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首页 考博词汇《中科院考博英语词汇》

考博词汇《中科院考博英语词汇》.pdf

考博词汇《中科院考博英语词汇》

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2009-11-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《考博词汇《中科院考博英语词汇》pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

中国科学院研究生院博士研究生入学考试英语考试大纲本大纲是在年月起试行的原《中国科学院研究生院博士研究生入学考试英语考试大纲》的基础上修订的自年月起在中国科学院研究生院范围内试行。考试对象报考中国科学院所属各院、所、园、中心、站、台相关专业拟攻读博士学位的考生。考试目的检验考生是否具有进入攻读博士学位阶段的英语水平和能力。考试类型、考试内容及考试结构本考试共有五个部分:词汇(占)、完形填空(占)、阅读理解(占)、英译汉占()写作占。试卷分为:试卷一(PaperOne)客观试题包括前三个部分共题顺序排号试卷二(PaperTwo)主观试题包括英译汉和写作两个部分。一、词汇主要测试考生是否具备一定的词汇量和根据上下文对词和词组意义判断的能力。词和词组的测试范围基本以本考试大纲词汇表为参照依据。共题。每题为一个留有空白的英文句子。要求考生从所给的四个选项中选出可用在句中的最恰当词或词组。二、完形填空主要测试考生在语篇层次上的理解能力以及对词汇表达方式和结构掌握的程度。考生应具有借助于词汇、句法及上下文线索对语言进行综合分析和应用的能力。要求考生就所给篇章中处空白所需的词或短语分别从四个选项中选出最佳答案。三、阅读理解本部分共分两节。要求考生能:)掌握中心思想、主要内容和具体细节)进行相关的判断和推理)准确把握某些词和词组在上下文中的特定含义)领会作者观点和意图、判断作者的态度。A节:主要测试考生在规定时间内通过阅读获取相关信息的能力。考生须完成词的阅读量并就题目从四个选项中选出最佳答案。B节:主要测试考生对诸如连贯性和一致性等语段特征的理解。考生须完成-词的阅读量(篇短文)并根据每篇文章(约词)的内容从文后所提供的段文字中选择能分别放进文章中个空白处的段。英语部分四、英译汉要求考生将一篇近词的英语短文中有下划线的个句子翻译成汉语。主要测试考生是否能从语篇的角度正确理解英语原句的意思并能用准确、达意的汉语书面表达出来。五、写作要求考生按照命题、所给提纲或背景图、表写出一篇不少于字的短文。目的是测试考生用英语表达思想或传递信息的能力及对英文写作基础知识的实际运用。考试时间及计分考试时间总计为分钟,其中试卷一为分钟,试卷二为分钟。卷面总分分。详见下表:试卷一:题号名称题量分值时间(分钟)I词汇选择填空II完形填空IIIA阅读理解(A)IIIB阅读理解(B)小计分钟试卷二:题号名称题量分值时间(分钟)IV英译汉–语篇中句子V写作小计分钟英语部分SAMPLETESTTHECHINESEACADEMYOFSCIENCESENGLISHENTRANCEEXAMINATIONFORDOCTORALCANDIDATESPAPERONEPARTIVOCABULARY(minutes,points,pointeach)Directions:Choosethewordorexpressionbeloweachsentencethatbestcompletesthestatement,andmarkthecorrespondingletterofyourchoicewithasinglebaracrossthesquarebracketsonyourMachinescoringAnswerSheetTenyearsago,ahousewithadecentbathroomwasasymbolamonguniversityprofessorsApostBstatusCpositionDplaceItwouldbefarbetterifcollectorscouldbepersuadedtospendtheirtimeandmoneyinsupportofarchaeologicalresearchAlegibleBlegitimateClegislativeDillicitWeseekasocietythathasatitsarespectforthedignityandworthoftheindividualAendBhandCcoreDbestAvarietyofproblemshavegreatlythecountry’snormaleducationaldevelopmentAimpededBimpartedCimploredDimplementedAgoodeducationisanassetyoucanfortherestofyourlifeAspelloutBcalluponCfalloverDresorttoOilcanchangeasocietymorethananyonecouldeverhaveimaginedAgrosslyBseverelyCrapidlyDdrasticallyBeneathitsmyriadrules,thefundamentalpurposeofistomaketheworldapleasanterplacetolivein,andyouamorepleasantpersontolivewith英语部分AelitismBeloquenceCeminenceDetiquetteTheNewTestamentwasnotonlywrittenintheGreeklanguage,butideasderivedfromGreekphilosophywereinmanypartsofitAalteredBcriticizedCincorporatedDtranslatedNobodywilleverknowtheagonyIgowaitingforhimtocomehomeAoverBwithCdownDthroughWhileacountry’seconomyisbecomingthemostpromisingintheworld,itspeopleshouldbemoreabouttheirqualityoflifeAdiscriminatingBdistributingCdisagreeingDdisclosingCheatedbytwoboyswhomhehadtruston,JosephpromisedtothemAfindfaultwithBmakethemostofClookdownuponDgetevenwithTheMinister’sanswerlettoanoutcryfromtheOppositionAimpressiveBevasiveCintensiveDexhaustiveInproportionasthebetweenclasseswithinthenationdisappearsthehostilityofonenationtoanotherwillcometoanendAintoleranceBpessimismCinjusticeDantagonismEveryonedoestheirownthing,tothepointwhereafifthgradeteachercan’tonafourthgradeteacherhavingtaughtcertainthingsAcountBinsistCfallDdwellWhenthefirebrokeoutinthebuilding,thepeoplelosttheirandranintotheelevatorAheartsBtempersCheadsDsensesConsumersdeprivedoftheinformationandadvicetheyneededwerequitesimplyeverycheatinthemarketplaceAatthemercyofBinlieuofCbycourtesyofDforthepriceof英语部分Infactthepurchasingpowerofasingleperson’spensioninHongKongwasonlypercentofthevalueoftheSingaporepensionAequivalentBsimilarCconsistentDidenticalHebecameawarethathehadlosthisaudiencesincehehadnotbeenabletotalkAhonestlyBgraciouslyCcoherentlyDflexiblyThenovel,whichisaworkofart,existsnotbyitslife,butbyitsimmeasurabledifferencefromlifeAsignificanceinBimaginationatCresemblancetoDpredominanceoverShewasartfulandcouldalwaysherparentsintheendAshoutdownBgetroundCcomplywithDpassoverPARTIICLOZETEST(minutes,points)Directions:Foreachblankinthefollowingpassage,choosethebestanswerfromthefourchoicesgivenintheoppositecolumnMarkthecorrespondingletterofyourchoicewithasinglebaracrossthesquarebracketsonyourMachinescoringAnswerSheetWeareenteringaperiodinwhichrapidpopulationgrowth,thepresenceofdeadlyweapons,anddwindlingresourceswillbringinternationaltensionstodangerouslevelsforanextendedperiodIndeed,seemsnoreasonfortheselevelsofdangertosubsideunlesspopulationequilibriumisandsomeroughmeasureoffairnessreachedinthedistributionofwealthamongnationsofadequatemagnitudeimplyawillingnesstoredistributeincomeinternationallyonamoregenerousthantheadvancednationshaveevidencedwithintheirowndomainsTherequiredincreasesininthebackwardregionswouldnecessitategiganticapplicationsofenergymerelytoextracttheresourcesItisuncertainwhethertherequisiteenergyproducingtechnologyexists,andmoreserious,thatitsapplicationwouldbringustothethresholdofanirreversiblechangeinclimateaconsequenceoftheenormousadditionofmanmadeheattotheatmosphereItisthisproblemthatposesthemostdemandinganddifficultofthechallengesTheexistingofindustrialgrowth,withnoallowanceforincreasedindustrializationtorepairglobalpoverty,holdtheriskofenteringthedangerzoneofclimaticchangeinasasthreeorfourgenerationsIfthetrajectoryisinfactpursued,industrialgrowthwillhavetocometoanimmediatehalt,foranothergenerationortwoalongthatwouldliterallyconsumehuman,perhapsalllifeTheterrifyingoutcomecanbepostponedonlytotheextentthatthewastageofheatcanbereduced,thattechnologiesthatdonotaddtotheatmosphericheatburdenforexample,theuseofsolarenergycanbeutilized()AoneBitCthisDthereAachievedBsucceededCproducedDexecuted英语部分ATransfersBTransactionsCTransportsDTranscriptsAextentBscaleCmeasureDrangeAoutgrowthBoutcropCoutputDoutcomeAneededBneedyCneedlessDneedingApossibleBpossiblyCprobableDprobablyAinBwithCasDtoAleastBlateClatestDlastAraceBpaceCfaceDlaceAonBupCdownDoutAlessBfewerCmanyDlittleAratherBhardlyCthenDyetAlineBmoveCdriveDtrackAifBorCwhileDasPARTIIIREADINGCOMPREHENSIONSectionA(minutes,points)Directions:BeloweachofthefollowingpassagesyouwillfindsomequestionsorincompletestatementsEachquestionorstatementisfollowedbyfourchoicesmarkedA,B,C,andDReadeachpassagecarefully,andthenselectthechoicethatbestanswersthequestionorcompletesthestatementMarktheletterofyourchoicewithasinglebaracrossthesquarebracketsonyourMachinescoringAnswerSheetPassageThewritingofahistoricalsynthesisinvolvesintegratingthematerialsavailabletothehistorianintoacomprehensiblewholeTheprobleminwritingahistoricalsynthesisishowtofindapatternin,orimposeapatternupon,thedetailedinformationthathasalreadybeenusedtoexplainthecausesforahistoricaleventAsynthesisseekscommonelementsinwhichtointerpretthecontingentpartsofahistoricaleventTheinitialstep,therefore,inwritingahistoricalsynthesis,istoputtheeventtobesynthesizedinaproperhistoricalperspective,sothatthecommonelementsorstrandsmakinguptheeventcanbedeterminedThiscanbeaccomplishedbyanalyzingthehistoricaleventaspartofageneraltrendorcontinuuminhistoryThecommonelementsthatarefamiliartotheeventwillbecometheideologicalframeworkinwhichthehistorianseekstosynthesizeThisisnottosaythatanyfactorwillnothaveagreaterrelativevalueinthehistorian’shandlingoftheinterrelatedwhenviewedinabroadhistoricalperspectiveThehistorian,insynthesizing,mustdeterminetheextenttowhichtheexistinghypotheseshavesimilartrendsAgeneraltrendline,onceestablished,willenablethesesimilartrendstobecorrelatedandparalleledwithintheconceptualframeworkofacommonbaseAsynthesisfurtherseekstodetermine,fromexistinghypotheses,whyanoutcometookthedirectionitdidthus,itnecessitatesreconstructingthespiritofthetimesinordertoassimilatethepolitical,social,psychological,etc,factorswithinacommonbaseAssuch,thesynthesisbecomesthelogicalconstructininterpretingthecommongroundbetweenanoriginalexplanationofanoutcome(thesis)andthereinterpretationoftheoutcomealongdifferentlines(antithesis)Therefore,thesynthesisnecessitatestheintegrationofthematerialsavailableintoacomprehensiblewholewhichwillinturnprovideanewhistoricalperspectivefortheeventbeingsynthesizedTheauthorwouldmostlybeconcernedwith英语部分AfindingthemostimportantcauseforaparticularhistoricaleventBdeterminingwhenhypothesesneedtobereinterpretedCimposingapatternuponvaryinginterpretationsforthecausesofaparticularhistoricaleventDattributingmanyconditionsthattogetherleadtoaparticularhistoricaleventortosinglemotiveThemostimportantpreliminarystepinwritingahistoricalsynthesiswouldbeAtoaccumulatesufficientreferencematerialtoexplainaneventBanalyzingthehistoricaleventtodetermineifa“singlethemetheory”applestotheeventCdeterminingthecommonstrandsthatmakeupahistoricaleventDinterpretinghistoricalfactorstodetermineifonefactorwillhaverelativelygreatervalueThebestdefinitionfortheterm“historicalsynthesis”wouldbeAcombiningelementsofdifferentmaterialintoaunifiedwholeBatentativetheorysetforthasanexplanationforaneventCthedirectoppositeoftheoriginalinterpretationofaneventDinterpretinghistoricalmaterialtoprovethathistoryrepeatsitselfAhistorianseekstoreconstructthe“spirit”ofatimeperiodbecauseAtheeventsinhistoryaremoreimportantthanthepeoplewhomakehistoryBexistinghypothesesareadequateinexplaininghistoricaleventsCthisisthebestmethodtodeterminethesinglemostimportantcauseforaparticularactionDvaryingfactorscanbeassimilatedwithinacommonbaseWhichofthefollowingstatementswouldtheauthorconsiderfalseAOnefactorinahistoricalsynthesiswillnothaveagreatervaluethanotherfactorsBItispossibletoanalyzecommonunifyingpointsinhypothesesCHistoricaleventsshouldbestudiedaspartofacontinuuminhistoryDAsynthesisseekstodeterminewhyanoutcometookthedirectionitdidPassageWhenyoucallthepolice,thepolicedispatcherhastolocatethecarnearestyouthatisfreetorespondThismeansthedispatcherhastokeeptrackofthestatusandlocationofeverypolicecarnotaneasytaskforalargedepartmentAnotherproblem,whichariseswhencarsareassignedtoregularpatrols,isthatthepatrolsmaybetooregularIfcriminalsfindoutthatpolicecarswillpassaparticularlocationatregularintervals,theysimplyplantheircrimesfortimeswhennopatrolisexpectedTherefore,patrolcarsshouldpassbyanyparticularlocationatrandomtimesthefactthatacarjustpassedshouldbenoguaranteethatanotheroneisnotjustaroundthecornerYetsimplyorderingtheofficerstopatrolatrandomwouldleadtochaosAcomputerdispatchingsystemcansolveboththeseproblemsThecomputerhasnotroublekeepingtrackofthestatusandlocationofeachcarWiththisinformation,itcandetermineinstantlywhichcarshouldrespondtoanincomingcallAndwiththeaidofapseudorandomnumbergenerator,thecomputercanassignroutinepatrolssothatcriminalscan’tpredictjustwhenapolicecarwillpassthroughaparticulararea(Beforecomputers,policesometimesusedroulettewheelsandsimilardevicestomakerandomassignments)英语部分ComputersalsocanrelievepoliceofficersfromconstantlyhavingtoreporttheirstatusThepolicecarwouldcontainaspecialautomaticradiotransmitterandreceiverTheofficerwouldsetadialonthisunitindicatingthecurrentstatusofthecarpatrolling,directingtraffic,chasingaspeeder,answeringacall,outtolunch,andsoonWhennecessary,thecomputeratheadquarterscouldpollthecarforitsstatusThevoiceradiochannelswouldnotbecloggedwithcarsconstantlyreportingwhattheyweredoingAcomputerinthecarautomaticallycoulddeterminethelocationofthecar,perhapsusingtheLORANmethodThelocationofthecaralsowouldbesentautomaticallytotheheadquarterscomputerThebesttitleforthispassageshouldbeAComputersandCrimesBPatrolCarDispatchingCThePowerfulComputersDThePolicewithModernEquipmentApolicedispatcherisNOTsupposedtoAlocateeverypatrolcarBguaranteecarsonregularpatrolsCkeepintouchwitheachpolicecarDfindoutwhichcarshouldrespondtotheincomingcallIfthepatrolsaretooregular,AthedispatcherswillbeboredwithitBtheofficersmaybecomecarelessCthecriminalsmaytakeadvantageofitDthestreetswillbeinastateofchaosThecomputerdispatchingsystemisparticularlygoodatAassigningcarstoregularpatrolsBrespondingtotheincomingcallsCorderingofficerstoreporttheirlocationDmakingroutinepatrolsunpredictableAccordingtotheaccountinthelastparagraph,howcanapatrolcarbelocatedwithoutcomputersAPoliceofficersreporttheirstatusconstantlyBTheheadquarterspollthecarforitsstatusCAradiotransmitterandreceiverisinstalledinacarDAdialinthecarindicatesitscurrentstatusPassageAchildwhohasoncebeenpleasedwithatalelikes,asarule,tohaveitretoldinidenticallythesamewords,butthisshouldnotleadparentstotreatprintedfairystoriesassacredtextsItisalwaysmuchbettertotellastorythanreaditoutofabook,and,ifaparentcanproducewhat,intheactualcircumstancesofthetimeandtheindividualchild,isanimprovementontheprintedtext,somuchthebetterAchargemadeagainstfairytalesisthattheyharmthechildbyfrighteninghimorarousinghissadistic英语部分impulseToprovethelatter,onewouldhavetoshowinacontrolledexperimentthatchildrenwhohavereadfairystoriesweremoreoftenguiltyofcrueltythanthosewhohadnotAggressive,destructive,sadisticimpulseseverychildhasand,onthewhole,theirsymbolicverbaldischargeseemtoberatherasafetyvalvethananincitementtoovertactionAstofears,thereare,Ithink,wellauthenticatedcasesofchildrenbeingdangerouslyterrifiedbysomefairystoryOften,however,thisarisesfromthechildhavingheardthestoryonceFamiliaritywiththestorybyrepetitionturnsthepainoffearintothepleasureofafearfacedandmasteredTherearealsopeoplewhoobjecttofairystoriesonthegroundsthattheyarenotobjectivelytrue,thatgiants,witches,twoheadeddragons,magiccarpets,etc,donotexistandthat,insteadofindulginghisfantasiesinfairytales,thechildshouldbetaughthowtoadapttorealitybystudyinghistoryandmechanicsIfindsuchpeople,Imustconfess,sounsympatheticandpeculiarthatIdonotknowhowtoarguewiththemIftheircaseweresound,theworldshouldbefullofmadmenattemptingtoflyfromNewYorktoPhiladelphiaonabroomstickorcoveringatelephonewithkissesinthebeliefthatitwastheirenchantedgirlfriendNofairystoryeverclaimedtobeadescriptionoftheexternalworldandnosanechildhaseverbelievedthatitwasAccordingtotheauthor,thebestwaytoretellastorytoachildistoAtellitinacreativewayBtakefromitwhatthechildlikesCaddtoitwhateverathandDreaditoutofthestorybookInthesecondparagraph,whichstatementbestexpressestheauthor’sattitudetowardsfairystoriesAHeseesinthemtheworstofhumannatureBHedislikeseverythingaboutthemCHeregardsthemasmoreofabenefitthanharmsDHeisexpectantoftheexperimentalresultsAccordingtotheauthor,fairystoriesaremostlikelytoAmakechildrenaggressivethewholelifeBincitedestructivenessinchildrenCfunctionasasafetyvalveforchildrenDaddchildren’senjoymentofcrueltytoothersIfthechildhasheardsomehorrorstoryformorethanonce,accordingtotheauthor,hewouldprobablybeAscaredtodeathBtakingitandevenenjoyingitCsufferingmorethepainoffearDdangerouslyterrifiedTheauthor’smentionofbroomsticksandtelephonesismeanttoemphasizethatAoldfairystorieskeepupdatingthemselvestocaterformodernneedsBfairystorieshaveclaimedmanylivesofvictimsCfairystorieshavethrownourworldintochaos英语部分DfairystoriesareafterallfairystoriesPassageTherehasbeenalotofhandwringingoverthedeathofElizabethSteinbergWithoutblaminganyoneinparticular,neighbors,friends,socialworkers,thepoliceandnewspapereditorshavestruggledtodefin

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考博词汇《中科院考博英语词汇》

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