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首页 真菌概论 An Introduce to Fungi_Webster

真菌概论 An Introduce to Fungi_Webster.pdf

真菌概论 An Introduce to Fungi_Webs…

QuekHyoksin
2009-11-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《真菌概论 An Introduce to Fungi_Websterpdf》,可适用于自然科学领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroductiontoFungiThisneweditionoftheuniversallyacclaimedandwidelyusedtextbookonfungalbiologyhasbeencompletelyrewritten,drawingdirectlyontheauthors’researchandteachingexperienceThetexttakesaccountoftherapidandexcitingprogressthathasbeenmadeinthetaxonomy,cellandmolecularbiology,biochemistry,pathologyandecologyofthefungiFeaturesoftaxonomicsignificanceareintegratedwithnaturalfunctions,includingtheirrelevancetohumanaffairsSpecialemphasisisplacedonthebiologyandcontrolofhumanandplantpathogens,providingavitallinkbetweenfundamentalandappliedmycologyThebookisrichlyillustratedthroughoutwithspeciallyprepareddrawingsandphotographs,basedonlivingmaterialIllustratedlifecyclesareprovided,andtechnicaltermsareclearlyexplainedExtensivereferenceismadetorecentliteratureanddevelopments,andtheemphasisthroughoutisonwholeorganismbiologyfromanintegrated,multidisciplinaryperspectiveJohnWebsterisProfessorEmeritusoftheSchoolofBiosciencesattheUniversityofExeter,UKRolandWSWeberwasaLecturerintheDepartmentofBiotechnologyattheUniversityofKaiserslautern,Germany,andiscurrentlyattheFruitExperimentstation(OVB)inJork,GermanyIntroductiontoFungiJohnWebsterUniversityofExeterandRolandWeberUniversityofKaiserslauternThirdEditionCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBNISBN©JWebsterandRWSWeberInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressISBNISBNISBNCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorghardbackpaperbackpaperbackeBook(EBL)eBook(EBL)hardbackToPhilipMBoothContentsPrefacetothefirsteditionpagexiiiPrefacetothesecondeditionxvPrefacetothethirdeditionxviiAcknowledgementsxixChapterIntroductionWhatarefungiPhysiologyofthegrowinghyphaHyphalaggregatesSporesoffungiTaxonomyoffungiChapterProtozoa:Myxomycota(slimemoulds)IntroductionAcrasiomycetes:acrasidcellularslimemouldsDictyosteliomycetes:dictyostelidslimemouldsProtosteliomycetes:protostelidplasmodialslimemouldsMyxomycetes:true(plasmodial)slimemouldsChapterProtozoa:PlasmodiophoromycotaIntroductionPlasmodiophoralesControlofdiseasescausedbyPlasmodiophoralesHaptoglossa(Haptoglossales)ChapterStraminipila:minorfungalphylaIntroductionThestraminipilousflagellumHyphochytriomycotaLabyrinthulomycotaChapterStraminipila:OomycotaIntroductionSaprolegnialesPythialesPeronosporalesSclerosporaceaeChapterChytridiomycotaIntroductionChytridialesSpizellomycetalesNeocallimastigales(rumenfungi)BlastocladialesMonoblepharidalesChapterZygomycotaIntroductionZygomycetes:MucoralesExamplesofMucoralesZoopagalesEntomophthoralesGlomalesTrichomycetesChapterAscomycota(ascomycetes)IntroductionVegetativestructuresLifecyclesofascomycetesConidiaofascomycetesConidiumproductioninascomycetesDevelopmentofasciTypesoffruitbodyFossilascomycetesScientificandeconomicsignificanceofascomycetesClassificationChapterArchiascomycetesIntroductionTaphrinalesSchizosaccharomycetalesPneumocystisChapterHemiascomycetesIntroductionSaccharomyces(Saccharomycetaceae)Candida(anamorphicSaccharomycetales)Pichia(Saccharomycetaceae)Galactomyces(Dipodascaceae)Saccharomycopsis(Saccharomycopsidaceae)Eremothecium(Eremotheciaceae)viiiCONTENTSChapterPlectomycetesIntroductionAscosphaeralesOnygenalesEurotialesChapterHymenoascomycetes:PyrenomycetesIntroductionSordarialesXylarialesHypocrealesClavicipitalesOphiostomatalesMicroascalesDiaporthalesMagnaporthaceaeGlomerellaceaeChapterHymenoascomycetes:ErysiphalesIntroductionPhylogeneticaspectsBlumeriagraminisErysiphePodosphaeraandSphaerothecaSawadaeaPhyllactiniaandLeveillulaControlofpowderymildewdiseasesChapterHymenoascomycetes:Pezizales(operculatediscomycetes)IntroductionPyronema(Pyronemataceae)Aleuria(Pyronemataceae)Peziza(Pezizaceae)Ascobolus(Ascobolaceae)Helvella(Helvellaceae)Tuber(Tuberaceae)Morchella(Morchellaceae)ChapterHymenoascomycetes:Helotiales(inoperculatediscomycetes)IntroductionSclerotiniaceaeDermateaceaeixCONTENTSRhytismataceaeOtherrepresentativesoftheHelotialesChapterLichenizedfungi(chieflyHymenoascomycetes:Lecanorales)IntroductionGeneralaspectsoflichenbiologyLecanoralesChapterLoculoascomycetesIntroductionPleosporalesDothidealesChapterBasidiomycotaIntroductionBasidiummorphologyDevelopmentofbasidiaBasidiosporedevelopmentThemechanismofbasidiosporedischargeNumbersofbasidiosporesBasidiosporegerminationandhyphalgrowthAsexualreproductionMatingsystemsinbasidiomycetesFungalindividualism:vegetativeincompatibilitybetweendikaryonsRelationshipsClassificationChapterHomobasidiomycetesIntroductionStructureandmorphogenesisofbasidiocarpsImportanceofhomobasidiomycetesEuagaricscladeBoletoidcladePolyporoidcladeRussuloidcladeThelephoroidcladeHymenochaetoidcladeCantharelloidcladeGomphoid�phalloidcladeChapterHomobasidiomycetes:gasteromycetesIntroductionEvolutionandphylogenyofgasteromycetesxCONTENTSGasteromycetesintheeuagaricscladeGasteromycetesintheboletoidcladeGasteromycetesinthegomphoid�phalloidcladeChapterHeterobasidiomycetesIntroductionCeratobasidialesDacrymycetalesAuricularialesTremellalesChapterUrediniomycetes:Uredinales(rustfungi)UrediniomycetesUredinales:therustfungiPucciniagraminis,thecauseofblackstemrustOthercerealrustsPucciniaandUromycesOthermembersofthePucciniaceaeMelampsoraceaeChapterUstilaginomycetes:smutfungiandtheiralliesUstilaginomycetesThe‘true’smutfungi(Ustilaginomycetes)Microbotryales(Urediniomycetes)Exobasidiales(Ustilaginomycetes)ChapterBasidiomyceteyeastsIntroductionHeterobasidiomyceteyeastsUrediniomyceteyeastsUstilaginomyceteyeastsChapterAnamorphicfungi(nematophagousandaquaticforms)NematophagousfungiAquatichyphomycetes(Ingoldianfungi)AeroaquaticfungiReferencesIndexColourplatesectionappearsbetweenpagesandxiCONTENTSPrefacetothefirsteditionThereareseveralavailablegoodtextbooksofmycology,andsomejustificationisneededforpublishinganotherIhavelongbeenconvincedthatthebestwaytoteachmycology,andindeedallbiology,istomakeuse,whereverpossible,oflivingmaterialFortunatelywithfungi,providedonechoosestherighttimeoftheyear,awealthofmaterialisreadilyavailableAlsobyuseofculturesandbyinfectingmaterialofplantpathogensintheglasshouseorbymaintainingpathologicalplotsinthegarden,itispossibletoproducematerialatalmostanytimeIhavethereforetriedtowriteanintroductiontofungiwhichareeasilyavailableinthelivingstate,andhavetriedtogivesomeindicationofwheretheycanbeobtainedInthiswayIhopetoencouragestudentstogointothefieldandlookforfungithemselvesThebestwaytobeginistogowithanexpert,ortoattendaFungusForaysuchasthoseorganizedinthespringandautumnbymycologicalandbiologicalsocietiesIowemuchofmyownmycologicaleducationtosuchfriendlygatheringsAsecondaimhasbeentoproduceoriginalillustrationsofthekindthatastudentcouldmakeforhimselffromsimplepreparationsoflivingmaterial,andtoillustratethingswhichhecanverifyforhimselfForthisreasonIhavechosennottouseelectronmicrographs,buttomakedrawingsbasedonthemTheproblemofwhattoincludehasbeendecidedonthecriterionofreadyavailabilityWhereanuncommonfungushasbeenincludedthisisbecauseithasbeenusedtoestablishsomeimportantfactorprincipleAcriticismwhichImustacceptisthatnoattempthasbeenmadetodealwithFungiImperfectiasagroupThisisnotbecausetheyarenotcommonorimportantbutthattohaveincludedthemwouldhavemadethebookmuchlongerTomitigatethisshortcomingIhavedescribedtheconidialstatesofsomeAscomycotinaratherfully,toincludereferencetosomeoftheformgenerawhichhavebeenlinkedwiththemAmoredifficultproblemhasbeentoknowwhichsystemofclassificationtoadoptIhavefinallychosenthe‘GeneralPurposeClassification’proposedbyAinsworth,whichisadequateforthepurposeofprovidingaframeworkofreferenceIrecognizethatsomemightwishtoclassifyfungidifferently,butseenogreatmeritinburdeningthestudentwiththeargumentsinfavourofthisorthatsystemBecausetheevidencefortheevolutionaryoriginsoffungiissomeagreIhavemadeonlyscantreferencetothespeculationswhichhavebeenmadeonthistopicTherearesomanyobservationswhichcanbeverified,andforthisreasonIhavepreferredtoleaveasidethosewhichneverwillTheliteratureonfungiisenormous,andexpandingrapidlyManyundergraduatesdonothavemuchtimetocheckoriginalpublicationsHowever,sincethebookisintendedasanintroductionIhavetriedtogivereferencestosomeofthemorerecentliterature,andatthesametimetoquotetheoriginsofsomeofthestatementsmadeExeter,AprilJWPrefacetothesecondeditionInrevisingthefirstedition,whichwasfirstpublishedabouttenyearsago,IhavetakentheopportunitytogiveamorecompleteaccountoftheMyxomycota,andtogiveamoregeneralintroductiontotheEumycotaAnaccounthasalsobeengivenofsomeconidialfungi,asexemplifiedbyaquaticFungiImperfecti,nematophagousfungiandseedbornefungiThetaxonomicframeworkhasbeenbasedonVolumesIVAandIVBofAinsworth,SparrowandSussman’sTheFungi:AnAdvancedTreatise(AcademicPress,)Exeter,JanuaryJWPrefacetothethirdeditionMajoradvances,especiallyinDNAbasedtechnology,havecatalysedasheerexplosionofmycologicalknowledgesincethesecondeditionofIntroductiontoFungiwaspublishedsomeyearsagoAsjudgedbynumbersofpublications,thefieldofmolecularphylogeny,iethecomputeraidedcomparisonofhomologousDNAorproteinsequences,mustbeattheepicentreofthesedevelopmentsAsaresult,informationisnowavailabletofacilitatetheestablishmentoftaxonomicrelationshipsbetweenorganismsorgroupsoforganismsonafirmerbasisthanthatpreviouslyassumedfrommorphologicalresemblanceThishasinturnledtorevisedsystemsofclassificationandprovidedevidenceonwhichtobaseopinionsonthepossibleevolutionaryoriginoffungalgroupsWehaveattemptedtoreflectsomeoftheseadvancesinthiseditionIngeneralwehavefollowedtheoutlinesystemofclassificationsetoutinTheMycotaVolumeVII(SpringerVerlag)andtheDictionaryoftheFungi(ninthedition,CABIPublishing)However,themainemphasisofourbookremainsthatofpresentingthefungiinasensiblebiologicalcontextwhichcanbeunderstoodbystudents,andthereforesomefungihavebeentreatedalongwithtaxonomicallyseparategroupsifthesesharefundamentalbiologicalprinciplesExamplesincludeMicrobotryum,whichistreatedtogetherwithsmutfungiratherthantheruststowhichitbelongstaxonomically,orHaptoglossa,whichwediscussalongsidePlasmodiophoraratherthanwiththeOomycotaMolecularphylogenyhasbeeninstrumentalinclarifyingtherelationshipsofanamorphicfungi(fungiimperfecti),presentinganopportunitytointegratetheirtreatmentwithsexuallyreproducingrelativesThereareonlyafewgroupssuchasnematophagousfungiandtheaquaticandaeroaquatichyphomyceteswhichwecontinuetotreatasecologicalentitiesratherthanscatteredamongascomycetesandbasidiomycetesSimilarly,thegasteromycetes,clearlyanunnaturalassemblage,aredescribedtogetherbecauseoftheirunifyingbiologicalfeaturesHowever,inallthesecasestaxonomicaffinitiesareindicatedwhereknownWehavealsoincludedseveralgroupsnowplacedwelloutsidetheFungi,suchastheOomycota(Straminipila)andMyxomycotaandPlasmodiophoromycota(Protozoa)ThisisbecauseoftheirbiologicalandeconomicimportanceandbecausetheyhavebeenandcontinuetobestudiedbymycologistsTherehavebeenmajoradvancesinotherareasofresearch,notablythemolecularcellbiologyofthetwoyeastsSaccharomycesandSchizosaccharomyces,‘modelorganisms’whichhaveabearingfarbeyondmycologyFurther,muchexcitingprogressisbeingmadeinelucidatingthemolecularaspectsoftheinfectionbiologyofhumanandplantpathogens,andindevelopingfungiforbiotechnologyThesetrendsarerepresentedinthecurrenteditionNevertheless,thefundamentalconceptofIntroductiontoFungiremainsthatoftheprevioustwoeditions:toplaceanorganisminitstaxonomiccontextwhilediscussingasmanyrelevantaspectsofitsbiologyaspossibleinaholisticmannerManyoftheillustrationsarebasedonoriginallinedrawingsbecausewebelievethatthesecanreadilyportrayanunderstandingofstructureandthatdrawingasarecordofinterpretationisagooddisciplineHowever,wehavealsoextendedtheuseofphotographs,andwenowprovideillustratedlifecyclesbecausethesearemoreeasilyunderstoodAsbefore,ourchoiceofillustratedspecieshasbeeninfluencedbythereadyavailabilityofmaterial,enablingstudentsandtheirteacherstoexaminelivingfungi,whichisacornerstoneofgoodteachingAttheirfirstintroductionmosttechnicaltermshavebeenprintedinbold,theirmeaningsexplainedandtheirderivationsgivenThepagenumberswherethesedefinitionsaregivenhavebeenhighlightedintheindexThedisciplineofmycologyhasevolvedanddiversifiedsoenormouslyinrecentdecadesthatitisnowadauntingtaskforindividualauthorstogiveabalanced,integratedaccountofthefungiOfcourse,therewillbeomissionsormisrepresentationsinaworkofthisscale,andweofferourapologiestothosewhofeelthattheirworkorthatofothershasnotbeenadequatelycoveredAtthesametime,ithasbeenafascinatingexperienceforustowritethisbook,andwehavethoroughlyenjoyedtheimmensediversityofapproachesandideaswhichmakemycologysuchavibrantdisciplineatpresentWehopetohaveconveyedsomeofitsfascinationtothereaderinthetextandbyreferringtoasmanyoriginalpublicationsaspossibleExeterandKaiserslautern,MarchJWandRWSWxviiiPREFACETOTHETHIRDEDITIONAcknowledgementsWeareindebtedtomanypeoplewhohavehelpedusinourextensiverevisionstoIntroductiontoFungiThiseditionisdedicatedtoMrPhilipMBoothinprofoundgratitudeforhisfinancialsupportandhisencouragementovermanyyearsWehaveacknowledgedinthefigurelegendsthemanyfriendsandcolleagueswhohaverespondedsoenthusiasticallytoourcallforhelpbyprovidinguswithillustrations,sometimespreviouslyunpublished,andwethanknumerouspublishinghousesforpermissiontoincludepublishedfiguresWethankCarolineHuxtableandRobFord(ExeterUniversityLibrary)andJenniferMergelandPetraTremmel(KaiserslauternUniversityLibrary)forhelpbeyondthecallofdutyinobtaininginterlibraryloansDrWolfRu¨digerArendholzandDrRogerTACookhavereadtheentiremanuscriptorpartsofit,andtheirfeedbackandcorrectionshavebeenmostvaluabletousWeareimmenselygratefultoProfessorsHeidrunandTimmAnke(Kaiserslautern)fortheirsupportofthisproject,theirencouragementandforprovidingsuchastimulatingenvironmentforresearchandteachingoffungalbiologyByfartheheaviesttollhasbeenpaidbyourfamiliesandfriendswhohavehadonlycursorysightingsofusduringthepastsixyearsWeoweadebtofgratitudetothemfortheirpatientforbearanceandunwaveringsupportIntroductionWhatarefungiAbouttospeciesoffungihavebeendescribedtodate,althoughthetotalnumberofspeciesisestimatedataroundmillion(Hawksworth,Kirketal,)ThiswouldrenderfungioneoftheleastexploredbiodiversityresourcesofourplanetItisnotoriouslydifficulttodelimitfungiasagroupagainstothereukaryotes,anddebatesovertheinclusionorexclusionofcertaingroupshavebeengoingonforwelloveracenturyInrecentyears,themainargumentshavebeenbetweentaxonomistsstrivingtowardsaphylogeneticdefinitionbasedespeciallyonthesimilarityofrelevantDNAsequences,andotherswhotakeabiologicalapproachtothesubjectandregardfungiasorganismssharingallormanykeyecologicalorphysiologicalcharacteristics�the‘unionoffungi’(Barr,)Beinginterestedmainlyinthewayfungifunctioninnatureandinthelaboratory,wetakethelatterapproachandincludeseveralgroupsinthisbookwhicharenowknowntohavearisenindependentlyofthemonophyletic‘truefungi’

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真菌概论 An Introduce to Fungi_Webster

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