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首页 (打印版)精选新概念英语作文必背36篇文章

(打印版)精选新概念英语作文必背36篇文章.doc

(打印版)精选新概念英语作文必背36篇文章

abcd
2009-11-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《(打印版)精选新概念英语作文必背36篇文章doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

精选新概念英语必背篇文章新概念三LessonAnoblegangster贵族歹徒TherewasatimewhentheownersofshopsandbusinessesinChicagohadtopaylargesumsofmoneytogangstersinreturnfor'protection'Ifthemoneywasnotpaidpromptly,thegangsterswouldquicklyputamanoutofbusinessbydestroyinghisshopObtaining'protectionmoney'isnotamoderncrimeAslongagoasthefourteenthcentury,anEnglishman,SirJohnHawkwood,madetheremarkablediscoverythatpeoplewouldratherpaylargesumsofmoneythanhavetheirlifeworkdestroyedbygangstersSixhundredyearsago,SirJohanHawkwoodarrivedinItalywithabandofsoldiersandsettlednearFlorenceHesoonmadeanameforhimselfandcametobeknowntotheItaliansasGiovanniAcutoWhenevertheItaliancitystateswereatwarwitheachother,HawkwoodusedtohirehissoldierstoprinceswhowerewillingtopaythehighpricehedemandedIntimesofpeace,whenbusinesswasbad,Hawkwoodandhismenwouldmarchintoacitystateand,afterburningdownafewfarms,wouldoffertogoawayifprotectionmoneywaspaidtothemHawkwoodmadelargesumsofmoneyinthiswayInspiteofthis,theItaliansregardedhimasasortofheroWhenhediedattheageofeighty,theFlorentinesgavehimastatefuneralandhadapicturedpaintedwhichwasdedicatedtothememoryof'themostvaliantsoldierandmostnotableleader,SignorGiovanniHaukodue'曾经有一个时期,芝加哥的店主和商行的老板们不得不拿出大笔的钱给歹徒以换取"保护"。如果交款不及时,歹徒们就会很快捣毁他的商店,让他破产榨取"保护金"并不是一种现代的罪恶行径早在世纪,英国人约翰霍克伍德就有过非凡的发现:"人们情愿拿出大笔的钱,也不愿毕生的心血毁于歹徒之手年前,约翰霍克伍德爵士带着一队士兵来到意大利,在佛罗伦萨附近驻扎下来,很快就出了名意大利人叫他乔凡尼阿库托每次意大利各城邦之间发生战争,霍克伍德把他的士兵雇佣给愿给他出高价的君主。和平时期,当生意萧条时,霍克伍德便带领士兵进入某个城邦,纵火烧毁一两个农场,然后提出,如向他们缴纳保护金,他们便主动撤离。霍克伍德用这种方法挣了大笔钱尽管如此,意大利人还是把他视作某种英雄。他岁那年死去时,佛罗伦萨人为他举行了国葬,并为他画像以纪念这位"骁勇无比的战士、杰出的领袖乔凡尼阿库托先生"LessonThelongestsuspensionbridgeintheworld世界上最长的吊桥Verrazano,anItalianaboutwhomlittleisknown,sailedintoNewYorkHarbourinandnameditAngoulemeHedescribeditas'averyagreeablesituationlocatedwithintwosmallhillsinthemidstofwhichflowedagreatriver'ThoughVerrazanoisbynomeansconsideredtobeagreatexplorer,hisnamewillprobablyremainimmortal,foronNovemberst,,thelongestsuspensionbridgeintheworldwasnamedafterhimTheVerrazanoBridge,whichwasdesignedbyOthmarAmmann,joinsBrooklyntoStatenIslandIthasaspanof,feetThebridgeissolongthattheshapeoftheearthhadtobetakenintoaccountbyitsdesignerTwogreattowerssupportfourhugecablesThetowersarebuiltonimmenseunderwaterplatformsmadeofsteelandconcreteTheplatformsextendtoadepthofoverfeetundertheseaThesealonetooksixteenmonthstobuildAbovethesurfaceofthewater,thetowersrisetoaheightofnearlyfeetTheysupportthecablesfromwhichthebridgehasbeensuspendedEachofthefourcablescontains,lengthsofwireIthasbeenestimatedthatifthebridgewerepackedwithcars,itwouldstillonlybecarryingathirdofitstotalcapacityHowever,sizeandstrengtharenottheonlyimportantthingsaboutthisbridgeDespiteitsimmensity,itisbothsimpleandelegant,fulfillingitsdesigner'sdreamtocreate'anenormousobjectdrawnasfaintlyaspossible'年一位鲜为人知的意大利人维拉萨诺驾船驶进纽约港并将该港名为安古拉姆。他对该港作了这样的描述:“地理位置十分适宜位于两座小山的中间一条大河从中间流过”。虽然维拉萨诺绝对算不上一个伟大的探险家但他的名字将流芳百世因为年月日建成的一座世界上最长的吊桥是以他的名字命名。维拉萨诺大桥由奥斯马阿曼设计连结着布鲁克林与斯塔顿岛桥长,英尺。由于桥身太长设计者不得不考虑了地表的形状。两座巨塔支撑着根粗大的钢缆。塔身建在巨大的水下钢盘混凝土平台上。平台深入海底英尺。仅这两座塔就花了个月才建成。塔身高出水面将近英尺。高塔支撑着钢缆而钢缆又悬吊着大桥根钢缆中的每根由股钢绳组成。据估计若桥上摆满了汽车也只不过是桥的总承载力的。然而这座桥重要特点不仅是它的规模与强度。尽管此桥很大但它的结构简单造型优美实现了设计者企图创造一个“尽量用细线条勾画出一个庞然大物”的梦想。LessonDanielMendoza丹尼尔门多萨BoxingmatcheswereverypopularinEnglandtwohundredyearsagoInthosedays,boxersfoughtwithbarefistsforprizemoneyBecauseofthis,theywereknownas'prizefighters'However,boxingwasverycrude,fortherewerenorulesandaprizefightercouldbeseriouslyinjuredorevenkilledduringamatchOneofthemostcolourfulfiguresinboxinghistorywasDanielMendoza,whowasborninTheuseofgloveswasnotintroduceduntil,whentheMarquisofQueensberrydrewupthefirstsetofrulesThoughhewastechnicallyaprizefighter,Mendozadidmuchtochangecrudeprizefightingintoasport,forhebroughtsciencetothegameInhisday,MendozaenjoyedtremendouspopularityHewasadoredbyrichandpooralikeMendozarosetofameswiftlyafteraboxingmatchwhenhewasonlyfourteenyearsoldThisattractedtheattentionofRichardHumphrieswhowasthenthemosteminentboxerinEnglandHeofferedtotrainMendozaandhisyoungpupilwasquicktolearnInfact,MendozasoonbecamesosuccessfulthatHumphriesturnedagainsthimThetwomenquarrelledbitterlyanditwasclearthattheargumentcouldonlybesettledbyafightAmatchwasheldatStilton,wherebothmenfoughtforanhourThepublicbetagreatdealofmoneyonMendoza,buthewasdefeatedMendozametHumphriesintheringonalateroccasionandhelostforasecondtimeItwasnotuntilhisthirdmatchinthathefinallybeatHumphriesandbecameChampionofEnglandMeanwhile,hefoundedahighlysuccessfulAcademyandevenLordByronbecameoneofhispupilsHeearnedenormoussumsofmoneyandwaspaidasmuchaspoundsforasingleappearanceDespitethis,hewassoextravagantthathewasalwaysindebtAfterhewasdefeatedbyaboxercalledGentlemanJackson,hewasquicklyforgottenHewassenttoprisonforfailingtopayhisdebtsanddiedinpovertyin两百年前拳击比赛在英国非常盛行。当时拳击手们不戴手套为争夺奖金而搏斗。因此他们被称作“职业拳击手”。不过拳击是十分野蛮的因为当时没有任何比赛规则职业拳击手有可能在比赛中受重伤甚至丧命。拳击史上最引人注目的人物之一是丹尼尔门多萨他生于年。年昆斯伯里侯爵第一次为拳击比赛制定了规则拳击比赛这才用上了手套。虽然门多萨严格来讲不过是个职业拳击手但在把这种粗野的拳击变成一种体育运动方面他作出了重大贡献。是他把科学引进了这项运动。门多萨在他的全盛时期深受大家欢迎无论是富人还是穷人都对他祟拜备至。门多萨在岁时参加一场拳击赛后一举成名。这引起当时英国拳坛名将理查德汉弗莱斯的注意。他主动提出教授门多萨而年少的门多萨一学就会。事实上门多萨不久便名声大振致使汉弗莱斯与他反目为敌。两个人争吵不休显而易见只有较量一番才能解决问题。于是两人在斯蒂尔顿设下赛场厮打了一个小时。公众把大笔赌注下到了门多萨身上但他却输了。后来门多萨与汉弗莱斯再次在拳击场上较量门多萨又输了一场。直到年他们第次对垒门多萨才终于击败汉弗莱斯成了全英拳击冠军。同时他建立了一所拳击学校办得很成功连拜伦勋爵也成了他的学生。门多萨挣来大笔大笔的钱一次出场费就多可达英镑。尽管收入不少但他挥霍无度经常债台高筑。他被一个叫杰克逊绅士的拳击手击败后很快被遗忘。他因无力还债而被捕入狱最后于年在贫困中死去。Lesson Askeletoninthecupboard “家丑”WeoftenreadinnovelshowaseeminglyrespectablepersonorfamilyhassometerriblesecretwhichhasbeenconcealedfromstrangersforyearsTheEnglishlanguagepossessesavividsayingtodescribethissortofsituationTheterriblesecretiscalled‘askeletoninthecupboard’Atsomedramaticmomentinthestory,theterriblesecretbecomesknownandareputationisruinedThereader'shairstandsonendwhenhereadsinthefinalpagesofthenovelthattheheroine,adearoldladywhohadalwaysbeensokindtoeverybody,had,inheryouth,poisonedeveryoneofherfivehusbandsItisallverywellforsuchthingstooccurinfictionTovaryingdegrees,weallhavesecretswhichwedonotwantevenourclosestfriendstolearn,butfewofushaveskeletonsinthecupboardTheonlypersonIknowwhohasaskeletoninthecupboardisGeorgeCarlton,andheisveryproudofthefactGeorgestudiedmedicineinhisyouthInsteadofbecomingadoctor,however,hebecameasuccessfulwriterofdetectivestoriesIoncespentanuncomfortableweekendwhichIshallneverforgetathishouseGeorgeshowedmetotheguestroomwhich,hesaid,wasrarelyusedHetoldmetounpackmythingsandthencomedowntodinnerAfterIhadstackedmyshirtsandunderclothesintwoemptydrawers,IdecidedtohangoneofthetwosuitsIhadbroughtwithmeinthecupboardIopenedthecupboarddoorandthenstoodinfrontofitpetrifiedAskeletonwasdanglingbeforemyeyesThesuddenmovementofthedoormadeitswayslightlyanditgavemetheimpressionthatitwasabouttoleapoutatmeDroppingmysuit,IdasheddownstairstotellGeorgeThiswasworsethan‘aterriblesecret’thiswasarealskeleton!ButGeorgewasunsympathetic‘Oh,that,’hesaidwithasmileasifheweretalkingaboutanoldfriend‘That'sSebastianYouforgetthatIwasamedicalstudentonceuponatime’在小说中我们经常读到一个表面上受人尊重的人物或家族却有着某种多年不为人所知的骇人听闻的秘密。英语中有一个生动的说法来形容这种情况。惊人的秘密被称作“柜中骷髅”。在小说的某个戏剧性时刻可怕的秘密泄漏出来接着便是某人的声誉扫地。当读者读到小说最后几页了解到书中女主人公那位一向待大家很好的可爱的老妇人年轻时一连毒死了她的个丈夫时不禁会毛骨悚然。这种事发生在小说中是无可非议的。尽管我们人人都有各种大小秘密连最亲密的朋友都不愿让他们知道但我们当中极少有人有柜中骷髅。我所认识的唯一的在柜中藏骷髅的人便是乔治·卡尔顿他甚至引以为自豪。乔治年轻时学过医然而他后来没当上医生却成了一位成功的侦探小说作家。有一次我在他家里度周末过得很不愉快。这事我永远不会忘记。乔治把我领进客房说这间房间很少使用。他让我打开行装后下楼吃饭。我将衬衫、内衣放进两个空抽屉里然后我想把随身带来的两套西服中的一套挂到大衣柜里去。我打开柜门站在柜门前一下子惊呆了。一具骷髅悬挂在眼前由于柜门突然打开它也随之轻微摇晃起来让我觉得它好像马上要跳出柜门朝我扑过来似的。我扔下西服冲下楼去告诉乔治。这是比“骇人听闻的秘密”更加惊人的东西这是一具真正的骷髅啊!但乔治却无动于衷。“噢是它呀!他笑着说道俨然在谈论一位老朋友。“那是塞巴斯蒂安。你忘了我以前是学医的了。”LessonNothingtosellandnothingtobuy没有东西可卖也没有东西可买IthasbeensaidthateveryonelivesbysellingsomethingInthelightofthisstatement,teacherslivebysellingknowledge,philosophersbysellingwisdomandpriestsbysellingspiritualcomfortThoughitmaybepossibletomeasurethevalueofmaterialgoodintermsofmoney,itisextremelydifficulttoestimatethetruevalueoftheserviceswhichpeopleperformforusTherearetimeswhenwewouldwillinglygiveeverythingwepossesstosaveourlives,yetwemightgrudgepayingasurgeonahighfeeforofferinguspreciselythisserviceTheconditionsofsocietyaresuchthatskillshavetobepaidforinthesamewaythatgoodsarepaidforatashopEveryonehassomethingtosellTrampsseemtobetheonlyexceptiontothisgeneralruleBeggarsalmostsellthemselvesashumanbeingstoarousethepityofpassersbyButrealtrampsarenotbeggarsTheyhavenothingtosellandrequirenothingfromothersInseekingindependence,theydonotsacrificetheirhumandignityAtrampmayaskyouformoney,buthewillneveraskyoutofeelsorryforhimHehasdeliberatelychosentoleadthelifeheleadsandisfullyawareoftheconsequencesHemayneverbesurewherethenextmealiscomingfrom,butheisfreefromthethousandsofanxietieswhichafflictotherpeopleHisfewmaterialpossessionsmakeitpossibleforhimtomovefromplacetoplacewitheaseByhavingtosleepintheopen,hegetsfarclosertotheworldofnaturethanmostofuseverdoHemayhunt,beg,orstealoccasionallytokeephimselfalivehemayeven,intimesofrealneed,doalittleworkbuthewillneversacrificehisfreedomWeoftenspeakoftrampswithcontemptandputtheminthesameclassasbeggars,buthowmanyofuscanhonestlysaythatwehavenotfeltalittleenviousoftheirsimplewayoflifeandtheirfreedomfromcare据说每个人都靠出售某种东西来维持生活。根据这种说法教师靠卖知识为生哲学家靠卖智慧为生牧师靠卖精神安慰为生。虽然物质产品的价值可以用金钱来衡量但要估算别人为我们为所提供的服务的价值却是极其困难的。有时我们为了挽救生命愿意付出我们所占有的一切。但就在外科大夫给我们提供了这种服务后我们却可能为所支付的昂贵的费用而抱怨。社会上的情况就是如此技术是必须付钱去买的就像在商店里要花钱买商品一样。人人都有东西可以出售。在这条普遍的规律前面好像只有流浪汉是个例外乞丐出售的几乎是他本人以引起过路人的怜悯。但真正的流浪并不是乞丐。他们既不出售任何东西也不需要从别人那儿得到任何东西在追求独立自由的同时他们并不牺牲为人的尊严。游浪汉可能会向你讨钱但他从来不要你可怜他。他是故意在选择过那种生活的并完全清楚以这种方式生活的后果。他可能从不知道下顿饭有无着落但他不像有人那样被千万桩愁事所折磨。他几乎没有什么财产这使他能够轻松自如地在各地奔波。由于被迫在露天睡觉他比我们中许多人都离大自然近得多。为了生存他可能会去打猎、乞讨偶尔偷上一两回确实需要的时候他甚至可能干一点儿活但他决不会牺牲自由。说起流浪汉我们常常带有轻蔑并把他们与乞丐归为一类。但是我们中有多少人能够坦率地说我们对流浪汉的简朴生活与无忧无虑的境况不感到有些羡慕呢?Lesson Adaytoremember 难忘的一天 WehaveallexperienceddayswheneverythinggoeswrongAdaymaybeginwellenough,butsuddenlyeverythingseemstogetoutofcontrolWhatinvariablyhappensisthatagreatnumberofthingschoosetogowrongatpreciselythesamemomentItisasifasingleunimportanteventsetupachainofreactionsLetussupposethatyouarepreparingamealandkeepinganeyeonthebabyatthesametimeThetelephoneringsandthismarksthepreludetoanunforeseenseriesofcatastrophesWhileyouareonthephone,thebabypullsthetableclothoffthetable,smashinghalfyourbestcrockeryandcuttinghimselfintheprocessYouhanguphurriedlyandattendtobaby,crockery,etcMeanwhile,themealgetsburntAsifthiswerenotenoughtoreduceyoutotears,yourhusbandarrives,unexpectedlybringingthreegueststodinnerThingscangowrongonabigscale,asanumberofpeoplerecentlydiscoveredinParramatta,asuburbofSydneyDuringtherushhouroneeveningtwocarscollidedandbothdriversbegantoargueThewomanimmediatelybehindthetwocarshappenedtobealearnerShesuddenlygotintoapanicandstoppedhercarThismadethedriverfollowingherbrakehardHiswifewassittingbesidehimholdingalargecakeAsshewasthrownforward,thecakewentrightthroughthewindscreenandlandedontheroadSeeingacakeflyingthroughtheair,alorry–driverwhowasdrawingupalongsidethecar,pulledupallofasuddenThelorrywasloadedwithemptybeerbottlesandhundredsofthemslidoffthebackofthevehicleandontotheroadThisledtoyetanotherangryargumentMeanwhile,thetrafficpiledupbehindIttookthepolicenearlyanhourtogetthetrafficonthemoveagainInthemeantime,thelorrydriverhadtosweepuphundredsofbrokenbottlesOnlytwostraydogsbenefitedfromallthisconfusion,fortheygreedilydevouredwhatwasleftofthecakeItwasjustoneofthosedays!我们大家都有过事事不顺心的日子。一天开始时可能还不错但突然间似乎一切都失去了控制。情况经常是这样的许许多多的事情都偏偏赶在同一时刻出问题好像是一件无关紧要的小事引起了一连串的连锁反应。假设你在做饭同时又在照看孩子。这时电话铃响了它预示着一连串意想不到的灾难的来临。就在你接电话时孩子把桌布从桌子上扯了下来将家中最好的陶瓷餐具半数摔碎同时也弄伤了他自己。你急急忙忙挂上电话赶去照看孩子和餐具。这时饭又烧糊了。好像这一切还不足以使你急得掉泪你的丈夫接着回来了事先没打招呼就带来个客人吃饭。就像许多人最近在悉尼郊区帕拉马塔所发现的那样有时乱子会闹得很大。一天傍晚交通最拥挤时一辆汽车撞上前面一辆汽车两个司机争吵起来。紧跟其后的一辆车上的司机碰巧是个初学者她一惊之下突然把车停了下来。她这一停使得跟在后头的司机也来了个急刹车。司机的妻子正坐在他身边手里托着块大蛋糕。她往前一冲蛋糕从挡风玻璃飞了出去掉在马路上。此时一辆卡车正好从后边开到那辆汽车边上司机看见一块蛋糕从天而降紧急刹车。卡车上装着空啤酒瓶成百只瓶子顺势从卡车后面滑出车外落在马路上。这又引起了一场唇枪舌剑的争吵。与此同时后面的车辆排成了长龙警察花了将近一个小时才使车辆又开起来。在这段时间里卡车司机不得不清扫那几百只破瓶子。只有两只野狗从这一片混乱中得到了好处它们贪婪地吃掉了剩下的蛋糕。这就是事事不顺心的那么一天!Lesson Ahappydiscovery 幸运的发现 AntiqueshopsexertapeculiarfascinationonagreatmanypeopleThemoreexpensivekindofantiqueshopwhererareobjectsarebeautifullydisplayedinglasscasestokeepthemfreefromdustisusuallyaforbiddingplaceButnoonehastomusterupcouragetoenteralesspretentiousantiqueshopThereisalwayshopethatinitslabyrinthofmusty,dark,disorderedroomsarealraritywillbefoundamongstthepilesofassortedjunkthatlitterthefloorsNoonediscoversararitybychanceAtrulydedicatedbargainhuntermusthavepatience,andaboveall,theabilitytorecognizetheworthofsomethingwhenheseesitTodothis,hemustbeatleastasknowledgeableasthedealerLikeascientistbentonmakingadiscovery,hemustcherishthehopethatonedayhewillbeamplyrewardedMyoldfriend,FrankHalliday,isjustsuchapersonHehasoftendescribedtomehowhepickedupamasterpieceforamere£OneSaturdaymorning,FrankvisitedanantiqueshopinmyneighbourhoodAshehadneverbeentherebefore,hefoundagreatdealtointeresthimThemorningpassedrapidlyandFrankwasabouttoleavewhenhenoticedalargepackingcaselyingonthefloorThedealertoldhimthatithadjustcomein,butthathecouldnotbebotheredtoopenitFrankbeggedhimtodosoandthedealerreluctantlypriseditopenThecontentsweredisappointingApartfromaninterestinglookingcarveddagger,theboxwasfullofcrockery,muchofitbrokenFrankgentlyliftedthecrockeryoutoftheboxandsuddenlynoticedaminiaturepaintingatthebottomofthepackingcaseAsitsCompositionandlineremindedhimofanItalianpaintingheknewwell,hedecidedtobuyitGlancingatitbriefly,thedealertoldhimthatitwasworth£Frankcouldhardlyconcealhisexcitement,forheknewthathehadmadearealdiscoveryThetinypaintingprovedtobeanunknownmasterpiecebyCorreggioandwasworthhundredsofthousandsofpounds古玩店对许多人来说有一种特殊的魅力。高档一点的古玩店为了防尘把文物漂亮地陈列在玻璃柜子里那里往往令人望而却步。而对不太装腔作势的古玩店无论是谁都不用壮着胆子才敢往里进。人们还常常有希望在发霉、阴暗、杂乱无章、迷宫般的店堂里从杂乱地摆放在地面上的、一堆堆各式各样的破烂货里找到一件稀世珍品。无论是谁都不会一下子就发现一件珍品。一个到处找便宜货买的人必须具有耐心而且最重要的是看到珍品时要有鉴别珍品的能力。要做到这一点他至少要像古董商一样在行。他必须像一个专心致志进行探索的科学家那样抱有这样的希望即终有一天他的努力会取得丰硕的成果。我的老朋友弗兰克·哈利戴正是这样一个人。他多次向我详细讲他如何只花英镑便买到一位名家的杰作。一个星期六的上午弗兰克去了我家附近的一家古玩店。由于他从未去过那儿结果他发现了许多有趣的东西。上午很快过去了弗兰克正准备离去突然看见地板上放着一只体积很大的货箱。古董商告诉他那只货箱刚到不久但他嫌麻烦不想把它打开。经弗兰克恳求古董商才勉强把货箱撬开了。箱内东西令人失望。除了一柄式样别致、雕有花纹的匕首外货箱内装满了陶器而且大部分都已破碎。弗兰克轻轻地把陶器拿出箱子突然发现在箱底有一幅微型画画面构图与线条使他想起了一幅他所熟悉的意大利画于是他决定将画买下来。古董商漫不经心看了一眼那幅画告诉弗兰克那画值英镑。弗兰克几乎无法掩饰自己兴奋的心情因为他明白自己发现了一件珍品。那幅不大的画原来是柯勒乔的一幅未被发现的杰作价值几十万英镑。LessonThefirstcalender最早的日历FuturehistorianswillbeinauniquepositionwhentheycometorecordthehistoryofourowntimesTheywillhardlyknowwhichfactstoselectfromthegreatmassofevidencethatsteadilyaccumulatesWhatismore,theywillnothavetorelysolelyonthewrittenwordFilms,videos,CDsandCDROMSarejustsomeofthebewilderingamountofinformationtheywillhaveTheywillbeable,asitwere,toseeandhearusinactionButthehistorianattemptingtoreconstructthedistantpastisalwaysfacedwithadifficulttaskHehastodeducewhathecanfromthefewscantycluesavailableEvenseeminglyinsignificantremainscanshedinterestinglightonthehistoryofearlymanUptonow,historianshaveassumedthatcalendarscameintobeingwiththeadventofagriculture,forthenmanwasfacedwitharealneedtounderstandsomethingabouttheseasonsRecentscientificevidenceseemstoindicatethatthisassumptionisincorrectHistorianshavelongbeenpuzzledbydots,linesandsymbolswhichhavebeenengravedonwalls,bones,andtheivorytusksofmammothsThenomadswhomadethesemarkingslivedbyhuntingandfishingduringthelastIceAgewhichbeganabout,BCandendedabout,BCBycorrelatingmarkingsmadeinvariouspartsoftheworld,historianshavebeenabletoreadthisdifficultcodeTheyhavefoundthatitisconnectedwiththepassageofdaysandthephasesofthemoonItis,infact,aprimitivetypeofcalendarIthaslongbeenknownthatthehuntingscenesdepictedonwallswerenotsimplyaformofartisticexpressionTheyhadadefinitemeaning,fortheywereasnearasearlymancouldgettowritingItispossiblethatthereisadefiniterelationbetweenthesepaintingsandthemarkingsthatsometimesaccompanythemItseemsthatmanwasmakingarealefforttounderstandtheseasons,yearsearlierthanhasbeensupposed未来的历史学家在写我们这一段历史的时候会别具一格。对于逐渐积累起来的庞大材料他们几乎不知道选取哪些好而且也不必完全依赖文字材料。电影、录像、光盘和光盘驱动器只是能为他们提供令人眼花缭乱的大量信息的几种手段。他们能够身临其境般地观看我们做事倾听我们讲话。但是历史学家企图重现遥远的过去可是一项艰巨的任务他们必须根据现有的不充分的线索进行推理。即使看起来微不足道的遗物也可能揭示人类早期历史的一些有趣的内容。历史学家迄今认为日历是随农业的问世而出现的因为当时人们面临着了解四季的实际需要但近期科学研究发现好像这种假设是不正确的。长期以来历史学家一直对雕刻在墙壁上、骨头上、古代长毛象的象牙上的点、线和形形色色的符号感到困惑不解。这些痕迹是游牧人留下的他们生活在从公元前约年到公元前年的冰川期的末期以狩猎、捕鱼为生。历史学家通过把世界各地留下的这种痕迹放在一起研究终于弄懂了这种费解的代码。他们发现代码与昼夜更迭和月亮圆缺有关事实上是一种最原始的日历。大家早就知道画在墙上的狩猎图景并不是单纯的艺术表现形式它们有着一定的含义因为它们已接近古代人的文字形式。有时这种图画与墙壁上的刻痕共存它们之间可能有一定的联系。看来人类早就致力于探索四季变迁了比人们想像的要早,年。Lesson Who'swho 真假难辨IthasneverbeenexplainedwhyuniversitystudentsseemtoenjoypracticaljokesmorethananyoneelseStudentsspecializeinaparticulartypeofpracticaljoke:thehoaxInvitingthefirebrigadetoputoutanonexistentfireisacrudeformofdeceptionwhichnoselfrespectingstudentwouldeverindulgeinStudentsoftencreateamusingsituationswhicharefunnytoeveryoneexceptthevictimsWhenastudentrecentlysawtwoworkmenusingapneumaticdrilloutsidehisuniversity,heimmediatelytelephonedthepoliceandinformedthemthattwostudentsdressedupasworkmenweretearinguptheroadwithapneumaticdrillAssoonashehadhun

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