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首页 *新书上架*【维特根斯坦】讲座与对话集:论美学、心理学与宗教信仰

*新书上架*【维特根斯坦】讲座与对话集:论美学、心理学与宗教信仰.pdf

*新书上架*【维特根斯坦】讲座与对话集:论美学、心理学与宗教信仰

九月虺
2009-11-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【维特根斯坦】讲座与对话集:论美学、心理学与宗教信仰pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

LWITTGENSTEINLECTURESCONVERSATIONSonAesthetics,PsychologyandReligiousBeliefCompiledromNotestakenbyYorickSmythies,RushRheesandamesTaylorEditedbyCyrilBarrettUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIAPRESSBerkeleyandLosAngeles·UniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeleyandLosAngeles,CaliforniaAllRightsReservedSecondprinting,LibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaCONTENTSPrefaceLecturesonAestheticsConversationsonFreudLecturesonReligiousBeliefviiPREFACEThefirstthingtobesaidaboutthisbookisthatnothingcon­tainedhereinwaswrittenbyWittgensteinhimselfThenotespublishedherearenotWittgenstein'sownlecturenotesbutnotestakendownbystudents,whichheneithersawnorcheckedItisevendoubtfulifhewouldhaveapprovedoftheirpublication,atleastintheirpresentformSince,however,theydealwithtopicsonlybrieflytoucheduponinhisotherpublishedwritings,andsinceforsometimetheyhavebeencirculatingprivatdy,itwasthoughtbesttopublishtheminaformapprovedbytheirauthorsThelecturesonaestheticsweredeliveredinprivateroomsinCambridgeinthesumerofTheyweregiventoasmailgroupofstudents,whichincludedRushRhees,YorickSmythies,JamesTaylor,CasmirLewy,TheodoreRedpathandMauriceDrury(whosenamesoccurinthetext)Thenameofanotherstudent,Ursell,alsooccursinthetext(p),buthedidnotattendthelecturesThelecturesonreligiousbeliefbdongtoacourseonbeliefgivenaboutthesametimeTheconversationsonFreudbetweenWittgensteinandRushRheestookplacebetweenandBesidesthenotesoftheconversationsonFreud,thoseofthefourthlectureonaestheticsarebyRushRheestherestarebySmythiesSince·wepossessthreeversionsofthefirstthreelecturesonaesthetics(bySmythies,RheesandTaylorreferredtorespectivelyasS,R,andT)andtwoversionsofthefourthlecture,themostcompleteversionhasbeenchosenasthetextandsignificantvariantshavebeenaddedinfootnoteThenoteshavebeenprintedastheyweretakendownatthetime,exceptforsomeminorgramticalcorrectionsandafewomissionswheretheoriginalwasindecipherableAlthoughthediferentversionsagreetoaremarkableextent,theirauthors·donotvouchfortheiraccuracyineverydetail:theydonotclaimtogiveaverbatimreportofwhatWittgensteinsaidTheinclusionofvariantsmaygivetowhatwere,afteral,nomorethaninformaldiscussions,animportanceandsolemnityPREFACEwhichmayseeminappropriateOntheotherhand,asshouldbeclear,thedifrentversionscomplementandclarifyeachother,andatthesametimehintattheircloseagreement(whichcouldbedemonstratedonlybyprintingalversionsinful)ItmighthavebeenpossIbletoconfiatetheversionsintoasingletext,butitseemedbettertopreserveeachversionasitwastakendownandleavethereadertoreconstructacompositetextforhimselfAttimes,intheinterestsofclarityandsmootherreading,someofthevariantshavebeenintroducedintothetextWhereverthisisdone,andalsowhereeditorialemendationshavebeenmade,squarebracketshavebeenemployedTheuseofthreedots()usualyindicatesthatthereisalacunaoranindecipherablepassageinthetextFinally,awordaboutthechoiceofmaterialThisisonlyaselectionfromtheextantstudents'notesofWittgenstein'slecturesYet,inspiteofappearances,itisnotarandomselectionThenotesprintedherereflectWittgenstein'sopinionsonandattitudetolife,toreligious,psychologicalandartisticquestionsThatWittgensteinhimselfdidnotkeepthesequestionsseparateisclear,forexample,fromGEMoore'saccountofthelectures(Mind)CBLECTURESONAESTHETICSIThesubject(Aesthetics)isverybigandentirelymis­understoodasfarasIcanseeTheuseofsuchawordas'beautiful'isevenmoreapttobemisunderstoodifyoulookatthelinguisticformofsentencesinwhichitoccursthanmostotherwords'Beautiful'and'good'Risanadjective,soyouareinclinedtosay:"Thishasacertainquality,thatofbeingbeautiful"Wearegoingfromonesubjectmatterofphilosophytoanother,fromonegroupofwordstoanothergroupofwordsAnintelligentwayofdividingupabookonphilosophywouldbeintopartsofspeech,kindsofwordsWhereinfactyouwouldhavetodistinguishfarmorepartsofspeechthananordinarygramdoesYouwouldtalkforhoursandhoursontheverbs'seeing','feeling',etc,verbsdescribingpersonalexperienceWegetapeculiarkindofconfusionorconfusionswhichcomesupwithalthesewordsYouwouldhaveanotherchapteronnumeralsheretherewouldbeanotherkindofconfusion:achapteron'al','any','some',etcanotherkindofconfusion:achapteron'you','',etcanotherkind:achapteron'beautiful','good'anotherkindWegetintoanewgroupofconfusionslanguageplaysusentirelynewtricksIhaveoftencomparedlanguagetoatoolchest,containingahamer,chisel,matches,nails,screws,glueItisnotachancethatalthesethingshavebeenputtogetherbutthereareimport­antdifferencesbetweenthediferenttoolstheyareusedinafamilyofwaysthoughnothingcouldbemorediferentthanglueandachiselThereisconstantsurpriseatthenewtrickslanguageplaysonuswhenwegetintoanewfieldOnethingwealwaysdowhendiscussingawordistoaskhowweweretaughtitDoingthisontheonehanddestroysavarietyofmisconceptions,ontheotherhandgivesyouaprimitivelanguageinwhichthewordisusedAlthoughthislanguageisnotwhatyoutalkwhenyouaretwenty,yougetaHerewefindsimilaritieswefindpeculill'sortsofconfusionwhichcomeupwithalitheseW'dsRLECTURESANDCONVERSATIONSroughapproximationtowhatkindofIanguagegameisgoingtobeplayedaHowdidweleam'Idreamtsoandso'Theinterestingpointisthatwedidn'tlearnitbybeingshownadreamIfyouaskyourselfhowa·childlearns'beautiful','fine',etc,youfinditlearnsthemroughlyasinterjections('Beautiful'isanoddwordtotalkaboutbecauseit'shardlyeverused)Achildgenerallyappliesawordlike'good'firsttofoodOnethingthatisinunenselyimportantinteachingisexaggeratedgesturesandfacialexpressionsThewordistaughtasasubstituteforafacialexpressionoragestureThegestures,tonesofvoice,etc,inthiscaseareexpressionsofapprovalWhatmakesthewordaninterjectionofapprovallItisthegameitappearsin,nottheformofwords(IfIhadtosaywhatisthemainmistakemadebyphilosophersofthepresentgeneration,includingMoore,Iwouldsaythatitisthatwhenlanguageislookedat,whatislookedatisaformofwordsandnottheusemadeoftheformofwords)Languageisacharacteristicpartofalargegroupofactivitiestalking,writing,travellingonabus,meetingaman,etcWeareconcentrating,notonthewords'good'or'beautiful',whichareentirelyuncharacteristic,generallyjustsubjectandpredicate('Thisisbeautiful'),butontheoccasionsonwhichtheyaresaidontheenormouslycomplicatedsituationinwhichtheaestheticexpressionhasaplace,inwhichtheexpressionitselfhasalmostanegligibleplaceIfyoucametoaforeigntribe,whoselanguageyoudidn'tknowatalandyouwishedtoknowwhatwordscorrespondedto'good','fine',etc,whatwouldyoulookforYouwouldlookforsmiles,gestures,food,toys(Replytoobjection:IfyouwenttoMarsandmenweresphereswithstickscomingout,youwouldn'tknowwhattolookforOrifyouwenttoatribewherenoisesmadewiththemouthwerejustbreathingormakingmusic,andlanguagewasmadewiththeearsCf"Whenyouseetreesswayingabouttheyaretalkingtooneanother"("EveryAndnotofdisappl:'oval:'ofsutpl:'ise,fol:'example(ThechildundetStandsthegestUl'eswhichyouuseinteachinghimIfhedidnot,hecouldundel'Standnothing)RIWhenwebuildhouses,wetalkandwl:'iteWhenItakeabus,Isaytotheconductol:':'Thl'ecpeny'Weueconcenttatingnotjustontheword:'thesentenceinwhichitisusedwhichishighlyunc:huac:tisticbutontheociononwhichitissaid:theframeworkinwhich(notabene)theactualaestheticjudgmentispl'acticallynothingatalRLECTURESONAESTHETICSthinghasasoul")YoucomparethebrancheswitharmsCer­tainlywemustinterpretthegesturesofthetribeontheanalogyofours)HowfarthistakesusfromnormalaestheticsandethicsTWedon'tstartfromcertainwords,butfromcertainoccasionsoractivitiesAcharacteristicthingaboutourlanguageisthatalargenumberofwordsusedunderthesecircumstancesareadjectives'fine','lovely',etcButyouseethatthisisbynomeansnecessaryYousawthattheywerefirstusedasinterjectionsWoulditmatterifinsteadofsaying"Thisislovely",Ijustsaid"Ah!"andsmiled,orjustrubbedmystomachAsfarastheseprimitivelanguagesgo,problemsaboutwhatthesewordsareabout,whattheirrealsubjectis,whichiscalled'beautiful'or'good'Rldon'tcomeupatalItisremarkablethatinreallife,whenaestheticjudgementsaremade,aestheticadjectivessuchas'beautiful','fine',etc,playhardlyanyroleataltAreaestheticadjectivesusedinamusicalcriticismYousay:"Lookatthistransition'',ZorRhees"Thepassagehereisincoherent"Oryousay,inapoeticalcriticism,Taylor:"Hisuseofimagesisprecise"Thewordsyouusearemoreakinto'right'and'correct'(asthesewordsareusedinordinaryspeech)thanto'beautiful'and'lovely'Wordssuchas'lovely'arefirstusedasinterjectionsLatertheyareusedonveryfewoccasionsWemightsayofapieceofmusicthatitislovely,bythisnotpraisingitbutgivingitacharacter(Alotofpeople,ofcourse,whocan'texpressthemselvesproperlyusethewordveryfrequentlyAstheyuseit,itisusedasaninterjection)Imightask:"ForwhatmelodywouldImostliketousetheword'lovely'"Imightchoosebetweencalngamelody'lovely'andcallingit'youthful'Itisstupidtocalapieceofmusic'SpringMelody'or'SpringSym­phony'Buttheword'springy'wouldn'tbeabsurdatall,anymorethan'stately'or'pompous'WhatthethingthatisreallygoodisTI'Thetransitionwasmadeintherightway'TaItwouldbebettertouse'lovely'descriptively,onalevelwith'stately','pomp­ous,'etcTLECTURESANDCONVERSATIONSIfIwereagooddraughtsman,Icouldconveyaninnum­erablenumberofexpressionsbyfourstrokesSuchwordsas'pompous'and'stately>couldbeexpressedbyfacesDoingthis,ourdescriptionswouldbemuchmoreflexibleandvariousthantheyareasexpressedbyadjectivesIfIsayofapieceofSchubert'sthatitismelancholy,thatislikegivingitaface(Idon'texpressapprovalordisapproval)IcouldinsteadusegesturesorRheesdancingInfact,ifwewanttobeexact,wedouseagestureorafacialexpressionRhees:Whatruleareweusingorreferringtowhenwesay:"Thisisthecorrectway"Ifamusicteachersaysapieceshouldbeplayedthiswayandplaysit,whatisheappealingtoTakethequestion:"HowshouldpoetrybereadWhatisthecorrectwayofreadingit"Ifyouaretalkingaboutblankversetherightwayofreadingitmightbestressingitcorrectly­youdiscusshowfaryoushouldstresstherhythmandhowfaryoushouldhideitAmansaysitoughttobereadthiswayandreadsitouttoyouYousay:"OhyesNowitmakessense"Therearecasesofpoetrywhichshouldalmostbescanned­wherethemetreisasclearascrystalotherswherethemetreisentirelyinthebackgroundIhadanexperiencewiththethcenturypoetKlopstockIfoundthatthewaytoreadhimwastostresshismetreabnormallyKlopstockput�(etc)infrontofhispoemsWhenIreadhispoemsinthisnewway,Isaid:"Ahha,nowIknowwhyhedidthis"WhathadhappenedIhadreadthiskindofstuffandhadbeenmoderatelybored,butwhenIreaditinthisparticularway,intensely,Ismiled,said:"Thisisgrand,"etcButImightnothavesaidanythingTheimportantfactwasthatIreaditagainandagainWhenIreadthesepoemsImadegesturesandfacialexpressionswhichwerewhatwouldbecalledgesturesofapprovalButtheimportantFriedrichGottliebK!opstock()WittgensteinisreferringtotheOdes(GesammelteWerke,Stuttgart,)KlopstockbelievedthatpoeticdictionwasdistinctfrompopularlanguageHerejectedrhymeasvulgarandintroducedinsteadthemetresofancientliteratureEdLECTURESONAESTHETICSthingwasthatIreadthepoemsentirelydifferently,moreintensely,andsaidtoothers:"Look!Thisishowtheyshouldberead"lAestheticadjectivesplayedhardlyanyroleWhatdoesapersonwhoknowsagoodsuitsaywhentryingonasuitatthetailor's"That'stherightlength","That'stooshort","That'stoonarrow"Wordsofapprovalplaynorole,althoughhewilllookpleasedwhenthecoatsuitshimInsteadof"That'stooshort"Imightsay"Look!"orinsteadof"Right"Imightsay"Leaveitasitis"Agoodcuttermaynotuseanywordsatall,butjustmakeachalkmarkandlateralteritHowdoIshowmyapprovalofasuitChieflybywearingitoften,likingitwhenitisseen,etc(IfIgiveyouthelightandshadowonabodyinapictureIcantherebygiveyoutheshapeofitButifIgiveyouthehigh­lightsinapictureyoudon'tknowwhattheshapeis)Inthecaseoftheword'correct'youhaveavarietyofrelatedcasesThereisfirstthecaseinwhichyoulearntherulesThecutterlearnshowlongacoatistobe,howwidethesleevemustbe,etcHelearnsrulesheisdrilledasinmusicyouaredrilledinharmonyandcounterpointSupposeIwentinfortailoringandIfirstlearntaltherules,Imighthave,onthewhole,twosortsofattitude()Lewysays:"Thisistooshort"Isay:"NoItisrightItisaccordingtotherules"()IdevelopafeelingfortherulesIinterprettherulesImightsay:"NoItisn'trightIfisn'taccordingtotherules"HereIwouldbemakinganaestheticjudgementaboutthethingwhichisaccordingtotherulesinsense()Ontheotherhand,ifIhadn'tlearnttherules,Iwouldn'tbeabletomaketheaestheticjudgementInlearningtherulesyougetamoreandmorerefinedjudgementLearningtherulesactualychangesyourjudgement(Although,ifyouhaven'tlearntHarmonyandhaven'tagoodear,youmayneverthelessdetectanydisharmonyinasequenceofchords)Youcouldregardtheruleslaiddownforthemeasure­mentofacoatasanexpressionofwhatcertainpeoplewantPeopleseparatedonthepointofwhatacoatshouldmeasure:Ifwespeakoftherightwaytoreadapieceofpoetryapprovalenters,butitplaysafairlysmallrleinthesituationR'Don'tyouseethatifwemadeitbroader,itisn'trightanditisn'taccordingtotherules'RThesemaybeextremelyexplicitandtaught,ornotformulatedatalTLECTURESANDCONVERSATIONSthereweresomewhodidn'tcareifitwasbroadornarrow,etctherewereotherswhocaredanenormouslotlTherulesofharmony,youcansay,expressedthewaypeoplewantedchordstofollowtheirwishescrystallizedintheserules(theword'wishes'ismuchtoovague)!Allthegreatestcomposerswroteinaccordancewiththem(Replytoobjection:Youcansaythateverycomposerchangedtherules,butthevariationwasveryslightnotaltheruleswerechangedThemusicwasstillgoodbyagreatmanyoftheoldrulesThisthoughshouldn'tcomeinhere)InwhatwecalltheArtsapersonwhohasjudgementdevelopes(Apersonwhohasajudgementdoesn'tmeanapersonwhosays'Marvelous!'atcertainthingS)Ifwetalkofaestheticjudgements,wethink,amongathousandthings,oftheArtsWhenwemakeanaestheticjudgementaboutathing,wedonotjustgapeatitandsay:"Oh!Howmarvellous!"Wedis­tinguishbetweenapersonwhoknowswhatheistalkingaboutandapersonwhodoesn'tIfapersonistoadmireEnglishpoetry,hemustknowEnglishSupposethataRussianwhodoesn'tknowEnglishisoverwhelmedbyasonnetadmittedtobegoodWewouldsaythathedoesnotknowwhatisinitatalSimilarly,ofapersonwhodoesn'tknowmetresbutwhoisoverwhelmed,wewouldsaythathedoesn'tknowwhat'sinitInmusicthisismorepronouncedSupposethereisapersonwhoadmiresandenjoyswhatisadmittedtobegoodbutcan'trememberthesimplesttunes,doesn'tknowwhenthebasscomesin,etcWesayhehasn'tseenwhat'sinitWeusethephrase'Amanismusical'notsoastocalamanmusicalifhesays"Ah!"whenapieceofmusicisplayed,anymorethanwecaladogmusicalifitwagsitstailwhenmusicisplayedButitisjustafactthatpeoplehaveaiddownsuchandsuchrulesWesay'people'butinfactitwasaparticularclass••Whenwesay'people',thesewerealthoughwehavetalkedof'wishes'here,thefactisjustthattheseruleswerelaiddownRIInwhatwecaltheartstheredevelopedwhatwecala'judge'ieonewhohasjudgmentThisdoesnotmeanjustsomeonewhoadmiresordoesnotadmireWehaveanentirelynewelementR,HemustreactinaconsistentwayoveralongperiodMustknowallsortsofthingsTcrthewholikeshearingmusicbutcanottalkaboutitatall,andis<luiteonthesubject'Heismusical'Wedonotsaythisifheisjusthappywhenhehearsmusicandtheotherthingsaren'tpresentTLECTURESONAESTHETICSThewordweoughttotalkaboutis'appreciated'WhatdoesappreciationconsistinIfamangoesthroughanendlessnumberofpatternsinatailor's,andsays:"NoThisisslightlytoodarkThisisslightlytooloud",etc,heiswhatwecalanappreciatorofmaterialThatheisanappreciatorisnotshownbytheinter­jectionsheuses,butbythewayhechooses,selects,etcSimilarlyinmusic:"DoesthisharmonizeNoThebassisnotquiteloudenoughHereIjustwantsomethingdiferent"ThisiswhatwecalanappreciationItiSJonotonlydifculttodescribewhatappreciationconsistsin,butimpossibleTodescribewhatitconsistsinWewouldhavetodescribethewholeenvironmentIknowexactlywhathappenswhenapersonwhoknowsalotaboutsuitsgoestothetailor,alsoIknowwhathappenswhenapersonwhoknowsnothingaboutsuitsgoeswhathesays,howheacts,etcThereisanextraordinarynumberofdiferentcasesofappreciationAnd,ofcourse,whatIknowisnothingcomparedtowhatonecouldknowIwouldhavetosaywhatappreciationisegtoexplainsuchanenormouswartasartsandcrafts,suchaparticularkindofdiseaseAlsoIwouldhavetoexplainwhatourphotographersdotodayandwhyitisimpossibletogetadecentpictureofyourfriendevenifyoupay£,Youcangetapictureofwhaty

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*新书上架*【维特根斯坦】讲座与对话集:论美学、心理学与宗教信仰

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