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The BBI dictionary of English word combinations 2010.pdf

The BBI dictionary of English w…

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2013-08-23 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《The BBI dictionary of English word combinations 2010pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

THEBBICOMBINATORYDICTIONARYOFENGLISH:YOURGUIDETOCOLLOCATIONSANDGRAMMARCompiledbyMortonBensonEvelynBensonRobertIlsonJohnBenjaminsPublishingCompanyAmsterdamPhiladelphiaTheBBICombinatoryDictionaryofEnglishYourGuidetoCollocationsandGrammarThirdeditionrevisedbyRobertIlsonThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsofAmericanNationalStandardforInformationSciencesPermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ANSIZTMLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBenson,Morton TheBBIdictionaryofEnglishwordcombinationscompiledbyMortonBenson,EvelynBenson,RobertIlsonrdeditionrevisedbyRobertIlson      pcm EnglishlanguageTermsandphrases IBenson,EvelynIIIlson,RobertIIITitlePEB'dcisbn(hbalkpaper)isbn(pbalkpaper)©–copyrightsharedbyEvelynBenson,RobertIlson,andJohnBenjaminsBVNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedinanyform,byprint,photoprint,microfilm,oranyothermeans,withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublisherJohnBenjaminsPublishingCo·POBox·meAmsterdam·TheNetherlandsJohnBenjaminsNorthAmerica·POBox·Philadelphiapa·usaDedicatedtoMortonBenson(–)–v–TableofcontentsPrefacetothethirdeditionviiPrefacetothesecondeditionXiAPracticalGuidetotheBBIXiiiBackgroundXiiiHowtoFindGrammaticalCollocationsintheBBIXiiiHowtoFindLexicalCollocationsintheBBIXivAbbreviationsXvHowEntriesareStructuredintheBBI:AVisualGuideXviIntroductionXiXGeneralXiXGrammaticalCollocationsXiXBackgroundXiXG–GXiXSpecialNoteonTransitivityXXXSurveyofVerbPatternsXXXLexicalCollocationsXXXiBackgroundXXXiL–LXXXiArrangementofEntriesXXXivGeneralXXXivOrderofEntriesXXXvNounEntriesXXXvAdjectiveEntriesXXXvVerbEntriesXXXvStyleGuideXXXvTheSwungDashXXXvCollocationalStringsXXXviDefinitionsandParaphrasesXXXviiIllustrativePhrasesXXXviiiUsageNotesXXXviiiPronunciationXXXviiiComparativetableofSimplifiedTranscription(ST)andIPAtranscriptionXliDictionaryUsingtheBBI:Aworkbookwithexercisesisavailableat:http:dxdoiorgzbbiworkbook–vii–PrefacetotheBBICombinatoryDictionaryofEnglish:YourGuidetoCollocationsandGrammarThirdEditionRobertilsonTouselanguageyoumustbeabletocombinewordswithotherwordstoformphrasesandtocombinewordsintogrammaticalpatternstoformclausesandsentencesTraditionally,thecombinationofwordswithwordshasbeencalledcollocationanditsresulthasbeencalledphraseologyTraditionally,thecombinationofwordsintogrammaticalpatternshasbeencalledcolligationorcomplementationorconstruction(thoughinBBIitiscalledcollocation,too)anditsresulthasbeencalledvalencyAdictionarythatprovidesbothphraseologyandvalencyisadictionaryofwordcombinationsor,intheterminologyofIgorMelchuk,whoseworkhasinspiredus,acombinatoryorcombinatorialdictionaryBBIisacombinatorydictionaryConsiderthesentence〈Ibadlywanttogothere〉ItoffersyouthephraseologicalinformationthattheverbwantcanbeintensifiedbythewordbadlyItoffersyoualsothevalencyinformationthattheverbwantcantakethepatterntoinfinitiveBBIofferssuchinformationaboutmanytypesofwordIttellsyouthatsincecollocateswithever〈Imarriedherandwe’vebeenhappyeversince〉andwithlong〈acustomlongsinceabandoned〉Ittellsyouthatreveal,revelation,andletoncanalltakethepatternthatclause〈Don’t¬revealleton¬thatyouknowtheanswer,oryourrevelationthatyouknowtheanswermaydisturbeveryone〉(wheretheoccasionalsymbols¬……¬coupleleton(twowords)withreveal(oneword)asalternatives)AndsoonAndsoforthBBIoffersthatinformationbymeansofCodes(seeourIntroduction),Exemplification,andDiscussion(asinUsageNotes)InBBI,examplesmayberepeatedatmorethanonewordtoshowaparticularlycloseormemorablerelationbetweenthewordsexemplifiedThusweoffertheexample〈shockandawe〉atbothaweandshockAndthefamousphrase〈“Withmalicetowardnonewithcharityforall”AbrahamLincoln,SecondInauguralAddress,”〉appearsasanexampleatbothcharityandmaliceThatshowsalsohowBBIoffersexamplesofrealEnglishattributedtotheirrealauthorsSuchauthenticattributedexampleshelptomotivatelanguagelearnersastheywouldmostcertainlymotivateme!viiiPrefaceMoreover,inBBI,examplesmaybetransformedtoexhibittherelationbetweenthewordsexemplifiedThusweoffer:vexv…Itvexesmegreatlytoreadsuchthingsinthenewspapers…vexationn…mygreatvexationtoreadsuchthingsinthenewspapers…vexedadj…I’mveryvexedtoreadsuchthingsinthenewspapers…vexingadj…Itisveryvexingtoreadsuchthingsinthenewspapers…Furthermore,inBBI,examplesmaybecombinedtocreateminidialoguesThusataccountIIvweoffer〈…“howdoyouaccountfortheaccident”“itcanbepartlyaccountedforbythebadweather”〉Therepetition,transformation,andcombinationofexampleshelptoknitthemanyentriesofBBItogetherandtoenablepeopletoadjusttheiruseofwordsappropriatelytocontextsTheUsageNotesinBBIallowafreerandmorediscursiveexplanationoflanguageproblemsThustheUsageNoteatthanksnotonlyoffersthemosttypicalresponsestothanksandthankyoubutalsoassessesthoseresponsesfortheircurrency(isaresponseusedthroughouttheEnglishspeakingworldoronlyinapartofit)andcontemporaneity(isaresponseuptodateoroldfashioned)ForaworktohelppeopletouseacosmopolitanlanguageitisessentialtospecifywherepossibletherangeofacceptabilityoftheitemsenteredintheworkThusatthanksourUsageNotespecifiesthattheresponse“You’rewelcome”isnowadaysCommonEnglish(despiteitsprobableAmericanorigin)whereastheresponse“Don’tmentionit”issomewhatoldfashionedBritishEnglishSimilarly,atomitwesaythatthoughthecollocationintheexample〈sheomittedhisnamefromthelist〉isCommonEnglish,thecolligationintheexample〈heomittedtoexplainwhyhehadbeenlate〉ischieflyBritishEnglishratherthanAmericanEnglishInfact,thetreatmentofAmericanBritishdifferencesinBBIisoneofitsmostimportantfeaturesWhencecometheentriesinBBITheyareseveralthousandoftheitemsthatMortonBenson,EvelynBenson,andIhavefoundofmostvalueinusingournativelanguage,English,andinseekingequivalentsforwhenusingotherlanguagesWhencecomethecollocationsandcolligationsofferedinBBIaboutthoseentriesFromtheauthors’intuition,supportedbytheirreadingofandlisteningtocontemporaryEnglishandbyconsultationwithsuchvaluedcolleaguesasMsJanetWhitcutandDrJohnKahnNowadays,ourtaskiseasednotonlybytheavailabilityofcorpusesofcontemporaryEnglish(suchastheBritishNationalCorpus)butalsobytheamazingresourceoftheInternetitself,whichenablesustosearchinitforawordandfindsuperbexamplesofthatwordincontextNorshoulditbeforgottenthatanimportantsourceofnewinformationinBBIis,paradoxically,BBI,nowthatthecomputerallowsmaterialfromanentryinBBItobeaddedtootherentriesinBBIwheresuchmaterialisappropriateButtheitemsthatoccurtousorthatwefindarepassedthroughthefilterofstandardlistsofcomplementationpatternsinsuchworksasAComprehensiveGrammaroftheEnglishLanguagebyRandolphQuirketalandofcollocations(asinthelistsPrefaceiXofLexicalFunctionspreparedbyIgorMelchuketalforuseinexplanatoryandcombinatorialdictionariesofvariouslanguages)SowhatusersofBBIgetistheproductofnativespeakerintuitionexpandedbyourexposuretoauthenticEnglishandthenrefinedthroughthestandardgridsforphraseologyandvalencydevelopedbyoutstandingscholarsTheresultisBBIItwas“highlyrecommended”bytheEnglishSpeakingUnioninWehopethatitspresentincarnation,tolarger,willbringitintothestCenturyandprovidethesortofinformationaboutEnglishthatitsauthorswouldliketohaveabouttheotherlanguageswewanttolearn!–Xi–PrefacetotheBBIDictionaryofEnglishWordCombinationsRevisededitionoftheBBICombinatoryDictionaryofEnglishInthisrevisededitionwehaveexpandedandupdatedtheFirstEdition()andtheNewPrinting()oftheBBI,bothofwhichwereveryfavorablyreceivedInselectingnewmaterial,wehavemadeuseofavarietyofsources,suchas:()criticalappraisalsfromoverreviewsinnumerousjournals()additionstothebilingualversionsoftheBBI,specificallytheMaruzenedition(Tokyo,)andtheLongmanDictionaryofEnglishCollocations(HongKong,)()commentsandsuggestionsofusersoftheBBIfromaroundtheglobe,notallofwhomcanbementionedhereWewould,however,liketoacknowledgethecontributionsofthefollowingthreescholarswhohavemadeaspecialefforttosendinmaterial:MrsLeatriceLockFungofHonolulu(Hawaii),ProfessorMohamedHHelielofAlexandriaUniversity(Egypt),andProfessorZaiMingLiofFuzhouUniversity(People’sRepublicofChina)TheRevisedEditionincludesitemsthatweremissedintheFirstEditionExamplesofcollocationsthatwereaddedare:toaccessdata,ablankcassette,aborderlinecase,acellularphone,tocomeonstrong,acomputervirus,corporatedownsizing,acreditnote(inBritishEnglish),culturaldiversity,adigitalclock,todownsizetheworkforce,togatherspeed,alaptopcomputer,legallybinding,tolevelanaccusationat,tonominateacandidate,toovershoottherunway,toprogramaVCR,toputaspinonsomething,toremovegraffiti,torunaspellcheck,asecuritycamera,tosendafax,tosoundtheallclear,twentytwentyvision,towavegoodbye,etcInaddition,aspecialefforthasbeenmadetoidentifyandincorporatecollocationsthathaveenteredtheEnglishlanguageinrecentyearssincetheinterlinkingofcomputersThus,collocationssuchastobrowsetheweb,tocreateahomepage,tocruisetheWorldWideWeb,togoonline,tosendEMail,tosurftheInternet,tovisitawebsite,welcometocyberspace!etc,havebeenincludedWewishtoexpressoursinceregratitudetoProfessorJohnFFritz,specialistincomputersattheAlleghenyUniversitySchoolofNursinginPhiladelphia,whoassistedusingatheringtheseexamplesAsintheFirstEdition,wehaveadheredtotheprincipleofcitingexamplesinclear,natural,normalEnglishandhaveexcludedcollocationsthatarestrictlytechnicalOnceagain,wewillbegratefulforcommentsandsuggestionsfromusersofthisDictionaryMB,EB,RI–Xiii–APracticalGuidetotheBBIBackgroundLearnersofEnglishasaforeignorsecondlanguage,likelearnersofanylanguage,havetraditionallydevotedthemselvestomasteringwordstheirpronunciation,forms,andmeaningsHowever,iftheywishtoacquireactivemasteryofEnglish,thatis,iftheywishtobeabletoexpressthemselvesfluentlyandaccuratelyinspeechandwriting,theymustlearntocopewiththecombinationofwordsintophrases,sentences,andtextsStudentsmustlearnhowwordscombineor‘collocate’witheachotherInanylanguage,certainwordsregularlycombinewithcertainotherwordsorgrammaticalconstructionsTheserecurrent,semifixedcombinations,orcollocations,canbedividedintotwogroups:grammaticalcollocationsandlexicalcollocationsGrammaticalcollocationsconsistofadominantwordnoun,adjectiveparticiple,verbandaprepositionoragrammaticalconstructionLexicalcollocations,ontheotherhand,donothaveadominantwordtheyhavestructuressuchasthefollowing:verbnoun,adjectivenoun,nounverb,nounnoun,adverbadjective,adverbverbTheBBIisaspecializeddictionarydesignedtohelplearnersofEnglishfindcollocationsquicklyandeasilyTheBBIconsistentlypaysattentiontodifferencesbetweenAmericanEnglishandBritishEnglishHowtoFindGrammaticalCollocationsintheBBITypicalgrammaticalcollocationsinEnglishare:(withprepositions)admiration(for),acceptable(to),amazed(at),(by)accident,toadhere(to),eager(for)(withgrammaticalconstructions)eager(todosomething),eagerness(todosomething),towant(someonetodosomething),tobecome(someoneorsomething)InsuchcollocationsthenounortheadjectiveortheverbisthedominantwordTheBBIlistsgrammaticalcollocationsunderthedominantwordThus,inordertoexpressinEnglishthecollocationFeindseligkeitgegenüber,theGermanspeakermustfindintheBBItheequivalentofthedominantword,thatis,thenounFeindseligkeitLearnersofEnglishmayalreadyknowthedominantwordifnot,thewordcanbefoundeasilyinanybilingualdictionaryTheuseroftheBBIwouldthenlookuptheentryforthenounhostilityandfindcorrespondingEnglishcollocationssuchashostilitytoandhostilitytowards,bothofwhichcorrespondtotheGermanFeindseligkeitgegenüberXivHowtoFindLexicalCollocationsintheBBITheFrenchspeakerwishingtoexpressinEnglishthecollocationcurieuxde(asincurieuxdequelquechose)wouldlookuptheentryfortheadjectivecuriousandseethatonesaysinEnglishcuriousabout(asincuriousaboutsomething)SpanishspeakersseekingthetranslationoflosvimosentrarwouldfindattheentryfortheverbseethatonesaysinEnglisheitherwesawthementerorwesawthementeringHowtoFindLexicalCollocationsintheBBITypicallexicalcollocationsinEnglishare:toputupresistance,tooverrideaveto,aformidablechallenge,adogbarks,aherdofcattle,deeplyabsorbed,toargueheatedlyInordertofindlexicalcollocationsintheBBI,followthisstepbystepprocedure:ifthereisanouninthecollocation,lookunderthenouniftherearetwonouns,lookunderthesecondifthereisnonoun,lookundertheadjectiveifthereisnonounoradjective,lookundertheverbConsequently,inordertofindtheEnglishforponerlamesaaSpanishspeakerwouldlookuptheentryforthenountableandfindthatinAmericanEnglishoneusuallysaystosetthetableandthatinBritishEnglishoneusuallysaystolaythetableOr,thesamespeakerwouldfindforprenderfuegoathecorrespondingEnglishcollocationtosetfiretointheentryforthenounfireThespeakerofItalianwhowishestosayinEnglishsfondarelaportawillfindattheentryfordoorthecollocationstobreakdownthedoorandtoforcethedoorInordertorendereingefleischterJunggeselleasconfirmedbachelorandderHundbelltasthedogbarks,theGermanspeakerwouldlookuptheentriesforthenounsbacheloranddogFrenchspeakerswouldfindthatuntroupeaudemoutonsisinEnglishaflockofsheepbylookinguptheentryforthenounsheep,andthatuntroupeaudebétailisaherdofcattlebylookingupthenouncattleSpanishspeakerslearnthattheycanexpressbiencalienteinEnglishaspipinghotbyconsultingtheentryfortheadjectivehotSpeakersofRussiancanfindforkrepkospat’theEnglishequivalenttosleepsoundlybylookingundertheentryfortheverbsleepFormoredetail,seetheIntroductiontothisDictionaryandUsingtheBBI:Aworkbookwithexercises(http:dxdoiorgzbbiworkbook)AbbreviationsXvThelettersAtoSdenotetheverbpatterns,explainedintheIntroduction,GrammaticalCollocations,sectionGAbbreviationsadjadjectiveadvadverbAEAmericanEnglishAmAmericananatanatomicalBEBritishEnglishBrBritishCAcreationandoractivationCECommonEnglishcfcomparecolloqcolloquialcommcommercialderogderogatoryENeradicationandorificationespespeciallyfigfigurativeGAGeneralAmericanGBGreatBritainimperimperativeinfinfinitiveintrintransitivelinglinguisticslitliterarymathmathematicsmedmedicine,medicalmilmilitarymiscmiscellaneousmusmusicnnounnegnegativeobsolobsoleteoccoccasionallypolpolitics,politicalpredpredicativeprepprepositionreflreflexiverelreligion,religiousRPReceivedPronunciationsmbsomebodysmtsomethingsubjsubjunctive(T)TrademarktrtransitiveusuusuallyUSUnitedStatesvverb*incorrectEnglish–Xvi–HowEntriesareStructuredintheBBIAvisualGuideDefinition(ofnouninsquarebrackets,othertypefaceanddoublequotationmarks),referringto–Definition,referringto–Definition,referringto–Definition,referringto–=LexicalcollocationsUSAGENOTEprovidingadditionalinformation=Idiomswithparaphrasesindoublequotationmarks–=Grammaticalcollocationsappointmentn“agreementtomeet”afollowupoutpatient~tohavekeepgive,make,schedulean~(with)(thehospitalgavemeafollowupoutpatient~withtheircardiologist)tobreakcancelmissan~by~(sheseespatientsby~only)an~toinf(shehadan~toseethedean)“selection”toconfirmmakean~toblockan~an~to(weannouncedher~tothecommittee)“position”an~astoofferan~(weofferedheran~astreasurer)tohave,holdreceivean~aninterimpermanenttemporary~apolitical~“designation”by~toHerMajestyclockIntoregulate,setwind(up)a~toadvancea~or:toput,set,turna~aheadforward((by)onehour)toput,set,turna~back((by)onehour)adigitalcuckooelectricgrandfatherwall~(byaccordingtomydigital~,it’stenthirty)atime~(topunchatime~whenstartingorfinishingwork)abiological~(herbiological~keepstickingaway)a~isfastrightslowa~gainstimegoes,runskeepstimelosestimerunsdownsaysthetime,showsthetime,tellsthetime(BE),tellstime(AE)stopsticksa~strikesthehourthedialfacehandsofa~(misc)towatchthe~(“towaitimpatientlyfortheendoftheworkingday”)towork(a)roundthe~(“toworkwithoutrest”)toworkagainstthe~(“tostrivetomeetadeadline”)the~ranout(“theallottedtimeexpired”)tostopthe~(“tosuspendplayinagamesothattheclockstopsrunning”)(seealsoalarmclock)concernedadjdeeply,gravely,greatlyvery~~about,for,overwith(~aboutsafety)(espBE)~toinf(~toknowyourdecision)~thatclause(sheis~thatthereisstillsomuchilliteracyweare~thattheymighthavemissedthetrain)(misc)asfarasI’m~USAGENOTE:Thephrasesconcernedabout,concernedover,and,lessfrequently,concernedformean“worriedabout”(concernedaboutyoursafety)Thephraseconcernedwithmeans“interestedin”(concernedwithestablishingthetruth)HowEntriesareStructuredintheBBIXviiUsedonlyinAmericanEnglishUsedonlyinBritishEnglis

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