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首页 *新书上架*【康德研究】康德美学中的趣味要求

*新书上架*【康德研究】康德美学中的趣味要求.pdf

*新书上架*【康德研究】康德美学中的趣味要求

九月虺
2009-11-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【康德研究】康德美学中的趣味要求pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheDemandsofTasteinKant’sAestheticsBrentKalarContinuumTheDemandsofTasteinKant'sAestheticsContinuumStudiesinPhilosophy:SeriesEditor:JamesFieser,UniversityofTennesseeatMartinAestheticsinKant,JamesKirwanAquinasandtheShipofTheseus,ChristopherBrownDescartesandtheMetaphysicsofHumanMature,JustinSkirryKierkegaard'sAnalysisofRadicalEvil,DavidARobertsLeibnizReinterpreted,LloydStricklandNietzscheandtheGreeks,DaleWilkersonPlatonism,MusicandtheListener'sShare,ChristopherNorrisPopper'sTheoryofScience,CarlosGarciaRousseauandtheEthicsofVirtue,JamesDelaneyRousseau'sTheoryofFreedom,MatthewSimpsonStAugustineandtheTheoryofJustWar,JohnMMattoxStAugustineofHippo,RWDysonToleranceandtheEthicalLife,AndrewFialaWittgenstein'sReligiousPointofView,TimLabronTheDemandsofTasteinKant'sBrentKalarcontinuumAestheticsContinuumInternationalPublishingGroupTheTowerBuildingYorkRoadLondonSENX©BrentKalarAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,oranyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpriorpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBrentKalarhasassertedhisrightundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,tobeidentifiedasAuthorofthisworkBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:(hardback)TypesetbyBookEnsLtd,PrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyBiddiesLtd,KingsLynn,NorfolkMaidenLaneSuiteNewYorkNYTomyparents,AllenandBarbaraKalarThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsIWhatisImpliedinaJudgementofTasteOverviewoftheChapterHume'sProblemswithTasteTheHumeanReadingofKant'sJudgementofTaste:GuyerTheNormativeReadingofKant'sJudgementofTasteTheTwoDemandsintheJudgementofTasteConclusionsIITheProblemofFreePlayOverviewoftheChapterIntroductiontotheHarmonyoftheFacultiesinFreePlayBackgroundtoFreePlayAPreliminaryInterpretationofFreePlay:AllisonProblemswiththePreliminaryInterpretationConclusionsIIITheProblemoftheFormofPurposivenessOverviewoftheChapterTheFormofPurposiveness:APreliminaryAccount(CritiqueofJudgment§§)TheFormofPurposivenessastheBasisofPleasureintheBeautiful:OpeningExcursusontheSubjectivityoftheBeautifulTheFormofPurposivenessastheBasisofPleasureintheBeautiful:ClosingFreeandAdherentBeautyandtheIdealoftheBeautifulConclusionsIntroductionAbbreviationsAcknowledgementsixxiIVBeautyandAestheticIdeasOverviewoftheChapterAestheticIdeas:OpeningRemarksTheStandardnessConditionTheOriginalityConditionStandardnessandOriginalityintheFormoftheBeautifulStandardnessandOriginalityinFreePlayConclusionsVPleasureandJustificationOverviewoftheChapterFreePlayandPleasureTheProblemoftheDeductionThe'Official'DeductionofTastein§TheTranscendentalDeductionofTaste:§ConclusionsNotesBibliographyIndexviiiContentsAcknowledgementThepresentstudyofKant'stheoryofthefoundationsoftastebeganasarevisionofmyPhDthesisforpublication,butended,assuchprojectsoftendo,asacompletelynewbookWhileTheDemandsofTasteinKant'sAestheticscontainsverylittleoftheoriginaltextofmyearlierthesis,isstructureddifferently,andchangesseveralkeyclaims,IbelievethatitneverthelesscouldnothavebeenwrittenhadInotfirstdonethedissertationAccordingly,IowesignificantthankstotheindividualswithwhomIstudiedKantingraduateschoolformakingthepresentworkpossibleIwouldlikefirsttothankmydissertationcommitteeStanleyCavell,ChristineKorsgaardandRichardMoranfortheiryearsofencouragementandsupport,intellectualandotherwiseMydebtstoeachofthemareunfathomableIwouldalsoliketoacknowledgethecontributionsofHenryAllisonandCharlesParsonstomythinkingaboutKantBothoftheseeminentKantscholarswereverygenerousinallowingmetositinontheirKantseminarsinthelatenineties,forwhichIwillbeforevergratefulIwasespeciallyfortunatetoattendayearlongseminarontheThirdCritiquegivenbyProfessorAllisoninthatdramaticallyimprovedmyunderstandingofKant'saestheticsMoredisturbinglyforsomeonetryingtocompleteaPhDthesis,theexperienceofProfessorAllison'svasteruditionandkeenanalyticalintellectmademequestion,forawhileatleast,whetherIcouldhopetoimproveonhisinterpretationofKant'stheoryofthebeautifulWhileInolongeragreewithhisreadinginitsentirety,ProfessorAllison'sinfluenceremains,Itrust,evidentthroughoutwhatfollowsparticularlyinmyendorsementofwhatIcallthe'normative'readingofthejudgementoftasteandthe'intentionalistic'readingofaestheticpleasureMythinkingaboutKant'saestheticsbegantoevolveawayfrommydissertationlargelyasaresultofrepeatedlyteachingtheThirdCritiquetoundergraduatesandgraduatesattheUniversityofNewMexicoIwouldliketothankthestudentsinmyaestheticscoursesforusefulinterchangeIwouldalsoliketoexpressmygratitudetomycolleaguesattheUniversityofNewMexico,especiallyRussellGoodmanandIainThomson,forstimulatingdiscussionsaboutKantIalsoowespecialthankstocolleaguesJohnTaberandMaryDomskifortheirusefulcommentsonearlierdraftsProfessorTaberwasinstrumentalinkeepingthisprojectontrack,andinprovidingmuchappreciatedencouragementandmoralsupportIamindebtedtoProfessorxAcknowledgementsDomski'sexpertknowledgeoftheFirstCritiqueforseveralimprovementstoChapterII,andIamsorrythatIcouldnotincorporateordealadequatelywithmoreofhercriticismsandsuggestionsMostofall,Iwouldliketothankmyparents,AllenandBarbaraKalar,fortheirlove,encouragementandsupportofmyacademiccareerthroughouttheyearsThisworkisdedicated,withmuchloveandgratitude,tothemAbbreviationsCitationsofKant'sworksandHume's'OftheStandardofTaste'aregivenparentheticallyinthetext,usingtheabbreviationsbelowInallcitationsofKantexceptforthoseoftheCritiqueofPureReason,twopagereferencesaregivenThefirstcitesthepagenumber(s)oftherelevantvolumeofthestandardAkademieeditionofKantsgesammelteSchriftenThesecondcitesthepagenumber(s)ofthetranslationfromwhichIhavequoted(sometimeswithslightmodifications)CritiqueofPureReason,however,whichisfoundinAkademieedition,vols:,iscitedaccordingtoitsownstandardmethod,bythepagenumbersofboththefirstor'A'edition()andsecondor'B'edition(),followedbythepagenumber(s)inthetranslationbyPaulGuyerandAllenWoodThekeytotheotherabbreviations,togetherwiththeyearoforiginalpublication,and(forKant)thenumberoftheAkademieeditionvolumeforeachwork,isgivenbelowFullsourceinformationisprovidedinthebibliographyCJCritiqueofJudgment()(CPRCritiqueofPracticalReason()(V)DWL'TheDohnaWundlackenLogic'()(XXIV)FI'FirstIntroductiontotheCritiqueofJudgment'()(XX)GWGroundworkoftheMetaphysicsofMorals()(VI)JL'TheJascheLogic'()(IX)MMMetaphysicsofMorals()(VI)PFMProlegomenatoAnyFutureMetaphysics()(IV)ST'OftheStandardofTaste'()ThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroductionImmanuelKantiswidelyrecognizedtobeaseminalfigureinthehistoryofphilosophicalaestheticsThisisnotbecausehewasthefirsttoinquireintothenatureofbeauty,art,geniusorthesublimePhilosophershadbeendoingthatsinceatleastPlatoNorwashethefirsttoproducea'system'ofaestheticsOthers,includingHutcheson,BurkeandBaumgarten,couldhaveclaimedtohavedonethatearlierthanKantRather,Kantisafoundingfigurebecausehewasthefirsttoconstructasystemofaestheticscentredaroundaproblemthatistrulyuniquetothisdiscipline:theproblemofthe'subjectiveuniversality'ofthebeautifulKantisconcernedthroughouttheCritiqueofAestheticJudgmentwitheitherlayingouttheelementsorexaminingtheimplicationsofhissolutiontothisproblemHisparticularviewsaboutthenatureofthebeautifulmanyofwhichtookonalifeoftheirowninthesubsequenthistoryofEuropeanandworldcultureallneedtobeunderstoodinlightofthisoverarchingprojectWhatexactlyisthisprojectKantisconcernedtoshowthatthejudgementoftasteregardingthebeautiful,despitebeing'subjective',possessesavalidorjustifiedclaimtouniversalityAsIjustmentioned,philosophershadbeencontemplatingthenatureofbeautylongbeforeKantSomequestionsthattheyhadconsideredincluded:WhatfeaturesmakesomethingbeautifulIsbeautyarealfeatureoftheworld,orsomethingthatexistsmerelyinourperceptionofitArejudgementsofthebeautifulcapableofuniversalvalidityTypicallyphilosophershadtakenoneoftwodivergentpathsintheiranswerstothesequestionsEithertheyviewedbeautyasobjectiveandregardedjudgementsofthebeautifulasuniversallyvalid,orelsetheyviewedbeautyassubjectiveandregardedjudgementsofthebeautifulashavingmerelyprivatevalidityKant'scontributiontoaestheticswashisuniquethirdpathKantarguesthatbeautyissubjective,butalsothatthejudgementoftasteaboutthebeautifuliscapableofuniversalvalidityInhisview,thebeautifulisnotafeatureofobjectsthemselves,butmerelyrepresentsthewayinwhichwerespondtoobjectsThisisthesignificanceofKant'sclaimthatthejudgementoftasteaboutbeautyisamerely'aesthetic'judgement:itisonebasedonthepleasurethatwetakeinanobject,whichisapurelysubjectivesensationOntheotherhand,thejudgementoftastealsohasapeculiarimplication:itdemandstheagreementofeveryoneThisiswhatKanttermsthe'universalvalidity'or'universalcommunicability'ofthejudgementoftasteThisuniquecombinationofpositionsonthenatureoftheTheDemandsofTasteinKant'sAestheticsbeautifulandjudgementsoftasteiswhatsetsthetaskfortheCritiqueofAestheticJudgment',howcanajudgementthatisbasedmerelyonthepleasurethatwetakeinanobjectdemandtheagreementofeveryoneKant'saestheticsisofinterestnotonlyforitsanswertothisquestion,butalsoforthedistinctiveconceptionofthebeautifulthatKantformulatesinhisattempttoprovidethisanswerInattemptingtomakesenseofthebeautifulasthesubjectivelyuniversal,KantineffectinventedthefirstdistinctivelymodernconceptionoftheaestheticUnsurprisingly,scholarshavedifferedovertheinterpretationofvirtuallyeveryaspectofthisconceptionTheyhavedisagreednotonlyaboutthenatureofKant'ssolutiontotheproblemofsubjectiveuniversalityandwhetherthissolutionissuccessful,butevenaboutthenatureoftheproblemitselfThebasicissueinthelatterdomainconcernshowtheuniversalvalidityoftasteistobeunderstoodAccordingtowhatisstillprobablythemostwidelyheldreading,theuniversalvalidityofthejudgementoftasteisanimpliedtheoreticalorfactualclaimthatonemayexpectallothersubjectstoagreewithit,atleastiftheyfulfilcertainconditionsTheleadingadvocateofthisreadinghasbeenPaulGuyer,whofirstadvocateditinhislandmarkstudy,KantandtheClaimsofTasteAgainstthisreading,anincreasingnumberofcommentatorsinrecentyearshaveadvocatedaviewofuniversalvalidityaccordingtowhichitconsists,notinatheoreticalclaim,butratherinanormativedemandforagreementie,arequirementthateveryoneoughttoagree,whetherornotoneactuallyexpectsthemtodosoIshallargueinwhatfollowsonthesideofthosewhoseetheuniversalvalidityofthejudgementoftasteasanirreduciblynormativefeatureofsuchjudgementsNormativityrelatestowhatoneoughttobe,do,think,choose,desire,feel,andsoonWhenweascribenormativitytoaparticularformofjudgement,wetakeitthatthisformcontainsan'ought'Butmakingsuchanascriptionraisesthequestion:whatsortof'ought'Italsoraisesthequestion(thoughthisislessoftennoted)ofhowmanydifferent'ought'claimsarebeingmadeinthejudgementThesearetwocriticalquestionsforunderstandingthesemanticcontentofKant'sjudgementoftasteInmyanswerstothesequestions,Iconcludethatthe'ought'impliedintheKantianjudgementoftasteisactuallycomplex,involvingtwoseparatedemandsor'imperatives'First,thereisademandtotakepleasureinagivenobjectinadditiontothis,however,thereisalsoademandtoattendtothatobjectIrefertotheseasthe'pleasureimperative'andthe'attentionimperative'respectivelyThesetwodistinctimperatives,inmyview,flowfromtwodistinctsourcesofnormativityWhereastheformerclaimisgivenauniquelyaestheticgrounding,thelatter,Iargue,mustforKantbegroundedinmoralityThisimpliesthat,whereasthefirst'ought'isapeculiarlyaesthetic'ought',thesecondisactuallynotaestheticatall,butrathermoralincharacterInthisstudy,forreasonsthatIshalldiscussshortly,Irestrictmyattentiontothefirst,distinctivelyaestheticimperativeNormativityforKantalwaysrequiresarationalorjustificatorygrounding,andintheCritiqueofAestheticJudgment,thisgroundingtakestheformofa'transcendentaldeduction'oftasteThedeductionis,inmyview,theIntroductionculminationofthecentraldiscussionsoftheCritiqueitisalsooneofthemostcontroversialpartsofKant'saestheticsContradictingthenegativeassessmentofthisargumentcommontomanycontemporaryreadings,amajoraimofthepresentstudywillbetodefendthedeductionasasuccessfulendeavourAchievingthispurposewillrequire,ofcourse,aprecisegraspoftheproblemwithwhichthedeductiondeals,aswellasanexactunderstandingoftheargumentitselfInmyview,thesoleobjectiveofthetranscendentaldeductionofjudgementsoftasteistoshowthatthepleasureimperativeislegitimatelyposedinajudgementthatreflectsaparticularsortofaestheticresponseProvidedthattheexperienceofanobjectatthebasisofmyjudgementoftasteisinfactofacertainspecifictype,IamwarrantedinissuingademandwhichsaysthateveryoneelseoughttotakepleasureinthisobjectaswellUnderstandinghowthedeductionworksthusrequiresustoundertakeanexaminationofthegroundofaestheticresponseitselfKant'sstrategyfordiscoveringthisgroundleadshimintoaninvestigationofwhatwemightcallthe'subjective'and'objective'polesofthebeautifulThesubjectivepoleisKant'stheoryofthepsychologicalprocessinvolvedinthepleasurableresponsetothebeautiful,whichiscentredaroundhisnotionofthe'harmonyofthefacultiesinfreeplay'Theobjectivepole,ontheotherhand,iswhatwemightcallthe'phenomenology'ofthebeautifulobject,whichforKantiscentredaroundthenotionofanobject's'formofpurposivenesswithoutapurpose'InordertounderstandhowKantvindicatesthenormativedemandcontainedinajudgementoftaste,weneedtodelvedeeplyintothesetwoaccountsThenotionoftheharmonyofthefacultiesinfreeplayisundeniablycentraltoKant'stheoryoftasteThisnotionexplainsnotonlyourpleasurableresponsetobeautifulobjects,butalsothenormativityofthejudgementresultingfromthisresponseKantmaintainsthatthepleasureinthebeautifulisaccountedforbythefactthatthementalfacultiesoftheunderstandingandtheimaginationareengagedina'free'yet'harmonious''play'intheaestheticexperienceTheaestheticharmonyofthesetwofacultiesissupposedlyrelatedtothewayinwhichthesamefacultiescooperateincognitive(or'knowing')perception,inwhichtheimagination'synthesizes'amanifoldofintuitionforthesakeoftheconceptualneedsoftheunderstandingThiscrypticsuggestionhasoccasionallybeenregardedassomethingofanintellectualembarrassmentIthasbeenseen,thatis,asanobscureforayintospeculativepsychologythatshouldbereplacedwith,orreinterpretedas,somethingthatislessoffensivelypsychologisticInmyownview,onecannotavoidthefactthatthetheoryoftheharmonyofthefacultiesinfreeplayis,insomesense,aspeculativepsychologicaltheorytheonlyquestionisinwhichsenseItiswellknownthatKantacceptstheview,commonintheeighteenthcentury,thatthemindiscomposedofseveraldiscrete'powers'or'faculties',eachofwhichisdifferentiatedaccordingtoitsownproperfunctionLessoftenexplicitlynoted,however,isthatthisnotionofafacultyisintrinsicallynormativeThisisbecauseonecannotsaywhataparticularfacultyiswithoutassigningitataskSensibilityisjustthepowerofreceivingsensationsorbeingaffectedbyobjects,theunderstandingisjustthepowerofjudgingTheDemandsofTasteinKant'sAestheticsdeterminativelyorconceptualizing,theimaginationisjustthepowerofrepresentinginintuitionwhatisnotdirectlypresenttothesenses,thewillisjustthepowerofchoosingacourseofaction,andsoforthButbyvirtueofassigningitatask,oneplacesthefacultyinquestionunderanormofsuccessorfailureinperformingthattaskOnecanthereforespeakofa'bad'or'poor'understanding,whichwouldbeonethatgraspsthingspoorly,ora'weak'willthatfailstomakeeffectivechoices,andsoonIcansummarizemyviewofthenormativityatthesourceofthepleasureimperativebysayingthatitisrootedinthisnotionoftheproperfunctioningofthecognitivefaculties,andisthereforea'quasicognitive'normativityIthusconcurwithMaryMcCloskey'scommentthat,forKant,'failuretocomplywiththedemandoftastewouldamounttorefusaltoexerciseone'scognitivepowerstothefullandtobeonlypartiallyalivetotheworld'Bycallingthisnormativity'quasicognitive',Imeantoindicatethat()ithasanintimaterelationshiptothenormsgoverningthefacultiesastheyengageincognitiveperception,yet()the'success'ofthefacultiesintheaestheticexperienceisnotdeterminedbywhethertheymanagetoaccomplishthetaskofcognitionBecausethenormativityinvolvedismerelyquasicognitive,itis,tomymindatleast,stillproperlyconsideredauniquelyaestheticbrandofnormativityAnimportantpointtonoteinthisconnectionisthat,sincethenotionofafacultyisitselfintrinsicallynormative,thenormativityinquestionhereisnormative'allthewaydown':ie,atnopointcanitbereducedtoafactualclaimIsanormativefacultypsychologyofthissortobjectionablyspeculativeThatdepends,inmyview,uponwhetheroneispreparedtocountenancethenotionthatourdiscursivepracticesofmakingknowledgeclaimsalsocommitustoacknowledgingtheexistenceofcertain'transcendental'functionsofthemind,andthat

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*新书上架*【康德研究】康德美学中的趣味要求

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