofthematerialonthetheoryofthefirmespeciallyinconnectionwiththedevelopmentofthetheoryofcosts•Anewextensiononsecondorderconditionsthatintroducesabitof(lowkey)matrixalgebra•Avarietyofothernewextensionsandproblemsonsuchtopicsasauctions,preferencerevelation,environmentalregulation,andanumberoftopicsinfinanceand•Revisedstudentaids,including()Answersto"Queries"thataccompanyeachexample,()Briefanswerstooddnumberedproblems,and()acompleteglossaryviPrefaceAlloftheancillarieshavealsobeenupdatedforthisneweditionTheseinclude:•ThecomprehensivestudentWorkbookbyDavidStapleton,CornellUniversity•TheSolutionsManualandTestBankavailabletoinstructorsand•ThehomepageforthetextlocatedatwwwharcourtcollegecomeconHarcourtCollegePublisherswillprovidecopiesofthesesupplementsfreeofchargetothoseinstructorsqualifiedunderitsadoptionpolicyPleasecontactyourlocalsalesrepresentativetolearnhowyoumayqualifyAcknowledgmentsIamindebtedtoalloftheeconomistswhohavetakentheopportunitytooffersuggestionabouthowthisbookmightbeimprovedandmademoreusefuloverallofitseditionsEspeciallyhelpfulforthiseditionwereaseriesofdetailedreviewsoftheSeventhEditionpreparedby:•StephenABaker,CapitalUniversity•KwangSooCheong,UniversityofHawaii•LindaGhent,EasternIllinoisUniversity•JohnHoag,BowlingGreenStateUniversity•NicholasSVonortas,GeorgeWashingtonUniversityIhavetriedtofollowalloftheadviceIwasgiventhoughsometimesIhavebeenabitstubbornReaderswhofindtheextensiononsecondorderconditionsespeciallytrying,forexample,havenoonetoblamebutmesinceIwasuniformlyadvisedagainstincludingthisAmherstcolleagueswhohaveprovidedmewithmuchgoodadviceovertheyearsincludeFrankWesthoff,LisaTakeyama,andJohnIronsIhopetheywillagreethatIhave(finally)madesignificantimprovementsinmycoverageofpublicgoodsissuesStudentswhohavemademajorcontributionstothebookovermanyyearsincludeMarkBruni,EricBudish,AdrianDillon,DavidMacoy,JordanMilev,TatyanaMamut,KatieMerrill,andJeffRodmanTeachingatAmherstremainsfunbecauseofaneverendingstreamofsuchstudentstellingmewhereIhavegonewrongThestaffatThomsonLearningdiditsusualthoroughlyprofessionaljobinbringingthiseditiontopublicationinseeminglyrecordtimeAmyPorubskywasespeciallyhelpfulinhandlingallphasesofthebook'sdevelopmenthowshecanhandlesomanytaskssimultaneouslyismoreamazingtomethantheWalrasiangeneralequilibriumThecopyeditingbySteveHennecaughtmanyofmyerrorsandreallyimprovedmywritingstyleinseveralplacesThelargerformatdesignofthiseditionwasdevelopedbyJeanneWolfgeherIhopethisformatprovestobemuchmoresuitableforthisratherbulkybookCarolO'ConnellsupervisedtheproductionofthebookatGraphicWorldandIamverygratefulforherabilitytocatchmanypotentialproblemsatthelastminuteSpecialthanksagainareowedmyfamilyforhelpingwiththepreparationofthisbookmostofthedifficultieshavenowlandedonSusan,whonowmustendure(withuncommonlygoodspirits)mygrumpinessmoreorlessalonesincewePrefaceviienteredemptynesthoodTothelistofchildrenwhohavenotreadthisbook(Kate,David,Tory,and,atleastforthemoment,Paul),ImustnowaddtwospousesBradandKyuButIlovethemalldespitetheirlackofenlightenmentThehighpointformeofwastheadditionoftwonewgrandchildren(SarahandDavid)who,whenaddedtotwoyearoldBeth,arebeginningtoconstitutealargenewgenerationofpotentialnonreadersIwouldbemorethanhappytoreadthebooktotheminplaceofDrSeuss,butIdoubttheywillbemuchinterestedWalterNicholsonAmherst,MassachusettsAbouttheAuthorWalterNicholsonistheWardHPattonProfessorofEconomicsatAmherstCollegeHereceivedhisBAinmathematicsfromWilliamsCollegeandhisPhDineconomicsfromtheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyProfessorNicholson'sprimaryresearchinterestsareintheeconometricanalysesoflabormarketproblemsincludingwelfare,unemployment,andtheimpactofinternationaltradeHeisalsotheauthorofIntermediateMicroeconomicsandItsApplication,EighthEdition(HarcourtCollegePublishersTheDrydenPress,)ProfessorNicholsonandhiswife,Susan,liveinAmherst,MassachusettsTheirfourchildren(Kate,David,Tory,andPaul)areallsuccessfuladultsnowandaremuchmissedunderfootOverthepastthreeyears,theNicholsonfamilyhasgrowntoincludethreegrandchildren,Elizabeth,Sarah,andDavid,nowjoyfullyhelpingtofilluptheirhouseTheNicholsonsalsosharethathomewiththeirsedateandloveableLabradorRetriever,ToblerIXContentsINTRODUCTIONECONOMICMODELSTheoreticalModelsVerificationofEconomicModelsGeneralFeaturesofEconomicModelsDevelopmentoftheEconomicTheoryofValueModernDevelopmentsSummaryTHEMATHEMATICSOFOPTIMIZATIONMaximizationofaFunctionofOneVariableFunctionsofSeveralVariablesMaximizationofFunctionsofSeveralVariablesImplicitFunctionsTheEnvelopeTheoremConstrainedMaximizationEnvelopeTheoreminConstrainedMaximizationProblemsMaximization*$VithoutCalculusSecondOrderConditionsSummaryProblemsExtensionsSecondOrderConditionsandMatrixAlgebraXIContentsCHOICEANDDEMANDPREFERENCESANDUTILITYAxiomsofRationalChoiceUtilityTradesandSubstitutionAnAlternativeDerivationExamplesofUtilityFunctionsPerfectSubstitutesSummaryProblemsExtensionsSpecialPreferencesUTILITYMAXIMIZATIONANDCHOICEAnInitialSurveyTheTwoGoodCase:AGraphicalAnalysisThenGoodCaseIndirectUtilityFunctionExpenditureMinimizationSummaryProblemsExtensionsUtilityFunctionsandBudgetSharesINCOMEANDSUBSTITUTIONEFFECTS±±SDemandFunctionsChangesinIncomeChangesinaGood'sPriceTheIndividual'sDemandCurveCompensatedDemandCurvesAMathematicalDevelopmentofResponsetoPriceChangesRevealedPreferenceandtheSubstitutionEffectConsumerSurplusSummaryProblemsExtensionsShephard'sLemma,Roy'sIdentity,andPriceIndicesDEMANDRELATIONSHIPSAMONGGOODSTheTwoGoodCaseSubstitutesandComplementsNetSubstitutesandComplementsCompositeCommoditiesHomeProductionAttributesofGoodsandImplicitPricesSummaryProblemsExtensionsSpecialPreferencesContentsxiiiMARKETDEMANDANDELASTICITY±±MarketDemandCurvesElasticityRelationshipsAmongElasticitieTypesofDemandCurvesConstantElasticityFunctionsSummaryProblemsExtensionsAggregation,andEstimationPAVSCHOICEUNDERUNCERTAINTY±EXPECTEDUTILITYANDRISKAVERSION±ProbabilityandExpectedValueFairGamesandtheExpectedUtilityHypothesisTheVonNeumannMorgensternTheoremRiskAversionMeasuringRiskAversionTheStatePreferenceApproachtoChoiceUnderUncertaintySummaryProblemsExtensionsPortfolioTheoryandthePricingofRiskTHEECONOMICSOFINFORMATIONPropertiesofInformationTheValueofInformationInformationandInsuranceMoralHazardAdverseSelectionSummaryProblemsExtensionsTheEconomicsofSearch±OGAMETHEORYANDSTRATEGICEQUILIBRIUMBasicConceptsNashEquilibriuminGamesAnIllustrativeDormitoryGameExistenceofNashEquilibriaThePrisoner'sDilemmaATwoPeriodDormitoryGameRepeatedGamesGamesofIncompleteInformationSummaryProblemsxivContentsPARSPRODUCTIONANDSUPPLY±±PRODUCTIONFUNCTIONSMarginalProductivityIsoquantMapsandtheRateofTechnicalSubstitutionReturnstoScaleTheElasticityofSubstitutionSomeCommonProductionFunctionsTechnicalProgressSummaryProblemsExtensionsManyInputProductionFunctionsCOSTSDefinitionsofCostsCostMinimizingInputChoicesCostFunctionsShiftsinCostCurvesShortRun,LongRunDistinctionSummaryProblemsExtensionsInputSubstitutability±PROFITMAXIMIZATIONANDSUPPLYTheNatureandBehaviorofFirmsProfitMaximizationMarginalRevenueShortRunSupplybyaPriceTakingFirmProfitMaximizationandInputDemandProducerSurplusintheShortRunRevenueMaximizationManagersandthePrincipalAgentProblemSummaryProblemsExtensionsTheProfitFunctionContentsxvPERFECTCOMPETITION±THEPARTIALEQUILIBRIUMCOMPETITIVEMODELTimingoftheSupplyResponsePricingintheVeryShortRunShortRunPriceDeterminationShiftsinSupplyandDemandCurves:AGraphicalAnalysisMathematicalModelofSupplyandDemandLongRunAnalysisLongRunEquilibrium:ConstantCostCaseShapeoftheLongRunSupplyCurveLongRunElasticityofSupplyComparativeStaticsAnalysisofLongRunEquilibriumProducerSurplusintheLongRunSummaryProblems,^±APPLIEDCOMPETITIVEANALYSISOEconomicEfficiencyandWelfareAnalysisPriceControlsandShortagesTaxIncidenceAnalysisTradeRestrictionsSummaryProblemsGENERALCOMPETITIVEEQUILIBRIUMPerfectlyCompetitivePriceSystemASimpleGraphicalModelofGeneralEquilibriumComparativeStaticsAnalysisGeneralEquilibriumModelingExistenceofGeneralEquilibriumPricesMoneyinGeneralEquilibriumModelsSummaryProblemsExtensionsComputableGeneralEquilibriumModelsinTHEEFFICIENCYOFPERFECTCOMPETITIONSmith'sInvisibleHandHypothesisParetoEfficiencyEfficiencyinProductionEfficiencyinProductMixCompetitivePricesandEfficiencyDepartingFromtheCompetitiveAssumptionsMarketAdjustmentandInformationDisequilibriumPricingandExpectationsInformationandInefficientEquilibriaDistributionSummaryProblemsxviContentsMODELSOFIMPERFECTCOMPETITIONMODELSOFMONOPOLYBarrierstoEntryProfitMaximizationandOutputChoiceMonopolyandResourceAllocationMonopolyandProductQualityPriceDiscriminationDiscriminationThroughPriceSchedulesRegulationofMonopoliesDynamicViewsofMonopolySummaryProblemsExtensionsOptimalOutlaySchedulesTRADITIONALMODELSOFIMPERFECTCOMPETITIONPricingUnderHomogenousOligopolyProductDifferentiationEntrySummaryProblemsGAMETHEORYMODELSOFPRICINGPricinginStaticGamesEntry,Exit,andStrategyEntryandIncompleteInformationGamesofIncompleteInformationSummaryProblemsExtensionsStrategicSubstitutesandComplementsftPRICINGININPUTMARKETSFIRMS'DEMANDSFORINPUTSProfitMaximizationandDerivedDemandComparativeStaticsofInputDemandMathematicalDerivationResponsivenessofInputDemandtoChangesinInputPricesMarginalProductivityAnalysisandtheDeterminantsofFactorSharesMonopsonyintheInputMarketMonopolyintheSupplyofInputsSummaryProblemsExtensionsTheElasticityofDemandforLaborContentsxviiLABORSUPPLYOAllocationofTimeAMathematicalAnalysisofLaborSupplyMarketSupplyCurveforLaborOtherUsesoftheTimeAllocationModelLaborUnionsWageVariationSummaryProblemsCAPITALCapitalandtheRateofReturnDeterminationoftheRateofReturnTheFirm'sDemandforCapitalPresentDiscountedValueApproachtoInvestmentDecisionsOptimalResourceAllocationOverTimeSummaryProblemsAppendixTheMathematicsofCompoundInterestLIMITSOFTHEMARKETEXTERNALITIESANDPUBLICGOODSDenningExternalitiesExternalitiesandAllocativeInefficiencySolutionstotheExternalityProblemAttributesofPublicGoodsPublicGoodsandResourceAllocationLindahlPricingofPublicGoodsSummaryProblemsExtensionsPollutionAbatementPOLITICALECONOMICSSocialWelfareCriteriaSocialWelfareFunctionsTheArrowImpossibilityTheoremDirectVotingandResourceAllocationASimplePoliticalModelRepresentativeGovernmentRentSeekingBehaviorSummaryProblemsExtensionsVotingSchemesxviiiPrefaceBRIEFANSWERSTOQUERIESOSOLUTIONSTOODDNUMBEREDPROBLEMSGLOSSARYOFFREQUENTLYUSEDTERMSNAMEINDEXSUBJECTINDEXPARTINTRODUCTION±ECONOMICMODELSTHEMATHEMATICSOFOPTIMIZATIONThispartconsistsoftwochaptersthatprovidesomebackgroundforthestudyofmicroeconomictheoryChapterdescribesthegeneralapproachusedinmicroeconomics,withparticularattentiontoshowinghoweconomistsdeviseandverifysimplemodelsofeconomicactivitySomeofthephilosophicalissuesinvolvedintheconstructionofeconomicmodels,togetherwithananalysisofhow"good"modelsmightbedifferentiatedfrom"bad"ones,arealsodiscussedChapterhasamathematicalorientationItdescribesseveralmethodsthatcanbeusedtosolvemaximization(andminimization)problemsBecausemanyeconomicmodelsstartwiththeassumptionthateconomicagents(individuals,firms,governmentagencies,andsoforth)areseekingthemaximumvalueofsomething,giventheirlimitedresources,suchproblemsprovideamajorfocusforthisbookThemathematicaltechniquesintroducedinChapterwillbeusedrepeatedlyinlaterchapterstoderiveimplicationsabouteconomicbehaviorHPTECONOMICMODELSmThisbookillustrateshowmodelsareusedbyeconomiststoexplainthepricingofgoodsandservicesItsgoalistoprovidestudentswithastrongfoundationfortheirlaterworkinboththeoreticalandappliedfieldsineconomicsThisfirstchapterislargelyphilosophicalinnatureItlooksattheroleofmodelinginscienceandreviewsabitofthehistoryofeconomicsPartIntroductionTheoreticalModelsAmoderneconomyisaverycomplicatedplaceThousandsoffirmsengageinproducingmillionsofdifferentgoodsMillionsofindividualsworkinallsortsofoccupationsandmakedecisionsaboutwhichofthesegoodstobuyTakepeanuts,forexampleTheymustbeharvestedattherighttimeandshippedtoprocessorswhoturnthemintopeanutbutter,peanutoil,peanutbrittle,andnumerousotherpeanutdelicaciesTheseprocessors,inturn,mustmakecertainthattheirproductsarriveatthousandsofretailoutletsintheproperquantitiestomeetdemandBecauseitwouldbeimpossibletodescribethefeaturesofjustthesepeanutmarketsincompletedetail,economistshavechosentoabstractfromthecomplexitiesoftherealworldandtodeveloprathersimplemodelsthatcapturethe"essentials"Justasaroadmapishelpfuleventhoughitdoesnotrecordeveryhouseoreverybladeofgrass,economicmodelsof,say,themarketforpeanutsarealsoveryusefuleventhoughtheydonotrecordeveryminutefeatureofthepeanuteconomyInthisbookweshallbestudyingthemostwidelyusedeconomicmodelsWeshallseethat,eventhoughtheymakeheroicabstractionsfromthetruecomplexitiesoftherealworld,theynonethelesscapturemanyessentialfeaturesthatarecommontoalleconomicactivitiesTheuseofmodelsiswidespreadinboththephysicalandsocialsciencesInphysics,thenotionofa"perfect"vacuumoran"ideal"gasisanabstractionthatpermitsscientiststostudyrealworldphenomenainsimplifiedsettingsInchemistry,theideaofanatomoramoleculeisinactualityaverysimplifiedmodelofthestructureofmatterArchitectsusemockupmodelstoplanbuildingsTelevisionrepairersrefertowiringdiagramstolocateproblemsSotoo,economistshavedevelopedtheirmodelsasaidstounderstandingeconomicissuesTheseportraythewayindividualsmakedecisions,thewayfirmsbehave,andthewayinwhichthesetwogroupsinteracttoestablishmarketsVerificationofEconomicModelsOfcourse,notallmodelsprovetobe"good"Forexample,theearthcenteredmodelofplanetarymotiondevisedbyPtolemywaseventuallydisregardedbecauseitprovedincapableofexplainingaccuratelyhowtheplanetsmovearoundthesunAnimportantpurposeofscientificinvestigationistosortoutthe"bad"modelsfromthe"good"Twogeneralmethodshavebeenusedforverifyingeconomicmodels:()adirectapproach,whichseekstoestablishthevalidityofthebasicassumptionsonwhichamodelisbasedand()anindirectapproach,whichattemptstoconfirmvaliditybyshowingthatasimplifiedmodelcorrectlypredictsrealworldeventsToillustratethebasicdifferencesinthetwoapproaches,let'sbriefly

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尼克尔森-微观经济学理论(第八版)(英文原版)

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