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首页 *新书上架*事件及其恐怖:爱尔兰、饥荒和现代性

*新书上架*事件及其恐怖:爱尔兰、饥荒和现代性.pdf

*新书上架*事件及其恐怖:爱尔兰、饥荒和现代性

九月虺
2009-11-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*事件及其恐怖:爱尔兰、饥荒和现代性pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THEEVENTANDITSTERRORS:Ireland,Famine,ModernityStuartMcLeanSTANFORDUNIVERSITYPRESS�ulturalMemoryinthe�resentMiekeBalandHentdeVries,EditorsTHEEVENTANDITSTERRORSIreland,Famine,ModernityStuartMcLean,StanfordUniversityPressStanford,California©bytheBoardofTrusteesoftheLelandStanfordJuniorUniversityAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfree,archivalqualitypaperLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMcLean,Stuart(StuartJohn)TheEventanditsterrors:Ireland,famine,modernityStuartMcLeanpcm(Culturalmemoryinthepresent)Basedontheauthor’sPhDthesisinanthropology,ColumbiaUniversity,Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex(cloth:alkpaper)(pbk:alkpaper)IrelandHistoryFamine,‒HistoriographyFaminesIrelandHistorythcenturyHistoriographyHistoriographyIrelandITitle:Ireland,famine,modernityIITitleIIISeries’OriginalPrintingLastfigurebelowindicatesyearofthisprinting:ContentsAcknowledgmentsixWritingAftertheEventThisNationalDisasterAnIrishJourneyTheMostDifficultPeopleintheWorldWildHungerIntheTheaterofDeathHauntedHungryGhostsandHungryWomenTheComingEvent(BeforeandAfter)NotesBibliographyIndexAcknowledgmentsAuthorship,ithasbeensaid,isnecessarilyaconditionofindebtednessInthecourseofwritingthisbookIhaveincurrednumerousdebts,onbothsidesoftheAtlanticThebookbeganlifeasadoctoraldissertation,submittedintheDepartmentofAnthropologyatColumbiaUniversityIwishtothankmyadvisor,MickTaussigthemembersofmycommittee,ValDaniel,NickDirks,MarilynIvy,andLarryTaylor(oftheNationalUniversityofIreland,Maynooth)fortheircontinuingenthusiasmfortheprojectandtheiralwayspositiveandinsightfulreadingsofsuccessivedraftsJoanVincent,forhelpingtofostermyinitialinterestinIrelandRozMorris,forherconsistentsupportandencouragement,andmyfriendsandcontemporariesChrisLamping,DrewandBarbaraWalker,PaulMendelsohn,LeaMansour,ZoëReiter,KarinZitzewitz,andSeanPueInIreland,IthanktheHeadoftheDepartmentofIrishFolklore,UniversityCollege,Dublin,forpermissiontoquotefromthearchivesoftheIrishFolkloreCommission,andtheDepartmentsofHistoryandModernIrishatTrinityCollege,Dublin,foradmittingmeasavisitingpostgraduatestudentduringtheacademicyear–,duringtheearlystagesofmyresearchThanksareduealsotoanassortmentoffriends,colleagues,andformercolleaguesinIreland,includingSteveColeman,JamieSaris,AbdullahiElTom,SéamasÓSíocháin,ColinCoulter,DavidSlattery,RikLoose,FionnulaRowley,StephenToomey,StephenWinder,LisaMcCaffrey,andJayneEnrightTheawardofapostdoctoralfellowshipintheDepartmentofAnthropologyatJohnsHopkinsUniversitymadeitpossibleformetofinishrevisingthemanuscriptforpublicationIthankVeenaDas,GyanPandey,andNiloofarHaeriforwelcomingmetothedepartmentandfortheirsupportformyworkPattiHendersonandAaronGoodfellowprovidedfriendship,stimulatingdiscussion,andacongenialenvironmentinwhichtowriteAtStanfordUniversityPress,HelenTartarandNathanMacBrienchampionedthebookonitswaytocontractandbeyond,whileKimLewisxAcknowledgmentsBrownkeptmeupdatedontheproductionprocessacrossoftenconsiderablegeographicaldistancesThetworeviewersoftheoriginalmanuscript,BegoñaAretxagaandGeorgeMarcus,weregenerousintheirenthusiasmandconstructiveintheirsuggestionsBothmustsharethecreditforanyimprovementseffectedinthecourseofrewritingUnfortunately,Begoña’suntimelydeathpreventsmefromthankingherinpersonIwishalsotoexpressmyappreciationtotheUniversitySeminarsatColumbiaUniversityfortheirhelpinpublicationMaterialinthisworkwaspreviouslypresentedtotheUniversitySeminaronIrishStudiesFinally,Iwishtothankmymother,MargaretMcLean,forherloveandsupport,andmostofall,mywife,JenniferSime,formorethanwordscanpossiblysayItistoherthatIdedicatethisbookwithallmyloveWritingAftertheEventModernHistoriographyandtheUsesofDisenchantmentHowdoesonegivedeathitsdueThisbooksetsouttoengageaperenniallyhumanquestionthroughtheprismofaparticularplaceIrelandandaparticulartimetheperiodknowntoposterityastheGreatFamine,commencingwiththepotatofailureofTospeakofdeathisalwaystospeakofthegratuitous,theexcessive,atoncesymbolladenandunsymbolizable,ofthatwhichsimultaneouslyfoundsandthreatenstheorderingofthehumanworldItistospeakalsoofacertainelusivemateriality,flickeringatthelimitsofsignificationanddiscursivity,amaterialityofthecorpse,ofnatureinbecoming,ofdissolution,flux,transformation,rebirthMyconcernhereiswiththewaysinwhichthepubliclyenactedsignifiersofsocialmemory,includingcolonialdiscourses,academichistoriography,andlatterday,statesponsoredactsofcommemoration,canbeseentoimplicatethedeathfunction,totheextentthattheculturalformsthroughwhichdisaster,massmortality,andsocialupheavalareimaginedintheIrelandofthesandlaterareobligedtopredicatethemselvesonanotionalpastantecedenttosymbolization,the“prehistory”fromwhichthepresentstrugglestodetachitself,butwhichcontinuestounderpinthepossibilityofculturemakingandhistoricalagencyTheresultantdramaofdisavowalandreturn,itwillbesuggested,isonethathasbeenplayedoutwithsingularforceandurgencyundertheauspicesofcolonialandpostWritingAftertheEventcolonialmodernity,nevermoresothantoday,attheturnofthetwentyfirstcentury,whenthatsamemodernity’sowndominantselfimageshavebeenincreasinglysubjecttocriticalscrutinyandquestioningMypointofdepartureisnottheclassicalpunctualityofinmediasres,butthemorevexedandasymmetricspaceofhindsightItishere,arguably,thatthefamineanditsvariouslegaciesfirstappearonthehorizonofhistoricalintelligibilityWritingin,theIrishbornsurgeonandantiquarianWilliamWilde,futurehusbandofthepoetJaneElgee(“Speranza”)andfatherofOscar,lookedbackonwhathetermeda“revolution”inthelivesoftheIrishpeasantryStarvation,sickness,andmassemigrationhadwipedoutmanyruralcommunitiesTheresult,hefeared,wouldbeanentirelynewsocialorder,inwhichlongestablishedcustomsandtraditionswouldhavenoplaceWilde’sreflections,whichwerepublishedastheprefacetoavolumeentitledIrishPopularSuperstitions(),expressconcernthatacenturiesold,Irishlanguagebasedoralculture,includingbeliefsrelatingtofairies,ghosts,holywells,andmiraculouscures,isfastdisappearingfrompostfamineIrelandunderthecombinedinfluenceofdepopulation,theestablishmentsinceofanEnglishlanguagebasedNationalSystemofEducation,andtheeffortsofareinvigoratedCatholicChurchTheresultwas,inWilde’sestimation,aculturalcatastrophe:alandscapeoncepopulouswithsupernaturalpresencesnowappearednewlydenuded,justasitshumaninhabitantstoohadbeencarriedoffbydeathoreconomicexileWhatwasthe“greatconvulsion”towhichWildereferredTheappearanceinIreland,duringthesummerof,ofthefungusPhytophthorainfestans(causingadiseaseknownaspotatomurrainorpotatoblight),whichhadpreviouslysweptthroughNorthAmericaandcontinentalEuropeItsimpactonaruraleconomythat,sincetheseventeenthcentury,hadbecomeincreasinglyreliantonthepotatobothasasubsistencefoodand,toalesserextent,acashcropThereliefmeasuresimplementedbyRobertPeel’sConservativegovernmentandsubsequentlycurtailedundertheLiberaladministrationofLordJohnRussellAmillionormoredead,manyofthemburiedwheretheyfellinfieldsandditches,withafurthermillionhavingsoughtrefugeinBritainorNorthAmericaAsanemployeeofthecommissionfortheCensusofIreland(thefirsttobeconductedintheaftermathofthepotatoblight)andcoauthorofthereportaccompanyingtheTableofDeaths,WildewasalltoofamiliarwithwhatweretobecomethestaplesoffuturehistoriographyYethisacWritingAftertheEventcountisnotableforregisteringalsoaprofoundsenseofculturallossInthisrespect,themosttellingaspectofhischaracterizationofIrelandinthewakeofthepotatofailureishisidentificationofthepresentasatimeofdisenchantmentIrelandisseenasemergingintoanincreasinglysecularworld,inwhichthespirits,rituals,andsacredplacesofpopularbeliefhavegivenwaytothemorestrictlyregulatedobservancesofinstitutionalizedreligion,intheguiseoftheRomanCatholicChurchandthe(Anglican)ChurchofIrelandThesemisgivingsfindanechointhe(possiblyapocryphal)wordsofoneofWilde’sowninformants,“DarbyDoolin,anoldConnaughtmanofouracquaintance”Thelatter,asquotedinthetext,hasthefollowingtosayaboutthechangestakingplaceinIreland:Thegoodpeoplefairiesareleavingusfast:nobodyeverhearsnowthetictacoftheleprechaunSure,thechildrenwouldn’tknowanythingaboutthepoocaamischievousspiritoftentakingtheformofahorseThewarningvoiceofthebansheeasupernaturaldeathmessenger,oftenassociatedwithnativelandowningfamiliesismute,fortherearebutfewofthe“rareoldstock”thenativearistocracytomournfornowthesheoguefairyandthethivishghostareeveryyearbecomingscarcerandeventheharmlesslinaneshiefairyloverisnottalkedaboutnowadaysTheinventoryofsupernaturalbeingssetforthheretakesitscuefromthepresumedfactoftheirimminentdisappearanceForDarbyDoolin,asforWildehimself,thecontemporaryworldisunderstoodwithreferencetotheperceivedencroachmentofthepresentonearliermodesoflife,amovementassociatedinequalmeasurewiththedemiseofpopularsupernaturalismandwiththeconcomitanteffacementofcollectivememoryItisnotonlythe“goodpeople”whoarefastdisappearing,butalsotheabilitytotellstoriesaboutthemSuchaviewhadpreviouslybeenastapleofromanticism’scritiqueoftheemergentindustrialorderoflateeighteenthandearlynineteenthcenturyEuropeItwas,moreover(asGeorgeStockingnotes),acommonplaceofearlyVictoriansocialthoughttoconceiveofthechangesaccompanyingindustrializationintermsofapolaritybetween,ontheonehand,“theageofsteam,”and,ontheother,an“oldworld”ofsmallscale,traditionboundlocalcommunities,thelatterthoughtofsometimesasspanningtheentireperiodfromearlyhumansettlementtotheonsetoftheneweraStockingremindsusthatasimilarpolarizingtendencywasinheritedbythetwentiethcenturysocialsciencesThus,theoriginsofEuropeanWritingAftertheEventandglobalmodernityhavebeenexplicatedwithreferencetoa“greattransformation,”definedincontradistinctionto“theworldwehavelost”andseenasentailingthe“disenchantment”oftheworld(Entzauberung,atermborrowedbyMaxWeberfromthewritingsofFriedrichSchiller),accomplishedthroughinstitutionalizedChristianity’sassaultonpopularanimismand,morespecifically,throughtheProtestantReformation’sbreakwithnotionsofdivineimmanenceandchurchmediatedsalvationAccordingtothenowfamiliarteleologyimplicitinsuchaccounts,modernity,whetherpersonifiedbycapitalism,industrialtechnology,orthesecularpoliticalrationalityofthenationstate,isunderstoodasoriginatingataspecificmomentinEuropeandasspreadingoutwardinitseffectstoencompassthenonEuropeanandcolonizedworlds(including,inthisinstance,Ireland),whicharethemselvesseenasdestinedtoexperience,belatedlyandatsecondhand,thesameseriesoftransformationsThepresentstudyaimstochallengethisviewThetropeofdisenchantmentshouldnotbeunderstoodhereasdesignatinganestablishedsocialhistoricalgivenRather,myconcernwillbewiththewaysinwhichsuchafigurecontributestothediscursiveperpetuationoftheveryrealitieswhosepassingitpurportstomarkAsWilde’saccountmakesclear,topointtothedisenchantmentoftheworldnecessarilyentailsthecontrapuntalinvocationofanondisenchantedworld,astillspiritualizednature,albeitoneconstitutedunderthesignofimminentlossSuchajuxtapositionhasbecomenewlysignificantinthecontextofanearlytwentyfirstcenturypresentthatappearstocontradictmanyofthecanonicaldefinitionsofmodernityproposedbythesocialsciencesThus,inplaceoftheoftenpredictedsecularizationofpoliticsandtherelegationofreligiontotheprivatesphere,thecontemporaryworldhaswitnessedaproliferationofhighlypublicandinmanyinstancesovertlypoliticizedmanifestationsofreligiosity,manyofthemdirectlyassociatedwithnewmediaandrepresentationaltechnologiesAnthropologicalstudiesofthepresentpointtothecontemporarypersistenceofphenomenasuchaswitchcraft,oncelabeledas“traditional”andmoribundTheconceptofmodernityitselfisquestionedorpluralizedtoaccommodatetheseemingvarietyofitslocalmanifestationsIdeologiesofmodernizationareinterrogatedonthebasisoftheirlinkstocolonialpoweranditshistoricallegaciesMeanwhile,scientifictheoriesofchaosandcomplexityhavedisclosedanaturalworld,which,farfrombeingapassiveobjectofknowledge,quietlysubservienttoinstrumentalreasonandtheinvariantlawsofclassicalmechanics,appearsWritingAftertheEventinsteadirreduciblymarkedbytheplayofchanceandindeterminacyandthereforeirreducible,finally,totheoperationsofhumanknowledgeproductionThesedevelopmentsItaketobeindicativelessofabreakwiththepast(ofthekindthatmodernityitselfwasoncethoughttorepresent)thanofthefactthattheworldhasnevercorrespondedtotheofficialselfdescriptionspromulgatedbytheoriesofmodernizationTheopportunitythatpresentsitselftodayisnot,therefore,thatofembarkingonanew,“postmodern”epoch,butratherofthinkingthehistoryofmodernityotherwiseThefigureofdisenchantmentprovidesasuggestivestartingpointforsuchataskinsofarasitholdstogetherthesecularandthesupernaturalinarelationofcontrastandoppositionthatisalso,necessarily,oneofinterdependenceItistotheimplicationsofthatinterdependenceforthewritingofhistoryinthemodernperiodthatInowturnWilde’sforebodingshavebeenechoedandcorroboratedbymanycommentatorsinthetwentiethcenturyTheBelfastbasedgeographerandfolkloristEEstynEvans,writingin,describedthefamineyearsasa“watershed,”markingtheendof“prehistorictimesinIreland,”apointheproceededtobackupwithalistofvanishedculturalforms,fromtraditionsrelatingtofairies,ghosts,andholywellstothepracticeofearlymarriageMorerecently,AngelaBourkeoftheDepartmentofModernIrish,UniversityCollege,Dublin,hascharacterizedthesasamomentof“culturalloss,”markingthedisappearancenotonlyofspecificpracticesandidioms,butofanentirecorpusoforallytransmittedknowledgeandbelief,actualizedthroughthelivedrelationshipbetweenpeopleandlandscapeItisstrikingthatWildeandhissuccessorsshouldsituatetheiraccountsnotinthemidstofcatastrophe,butinitsaftermathIndeed,itappearstobeapreconditionforsuchaninterpretationofthechangesoccurringinIrelandthattheeventalludedtoshouldalreadyhavetakenplaceIfthenuminousgeographyevokedintheguiseofpopularbeliefoffersavisionofthenaturalworldassuffusedbothwithavarietyofnonhumanagenciesandwithnumerousremindersofapremodernandpreChristianpast,theimputedpassingofsuchaconditionhas,arguably,beenaprerequisitefortheconstrualofthesinIrelandasanepisodewithaspecifiablehistorical,sociological,andhumansignificance,towhichavarietyofnameshavebeenretrospectivelyappended:theGreatFamine,theGreatStarvation,AnDrochShaoghal(theBadTimes),AnGortaMór(theGreatHunger)Itispreciselythemarkingofsuchaboundarybetweenpastandpresentthatmakesitpossiblebothtoproclaimtheadventofanew,“modern”historiWritingAftertheEventcaldispensationandtoconstructthepremodernpastasanobjectofhistoricalknowledgeInthuspositioningitselfinthewakeofanepochalsocialtransformation,Wilde’saccountcanbeseentopreparethewayforarangeofcontemporaryandlaterinterpretationsForAssistantChiefSecretarytotheTreasuryCharlesEdwardTrevelyan,thecivilservantinprincipalchargeoftheadministrationofreliefunderRussell’sgovernment,writingin,thedemographicdisasterofthefaminewasaninevitableconsequenceofIreland’spresumedeconomicbackwardnessandoverpopulation,resultinginafatalimbalanceofpeopleandresourcesFortheIrishnationalistJohnMitchel,writingfromAmericanexilein(followinghisinvolvementwiththerevolutionaryYoungIrelandmovementofthes),thefaminewastobeviewedratherasanartificiallycreatedevent,broughtaboutnotbyanabsoluteshortageoffood,butratherbytheinadequateresponsesofsuccessiveBritishgovernments:“theAlmightysentthepotatoblight,buttheEnglishcreatedthefamine”Thefaminethusbecomesexplicable,ontheonehand,asaparableofforcedeconomicmodernization,or,ontheother,asanepisodeinthelargerstoryofIreland’smistreatmentatthehandsofitsthenpowerfulneighborand(forMitchelinparticular)asacrucibleoffutureresistancetoforeignruleSubsequentfaminehistoriographyhassought,variously,tonegotiatebetweenthesecompetingviewsThefirstbooklengthstudytoemergefromthedecadesfollowingIreland’sindependencewastheanthologyTheGreatFamine,editedbyRobertDudleyEdwardsandDesmondWilliamsoftheDepartmentofHistory,UniversityCollege,DublinConceived,initially,tocoincidewiththehundredthanniversaryofthepotatoblight’sfirstappearance,itwaspublished,afteraseriesofdelays,inThevolumebroughttogethercontributionsfromanumberofscholars,manyofthemtrainedatEnglishuniversities,toofferanoverviewofthefamineinitsvariousaspectsadministrationofrelief,emigration,medicalhistory,agriculture,folkloreWhatwouldlaterbetermedits“revisionism,”consistinginadeliberateeschewalofexplicitlypartisanstanceofnineteenthcenturynationalisthistorieslikeMitchel’s,hasfoundsupportamonganumberofmorerecenthistorianswhohavesoughttoreassessthefamine’ssignificanceasasocialhistoricalwatershed,alongwiththeextentofEnglishgovernmentalculpabilityAtthesametime,its“valu

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*新书上架*事件及其恐怖:爱尔兰、饥荒和现代性

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