下载
加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 【杜威诞辰150年重读】学校与社会(英文原版)

【杜威诞辰150年重读】学校与社会(英文原版).pdf

【杜威诞辰150年重读】学校与社会(英文原版)

whrd0001_wy0he
2009-11-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【杜威诞辰150年重读】学校与社会(英文原版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

UNIVERSITYCALIFORNIASANDIEGOADCMASONIHhUNIVERSITYLIBRARYUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIA,SANDIEGOLAJOLLACALIFORNIATHESCHOOLANDSOCIETYTHEUNIVERSITYOFCHICAGOPRESSCHICAGO,ILLINOISAgrtrtaTHECAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSLONDONANDEDINBDEGHTHEMARUZENKABUSHIKIKAISHATOKYO,OSAKA,KYOTOKARLWHIERSEMANNLEIPZIGTHEBAKERTAYLORCOMPANYNEWYORKantfSOCIETYBEINGTHREELECTURESJOHNDEWEYSUPPLEMENTEDBYASTATEMENTOFTHEUNIVERSITYELEMENTARYSCHOOLTHEUNIVERSITYOFCHICAGOPRESSCHICAGO,ILLINOISCOPYRIGHTigooBYJOHNDEWEYAllRightsReservedFIRSTEDITIONSECONDIMPRESSIONTHIRDIMPRESSIONFOURTHIMPRESSIONFIFTHIMPRESSIONSIXTHIMPRESSIONSEVENTHIMPRESSIONEIGHTHIMPRESSIONNINTHIMPRESSIONTENTHIMPRESSIONELEVENTHIMPRESSIONi,copies,copies,copies,copies,copies,copies,copies,copies,i,copies,copies,copiesPrintedNovember,igoPrintedFebruary,igooPrintedJuly,igooPrintedJune,PrintedFebruary,igosPrintedAugust,PrintedSeptember,igogPrintedAugust,igioPrintedAugust,ignPrintedMarch,PrintedAugust,igiComposedandPrintedByTheUniversityofChicagoPressChicago,Illinois,USATOMRSEMMONSELAINETOWHOSEINTERESTINEDUCATIONALREFORMTHEAPPEARANCEOFTHISBOOKISDUECONTENTSPAGEITHESCHOOLANDSOCIALPROGRESSIITHESCHOOLANDTHELIFEOFTHECHILDIIIWASTEINEDUCATIONIVTHREEYEARSOFTHEUNIVERSITYELEMENTARYSCHOOLLISTOFILLUSTRATIONSFACINGPAGEDRAWINGOFACAVEANDTREESDRAWINGOFAFORESTDRAWINGOFHANDSSPINNINGDRAWINGOFAGIRLSPINNINGPUBLISHER'SNOTETHEthreelecturespresentedinthefollowingpagesweredeliveredbeforeanaudienceofparentsandothersinterestedintheUniversityElementarySchool,inthemonthofApriloftheyearMrDeweyrevisedtheminpartfromastenographicreport,andunimportantchangesandtheslightadaptationsnecessaryforthepresshavebeenmadeinhisabsenceThelecturesretainthereforetheunstudiedcharacteraswellasthepowerofthespokenwordAstheyimplymoreorlessfamiliaritywiththeworkoftheElementarySchool,MrDewey'ssupplementarystatementofthishasbeenaddedAUTHOR'SNOTEASECONDeditionaffordsagratefulopportunityforrecallingthatthislittlebookisasignofthecooperatingthoughtsandsympathiesofmanypersonsItsindebtednesstoMrsEmmonsElaineispartlyindicatedinthededicationFrommyfriends,MrandMrsGeorgeHerbertMead,camethatinterest,unflaggingattentiontodetail,andartistictastewhich,inmyabsence,remadecolloquialremarksuntiltheywerefittoprint,andthensawtheresultsthroughthepresswiththepresentattractiveresultamodeofauthorshipmadeeasy,whichIrecommendtoothersfortunateenoughtopossesssuchfriendsItwouldbeanextendedparagraphwhichshouldlistallthefriendswhosetimelyandpersistinggenerosityhasmadepossibletheschoolwhichinspiredanddefinedtheideasofthesepagesThesefriends,Iamsure,wouldbethefirsttorecognizethepeculiarappropriatenessofespecialmentionofthenamesofMrsCharlesRCraneandMrsWilliamRLinnAndtheschoolitselfinitseducationalworkisajointundertakingManyhaveengagedinshapingitTheclearandexperiencedintelligenceofmywifeiswroughteverywhereintoitstextureThewisdom,tactanddevotionofitsinstructorshavebroughtaboutatransformationofitsoriginalamorphousplansintoarticulateformandsubstancewithlifeandmovementoftheirownWhatevertheissueoftheideaspresentedinthisbook,thesatisfactioncomingfromthecooperationofthediversethoughtsanddeedsofmanypersonsinundertakingtoenlargethelifeofthechildwillabideJanuary,THESCHOOLANDSOCIALPROGRESSTHESCHOOLANDSOCIALPROGRESSWeareapttolookattheschoolfromanindividualisticstandpoint,assomethingbetweenteacherandpupil,orbetweenteacherandparentThatwhichinterestsusmostisnaturallytheprogressmadebytheindividualchildofouracquaintance,hisnormalphysicaldevelopment,hisadvanceinabilitytoread,write,andfigure,hisgrowthintheknowledgeofgeographyandhistory,improvementinmanners,habitsofpromptness,order,andindustryitisfromsuchstandardsasthesethatwejudgetheworkoftheschoolAndrightlysoYettherangeoftheoutlookneedstobeenlargedWhatthebestandwisestparentwantsforhisownchild,thatmustthecommunitywantforallofitschildrenAnyotheridealforourschoolsisnarrowandunlovelyactedupon,itdestroysourdemocracyAllthatsocietyhasaccomplishedforitselfisput,throughtheagencyoftheschool,atthedisposalofitsfuturemembersAllitsbetterthoughtsofitselfithopestorealizethroughthenewpossibilitiesthusopenedtoitsfutureselfHereindividualismandsocialismareatoneOnlybybeingtruetothefullgrowthofalltheindividualswhomakeitup,canTHESCHOOLANDSOCIETYsocietybyanychancebetruetoitselfAndintheselfdirectionthusgiven,nothingcountsasmuchastheschool,for,asHoraceMannsaid,"Whereanythingisgrowing,oneformerisworthathousandreformers"Wheneverwehaveinmindthediscussionofanewmovementineducation,itisespeciallynecessarytotakethebroader,orsocialviewOtherwise,changesintheschoolinstitutionandtraditionwillbelookedatasthearbitraryinventionsofparticularteachersattheworsttransitoryfads,andatthebestmerelyimprovementsincertaindetailsandthisistheplaneuponwhichitistoocustomarytoconsiderschoolchangesItisasrationaltoconceiveofthelocomotiveorthetelegraphaspersonaldevicesThemodificationgoingoninthemethodandcurriculumofeducationisasmuchaproductofthechangedsocialsituation,andasmuchanefforttomeettheneedsofthenewsocietythatisforming,asarechangesinmodesofindustryandcommerceItistothis,then,thatIespeciallyaskyourattention:theefforttoconceivewhatroughlymaybetermedthe"NewEducation"inthelightoflargerchangesinsocietyCanweconnectthis"NewEducation"withthegeneralmarchofeventsIfwecan,itwillloseitsisolatedcharacter,andwillceasetobeanaffairwhichTHESCHOOLANDSOCIETYproceedsonlyfromtheoveringeniousmindsofpedagoguesdealingwithparticularpupilsItwillappearaspartandparcelofthewholesocialevolution,and,initsmoregeneralfeaturesatleast,asinevitableLetusthenaskafterthemainaspectsofthesocialmovementandafterwardsturntotheschooltofindwhatwitnessitgivesofefforttoputitselfinlineAndsinceitisquiteimpossibletocoverthewholeground,Ishallforthemostpartconfinemyselftoonetypicalthinginthemodernschoolmovementthatwhichpassesunderthenameofmanualtraining,hopingiftherelationofthattochangedsocialconditionsappears,weshallbereadytoconcedethepointaswellregardingothereducationalinnovationsImakenoapologyfornotdwellingatlengthuponthesocialchangesinquestionThoseIshallmentionarewritsolargethathewhorunsmayreadThechangethatcomesfirsttomind,theonethatovershadowsandevencontrolsallothers,istheindustrialonetheapplicationofscienceresultinginthegreatinventionsthathaveutilizedtheforcesofnatureonavastandinexpensivescale:thegrowthofaworldwidemarketastheobjectofproduction,ofvastmanufacturingcenterstosupplythismarket,ofcheapandrapidmeansofcommunicationanddistributionbetweenallitspartsEvenastoitsTHESCHOOLANDSOCIETYfeeblerbeginnings,thischangeisnotmuchmorethanacenturyoldinmanyofitsmostimportantaspectsitfallswithintheshortspanofthosenowlivingOnecanhardlybelievetherehasbeenarevolutioninallhistorysorapid,soextensive,socompleteThroughitthefaceoftheearthismakingover,evenastoitsphysicalformspoliticalboundariesarewipedoutandmovedabout,asiftheywereindeedonlylinesonapapermappopulationishurriedlygatheredintocitiesfromtheendsoftheearthhabitsoflivingarealteredwithstartlingabruptnessandthoroughnessthesearchforthetruthsofnatureisinfinitelystimulatedandfacilitatedandtheirapplicationtolifemadenotonlypracticable,butcommerciallynecessaryEvenourmoralandreligiousideasandinterests,themostconservativebecausethedeepestlyingthingsinournature,areprofoundlyaffectedThatthisrevolutionshouldnotaffecteducationinotherthanformalandsuperficialfashionisinconceivableBackofthefactorysystemliesthehouseholdandneighborhoodsystemThoseofuswhoareheretodayneedgobackonlyone,two,oratmostthreegenerations,tofindatimewhenthehouseholdwaspracticallythecenterinwhichwerecarriedon,oraboutwhichwereclustered,allthetypicalforrnsofindustrialoccupationTHESCHOOLANDSOCIETYTheclothingwornwasforthemostpartnotonlymadeinthehouse,butthemembersofthehouseholdwereusuallyfamiliarwiththeshearingofthesheep,thecardingandspinningofthewool,andtheplyingoftheloomInsteadofpressingabuttonandfloodingthehousewithelectriclight,thewholeprocessofgettingilluminationwasfollowedinitstoilsomelength,fromthekillingoftheanimalandthetryingoffat,tothemakingofwicksanddippingofcandlesThesupplyofflour,oflumber,offoods,ofbuildingmaterials,ofhouseholdfurniture,evenofmetalware,ofnails,hinges,hammers,etc,wasintheimmediateneighborhood,inshopswhichwereconstantlyopentoinspectionandoftencentersofneighborhoodcongregationTheentireindustrialprocessstoodrevealed,fromtheproductiononthefarmoftherawmaterials,tillthefinishedarticlewasactuallyputtouseNotonlythis,butpracticallyeverymemberofthehouseholdhadhisownshareintheworkThechildren,astheygainedinstrengthandcapacity,weregraduallyinitiatedintothemysteriesoftheseveralprocessesItwasamatterofimmediateandpersonalconcern,eventothepointofactualparticipationWecannotoverlookthefactorsofdisciplineandofcharacterbuildinginvolvedinthis:traininginhabitsoforderandofindustry,andinTHESCHOOLANDSOCIETYtheideaofresponsibility,ofobligationtodosomething,toproducesomething,intheworldTherewasalwayssomethingwhichreallyneededtobedone,andarealnecessitythateachmemberofthehouseholdshoulddohisownpartfaithfullyandincooperationwithothersPersonalitieswhichbecameeffectiveinactionwerebredandtestedinthemediumofactionAgain,wecannotoverlooktheimportanceforeducationalpurposesofthecloseandintimateacquaintancegotwithnatureatfirsthand,withrealthingsandmaterials,withtheactualprocessesoftheirmanipulation,andtheknowledgeoftheirsocialnecessitiesandusesInallthistherewascontinualtrainingofobservation,ofingenuity,constructiveimagination,oflogicalthought,andofthesenseofrealityacquiredthroughfirsthandcontactwithactualitiesTheeducativeforcesofthedomesticspinningandweaving,ofthesawmill,thegristmill,thecoopershop,andtheblacksmithforge,werecontinuouslyoperativeNonumberofobjectlessons,gotupasobjectlessonsforthesakeofgivinginformation,canaffordeventheshadowofasubstituteforacquaintancewiththeplantsandanimalsofthefarmandgarden,acquiredthroughactuallivingamongthemandcaringforthemNotrainingofsenseorgansinschool,introducedforthesakeoftraining,canbegintocompetewiththealertnessTHESCHOOLANDSOCIETYandfullnessofsenselifethatcomesthroughdailyintimacyandinterestinfamiliaroccupationsVerbalmemorycanbetrainedincommittingtasks,acertaindisciplineofthereasoningpowerscanbeacquiredthroughlessonsinscienceandmathematicsbut,afterall,thisissomewhatremoteandshadowycomparedwiththetrainingofattentionandofjudgmentthatisacquiredinhavingtodothingswitharealmotivebehindandarealoutcomeaheadAtpresent,concentrationofindustryanddivisionoflaborhavepracticallyeliminatedhouseholdandneighborhoodoccupationsatleastforeducationalpurposesButitisuselesstobemoanthedepartureofthegoodolddaysofchildren'smodesty,reverence,andimplicitobedience,ifweexpectmerelybybemoaningandbyexhortationtobringthembackItisradicalconditionswhichhavechanged,andonlyanequallyradicalchangeineducationsufficesWemustrecognizeourcompensationstheincreaseintoleration,inbreadthofsocialjudgment,thelargeracquaintancewithhumannature,thesharpenedalertnessinreadingsignsofcharacterandinterpretingsocialsituations,greateraccuracyofadaptationtodifferingpersonalities,contactwithgreatercommercialactivitiesTheseconsiderationsmeanmuchtothecitybredchildoftodayYetthereisarealproblem:howshallweretaintheseadvantages,THESCHOOLANDSOCIETYandyetintroduceintotheschoolsomethingrepresentingtheothersideoflifeoccupationswhichexactpersonalresponsibilitiesandwhichtrainthechildwithrelationtothephysicalrealitiesoflifeWhenweturntotheschool,wefindthatoneofthemoststrikingtendenciesatpresentistowardtheintroductionofsocalledmanualtraining,shopwork,andthehouseholdartssewingandcookingThishasnotbeendone"onpurpose,"withafullconsciousnessthattheschoolmustnowsupplythatfactoroftrainingformerlytakencareofinthehome,butratherbyinstinct,byexperimentingandfindingthatsuchworktakesavitalholdofpupilsandgivesthemsomethingwhichwasnottobegotinanyotherwayConsciousnessofitsrealimportisstillsoweakthattheworkisoftendoneinahalfhearted,confused,andunrelatedwayThereasonsassignedtojustifyitarepainfullyinadequateorsometimesevenpositivelywrongIfweweretocrossexamineeventhosewhoaremostfavorablydisposedtotheintroductionofthisworkintoourschoolsystem,weshould,Iimagine,generallyfindthemainreasonstobethatsuchworkengagesthefullspontaneousinterestandattentionofthechildrenItkeepsthemalertandactive,insteadofpassiveandreceptiveitmakesthemmoreuseful,morecapable,andTHESCHOOLANDSOCIETYhencemoreinclinedtobehelpfulathomeitpreparesthemtosomeextentforthepracticaldutiesoflaterlifethegirlstobemoreefficienthousemanagers,ifnotactuallycooksandsempstressestheboys(wereoureducationalsystemonlyadequatelyroundedoutintotradeschools)fortheirfuturevocationsIdonotunderestimatetheworthofthesereasonsOfthoseindicatedbythechangedattitudeofthechildrenIshallindeedhavesomethingtosayinmynexttalk,whenspeakingdirectlyoftherelationshipoftheschooltothechildButthepointofviewis,uponthewhole,unnecessarilynarrowWemustconceiveofworkinwoodandmetal,ofweaving,sewing,andcooking,asmethodsoflifenotasdistinctstudiesWemustconceiveofthemintheirsocialsignificance,astypesoftheprocessesbywhichsocietykeepsitselfgoing,asagenciesforbringinghometothechildsomeoftheprimalnecessitiesofcommunitylife,andaswaysinwhichtheseneedshavebeenmetbythegrowinginsightandingenuityofmaninshort,asinstrumentalitiesthroughwhichtheschoolitselfshallbemadeagenuineformofactivecommunitylife,insteadofaplacesetapartinwhichtolearnlessonsAsocietyisanumberofpeopleheldtogetherbecausetheyareworkingalongcommonlines,inacommonspirit,andwithreferencetocommonaimsThecommonneedsandaimsdemandagrowinginterchangeofthoughtandgrowingunityofsympatheticfeelingTheradicalreasonthatthepresentschoolcannotorganizeitselfasanaturalsocialunitisbecausejustthiselementofcommonandproductiveactivityisabsentUpontheplayground,ingameandsport,socialorganizationtakesplacespontaneouslyandinevitablyThere:ssomethingtodo,someactivitytobecarriedon,requiringnaturaldivisionsoflabor,selectionofleadersandfollowers,mutualcooperationandemulationIntheschoolroomthemotiveandthecementofsocialorganizationarealikewantingUpontheethicalside,thetragicweaknessofthepresentschoolisthatitendeavorstopreparefuturemembersofthesocialorderinamediuminwhichtheconditionsofthesocialspiritareeminentlywantingThedifferencethatappearswhenoccupationsaremadethearticulatingcentersofschoollifeisnoteasytodescribeinwordsitisadifferenceinmotive,ofspiritandatmosphereAsoneentersabusykitcheninwhichagroupofchildrenareactivelyengagedinthepreparationoffood,thepsychologicaldifference,thechangefrommoreorlesspassiveandinertrecipiencyandrestrainttooneofbuoyantoutgoingenergy,issoobviousasfairlytostrikeoneinthefaceIndeed,tothosewhoseimageoftheschoolisTHESCHOOLNDSOCIETYrigidlysetthechangeissuretogiveashockButthechangeinthesocialattitudeisequallymarkedThemereabsorptionoffactsandtruthsissoexclusivelyindividualanaffairthatittendsverynaturallytopassintoselfishnessThereisnoobvioussocialmotivefortheacquirementofmerelearning,thereisnoclearsocialgaininsuccessthereatIndeed,almosttheonlymeasureforsuccessisacompetitiveone,inthebadsenseofthattermacomparisonofresultsintherecitationorintheexaminationtoseewhichchildhassucceededingettingaheadofothersinstoringup,inaccumulatingthemaximumofinformationSothoroughlyisthistheprevalentatmospherethatforonechildtohelpanotherinhistaskhasbecomeaschoolcrimeWheretheschoolworkconsistsinsimplylearninglessons,mutualassistance,insteadofbeingthemostnaturalformofcooperationandassociation,becomesaclandestineefforttorelieveone'sneighborofhisproperdutiesWhereactiveworkisgoingonallthisischangedHelpingothers,insteadofbeingaformofcharitywhichimpoverishestherecipient,issimplyanaidinsettingfreethepowersandfurtheringtheimpulseoftheonehelpedAspiritoffreecommunication,ofinterchangeofideas,suggestions,results,bothsuccessesandfailuresofpreviousexperiences,becomestheTHESCHOOLANDSOCIETYdominatingnoteoftherecitationSofarasemulationentersin,itisinthecomparisonofindividuals,notwithregardtothequantityofinformationpersonallyabsorbed,butwithreferencetothequalityofworkdonethegenuinecommunitystandardofvalueInaninformalbutallthemorepervasiveway,theschoollifeorganizesitselfonasocialbasisWithinthisorganizationisfoundtheprincipleofschooldisciplineororderOfcourse,orderissimplyathingwhichisrelativetoanendIfyouhavetheendinviewoffortyorfiftychildrenlearningcertainsetlessons,toberecitedtoateacher,yourdisciplinemustbedevotedtosecuringthatresultButiftheendinviewisthedevelopmentofaspiritofs

用户评价(1)

  • 钟爱一族 很好啊 要是什么都有英文版就好了

    2010-12-15 04:04:19

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

评分:

/29

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利