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首页 孙子兵法 (中英对照)-翻译绝佳材料孙子兵法

孙子兵法 (中英对照)-翻译绝佳材料孙子兵法.pdf

孙子兵法 (中英对照)-翻译绝佳材料孙子兵法

hqin
2009-11-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《孙子兵法 (中英对照)-翻译绝佳材料孙子兵法pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

孙子兵法(中英对照)TheArtofWar孙武BySunTzuTranslatedbyLionelGiles始计第一LayingPlans孙子曰:兵者国之大事死生之地存亡之道不可不察也。SunTzusaid:TheartofwarisofvitalimportancetotheStateItisamatteroflifeanddeath,aroadeithertosafetyortoruinHenceitisasubjectofinquirywhichcanonnoaccountbeneglected故经之以五事校之以计而索其情:一曰道二曰天三曰地四曰将五曰法。Theartofwar,then,isgovernedbyfiveconstantfactors,tobetakenintoaccountinone'sdeliberations,whenseekingtodeterminetheconditionsobtaininginthefieldTheseare:()TheMoralLaw()Heaven()Earth()TheCommander()Methodanddiscipline道者令民于上同意可与之死可与之生而不危也TheMoralLawcausesthepeopletobeincompleteaccordwiththeirruler,sothattheywillfollowhimregardlessoftheirlives,undismayedbyanydanger天者阴阳、寒暑、时制也Heavensignifiesnightandday,coldandheat,timesandseasons地者远近、险易、广狭、死生也Earthcomprisesdistances,greatandsmalldangerandsecurityopengroundandnarrowpassesthechancesoflifeanddeath将者智、信、仁、勇、严也TheCommanderstandsforthevirtuesofwisdom,sincerely,benevolence,courageandstrictness法者曲制、官道、主用也。Bymethodanddisciplinearetobeunderstoodthemarshalingofthearmyinitspropersubdivisions,thegraduationsofrankamongtheofficers,themaintenanceofroadsbywhichsuppliesmayreachthearmy,andthecontrolofmilitaryexpenditure凡此五者将莫不闻知之者胜不知之者不胜。Thesefiveheadsshouldbefamiliartoeverygeneral:hewhoknowsthemwillbevictorioushewhoknowsthemnotwillfail故校之以计而索其情曰:主孰有道?wwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucomTherefore,inyourdeliberations,whenseekingtodeterminethemilitaryconditions,letthembemadethebasisofacomparison,inthiswise:将孰有能?天地孰得?法令孰行?兵众孰强?士卒孰练?赏罚孰明?吾以此知胜负矣。()WhichofthetwosovereignsisimbuedwiththeMorallaw()Whichofthetwogeneralshasmosta()WithwhomlietheadvantagesderivedfromHeavenandEarth()Onwhichsideisdisciplinemostrigorouslyenforced()Whicharmyisstronger()Onwhichsideareofficersandmenmorehighlytrained()InwhicharmyistherethegreaterconstancybothinrewardandpunishmentBymeansofthesesevenconsiderationsIcanforecastvictoryordefeatbility将听吾计用之必胜留之将不听吾计用之必败去之。Thegeneralthathearkenstomycounselandactsuponit,willconquer:letsuchaoneberetainedincommand!Thegeneralthathearkensnottomycounselnoractsuponit,willsufferdefeat:letsuchaonebedismissed!计利以听乃为之势以佐其外。Whileheadingtheprofitofmycounsel,availyourselfalsoofanyhelpfulcircumstancesoverandbeyondtheordinaryrules势者因利而制权也。Accordingascircumstancesarefavorable,oneshouldmodifyone'splans兵者诡道也。Allwarfareisbasedondeception故能而示之不能用而示之不用近而示之远远而示之近。Hence,whenabletoattack,wemustseemunablewhenusingourforces,wemustseeminactivewhenwearenear,wemustmaketheenemybelievewearefarawaywhenfaraway,wemustmakehimbelievewearenear利而诱之乱而取之HoldoutbaitstoenticetheenemyFeigndisorder,andcrushhim实而备之强而避之Ifheissecureatallpoints,bepreparedforhimIfheisinsuperiorstrength,evadehim怒而挠之卑而骄之Ifyouropponentisofcholerictemper,seektoirritatehimPretendtobeweak,thathemaygrowarrogant佚而劳之亲而离之Ifheistakinghisease,givehimnorestIfhisforcesareunited,separatethem攻其无备出其不意。Attackhimwhereheisunprepared,appearwhereyouarenotexpectedwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom此兵家之胜不可先传也。Thesemilitarydevices,leadingtovictory,mustnotbedivulgedbeforehand夫未战而庙算胜者得算多也未战而庙算不胜者得算少也。多算胜少算而况于无算乎!吾以此观之胜负见矣。NowthegeneralwhowinsabattlemakesmanycalculationsinhistemplewherethebattleisfoughtThegeneralwholosesabattlemakesbutfewcalculationsbeforehandThusdomanycalculationsleadtovictory,andfewcalculationstodefeat:howmuchmorenocalculationatall!ItisbyattentiontothispointthatIcanforeseewhoislikelytowinorlose作战第二IIWagingWar孙子曰:凡用兵之法驰车千驷革车千乘带甲十万千里馈粮。则内外之费宾客之用胶漆之材车甲之奉日费千金然后十万之师举矣。SunTzusaid:Intheoperationsofwar,wherethereareinthefieldathousandswiftchariots,asmanyheavychariots,andahundredthousandmailcladsoldiers,withprovisionsenoughtocarrythemathousandli,theexpenditureathomeandatthefront,includingentertainmentofguests,smallitemssuchasglueandpaint,andsumsspentonchariotsandarmor,willreachthetotalofathousandouncesofsilverperdaySuchisthecostofraisinganarmyof,men其用战也胜久则钝兵挫锐攻城则力屈Whenyouengageinactualfighting,ifvictoryislongincoming,thenmen'sweaponswillgrowdullandtheirardorwillbedampedIfyoulaysiegetoatown,youwillexhaustyourstrength久暴师则国用不足。Again,ifthecampaignisprotracted,theresourcesoftheStatewillnotbeequaltothestrain夫钝兵挫锐屈力殚货则诸侯乘其弊而起虽有智者不能善其后矣。Now,whenyourweaponsaredulled,yourardordamped,yourstrengthexhaustedandyourtreasurespent,otherchieftainswillspringuptotakeadvantageofyourextremityThennoman,howeverwise,willbeabletoaverttheconsequencesthatmustensue故兵闻拙速未睹巧之久也。Thus,thoughwehaveheardofstupidhasteinwar,clevernesshasneverbeenseenassociatedwithlongdelays夫兵久而国利者未之有也。Thereisnoinstanceofacountryhavingbenefitedfromprolongedwarfare故不尽知用兵之害者则不能尽知用兵之利也。Itisonlyonewhoisthoroughlyacquaintedwiththeevilsofwarthatcanthoroughlyunderstandtheprofitablewayofcarryingiton善用兵者役不再籍粮不三载wwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucomTheskillfulsoldierdoesnotraiseasecondlevy,neitherarehissupplywagonsloadedmorethantwice取用于国因粮于敌故军食可足也。Bringwarmaterialwithyoufromhome,butforageontheenemyThusthearmywillhavefoodenoughforitsneeds国之贫于师者远输远输则百姓贫PovertyoftheStateexchequercausesanarmytobemaintainedbycontributionsfromadistanceContributingtomaintainanarmyatadistancecausesthepeopletobeimpoverished近师者贵卖贵卖则百姓财竭Ontheotherhand,theproximityofanarmycausespricestogoupandhighpricescausethepeople'ssubstancetobedrainedaway财竭则急于丘役。Whentheirsubstanceisdrainedaway,thepeasantrywillbeafflictedbyheavyexactions力屈中原、内虚于家百姓之费十去其七公家之费破军罢马甲胄矢弓戟盾矛橹丘牛大车十去其六。Withthislossofsubstanceandexhaustionofstrength,thehomesofthepeoplewillbestrippedbare,andthreetenthsoftheirincomewillbedissipatedwhilegovernmentexpensesforbrokenchariots,wornouthorses,breastplatesandhelmets,bowsandarrows,spearsandshields,protectivemantles,draughtoxenandheavywagons,willamounttofourtenthsofitstotalrevenue故智将务食于敌食敌一钟当吾二十钟□①杆一石当吾二十石。HenceawisegeneralmakesapointofforagingontheenemyOnecartloadoftheenemy'sprovisionsisequivalenttotwentyofone'sown,andlikewiseasinglepiculofhisprovenderisequivalenttotwentyfromone'sownstore故杀敌者怒也取敌之利者货也。Nowinordertokilltheenemy,ourmenmustberousedtoangerthattheremaybeadvantagefromdefeatingtheenemy,theymusthavetheirrewards车战得车十乘以上赏其先得者而更其旌旗。车杂而乘之卒善而养之是谓胜敌而益强。Thereforeinchariotfighting,whentenormorechariotshavebeentaken,thoseshouldberewardedwhotookthefirstOurownflagsshouldbesubstitutedforthoseoftheenemy,andthechariotsmingledandusedinconjunctionwithoursThecapturedsoldiersshouldbekindlytreatedandkeptThisiscalled,usingtheconqueredfoetoaugmentone'sownstrength故兵贵胜不贵久。Inwar,then,letyourgreatobjectbevictory,notlengthycampaigns故知兵之将民之司命。国家安危之主也。Thusitmaybeknownthattheleaderofarmiesisthearbiterofthepeople'sfate,themanonwhomitdependswwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucomwhetherthenationshallbeinpeaceorinperil【注:】①:“忌”加“艹”头。谋攻第三IIIAttackbyStratagem孙子曰:夫用兵之法全国为上破国次之全军为上破军次之全旅为上破旅次之全卒为上破卒次之全伍为上破伍次之。SunTzusaid:Inthepracticalartofwar,thebestthingofallistotaketheenemy'scountrywholeandintacttoshatteranddestroyitisnotsogoodSo,too,itisbettertorecaptureanarmyentirethantodestroyit,tocapturearegiment,adetachmentoracompanyentirethantodestroythem是故百战百胜非善之善也不战而屈人之兵善之善者也。Hencetofightandconquerinallyourbattlesisnotsupremeexcellencesupremeexcellenceconsistsinbreakingtheenemy'sresistancewithoutfighting故上兵伐谋其次伐交其次伐兵其下攻城。Thusthehighestformofgeneralshipistobalktheenemy'splansthenextbestistopreventthejunctionoftheenemy'sforcesthenextinorderistoattacktheenemy'sarmyinthefieldandtheworstpolicyofallistobesiegewalledcities攻城之法为不得已。修橹□①□②具器械三月而后成距堙又三月而后已。Theruleis,nottobesiegewalledcitiesifitcanpossiblybeavoidedThepreparationofmantlets,movableshelters,andvariousimplementsofwar,willtakeupthreewholemonthsandthepilingupofmoundsoveragainstthewallswilltakethreemonthsmore将不胜其忿而蚁附之杀士卒三分之一而城不拔者此攻之灾也。Thegeneral,unabletocontrolhisirritation,willlaunchhismentotheassaultlikeswarmingants,withtheresultthatonethirdofhismenareslain,whilethetownstillremainsuntakenSucharethedisastrouseffectsofasiege故善用兵者屈人之兵而非战也拔人之城而非攻也毁人之国而非久也Thereforetheskillfulleadersubduestheenemy'stroopswithoutanyfightinghecapturestheircitieswithoutlayingsiegetothemheoverthrowstheirkingdomwithoutlengthyoperationsinthefield必以全争于天下故兵不顿而利可全此谋攻之法也。WithhisforcesintacthewilldisputethemasteryoftheEmpire,andthus,withoutlosingaman,histriumphwillbecompleteThisisthemethodofattackingbystratagem故用兵之法十则围之五则攻之倍则分之Itistheruleinwar,ifourforcesaretentotheenemy'sone,tosurroundhimiffivetoone,toattackhimiftwiceasnumerous,todivideourarmyintotwowwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom敌则能战之少则能逃之不若则能避之。Ifequallymatched,wecanofferbattleifslightlyinferiorinnumbers,wecanavoidtheenemyifquiteunequalineveryway,wecanfleefromhim故小敌之坚大敌之擒也。Hence,thoughanobstinatefightmaybemadebyasmallforce,intheenditmustbecapturedbythelargerforce夫将者国之辅也。辅周则国必强辅隙则国必弱。NowthegeneralisthebulwarkoftheStateifthebulwarkiscompleteatallpointstheStatewillbestrongifthebulwarkisdefective,theStatewillbeweak故君之所以患于军者三:Therearethreewaysinwhicharulercanbringmisfortuneuponhisarmy:()不知军之不可以进而谓之进不知军之不可以退而谓之退是谓縻军()Bycommandingthearmytoadvanceortoretreat,beingignorantofthefactthatitcannotobeyThisiscalledhobblingthearmy()不知三军之事而同三军之政则军士惑矣()Byattemptingtogovernanarmyinthesamewayasheadministersakingdom,beingignorantoftheconditionswhichobtaininanarmyThiscausesrestlessnessinthesoldier'sminds()不知三军之权而同三军之任则军士疑矣。()Byemployingtheofficersofhisarmywithoutdiscrimination,throughignoranceofthemilitaryprincipleofadaptationtocircumstancesThisshakestheconfidenceofthesoldiers三军既惑且疑则诸侯之难至矣。是谓乱军引胜。Butwhenthearmyisrestlessanddistrustful,troubleissuretocomefromtheotherfeudalprincesThisissimplybringinganarchyintothearmy,andflingingvictoryaway故知胜有五:知可以战与不可以战者胜识众寡之用者胜上下同欲者胜以虞待不虞者胜将能而君不御者胜。此五者知胜之道也。Thuswemayknowthattherearefiveessentialsforvictory:()Hewillwinwhoknowswhentofightandwhennottofight()Hewillwinwhoknowshowtohandlebothsuperiorandinferiorforces()Hewillwinwhosearmyisanimatedbythesamespiritthroughoutallitsranks()Hewillwinwho,preparedhimself,waitstotaketheenemyunprepared()Hewillwinwhohasmilitarycapacityandisnotinterferedwithbythesovereign故曰:知己知彼百战不贻不知彼而知己一胜一负不知彼不知己每战必败。Hencethesaying:Ifyouknowtheenemyandknowyourself,youneednotfeartheresultofahundredbattlesIfyouknowyourselfbutnottheenemy,foreveryvictorygainedyouwillalsosufferadefeatIfyouknowneithertheenemynoryourself,youwillsuccumbineverybattle【注:】①:[车贲]。②:“温”字“氵”旁换“车”旁。wwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucomIVTacticalDispositions孙子曰:昔之善战者先为不可胜以待敌之可胜。SunTzusaid:Thegoodfightersofoldfirstputthemselvesbeyondthepossibilityofdefeat,andthenwaitedforanopportunityofdefeatingtheenemy不可胜在己可胜在敌。Tosecureourselvesagainstdefeatliesinourownhands,buttheopportunityofdefeatingtheenemyisprovidedbytheenemyhimself故善战者能为不可胜不能使敌之必可胜。Thusthegoodfighterisabletosecurehimselfagainstdefeat,butcannotmakecertainofdefeatingtheenemy故曰:胜可知而不可为。Hencethesaying:Onemayknowhowtoconquerwithoutbeingabletodoit不可胜者守也可胜者攻也。Securityagainstdefeatimpliesdefensivetacticsabilitytodefeattheenemymeanstakingtheoffensive守则不足攻则有余。Standingonthedefensiveindicatesinsufficientstrengthattacking,asuperabundanceofstrength善守者藏于九地之下善攻者动于九天之上故能自保而全胜也。ThegeneralwhoisskilledindefensehidesinthemostsecretrecessesoftheearthhewhoisskilledinattackflashesforthfromthetopmostheightsofheavenThusontheonehandwehaveabilitytoprotectourselvesontheother,avictorythatiscomplete见胜不过众人之所知非善之善者也Toseevictoryonlywhenitiswithinthekenofthecommonherdisnottheacmeofexcellence战胜而天下曰善非善之善者也。NeitherisittheacmeofexcellenceifyoufightandconquerandthewholeEmpiresays,"Welldone!"故举秋毫不为多力见日月不为明目闻雷霆不为聪耳。Toliftanautumnhairisnosignofgreatstrengthtoseethesunandmoonisnosignofsharpsighttohearthenoiseofthunderisnosignofaquickear古之所谓善战者胜于易胜者也。Whattheancientscalledacleverfighterisonewhonotonlywins,butexcelsinwinningwithease故善战者之胜也无智名无勇功Hencehisvictoriesbringhimneitherreputationforwisdomnorcreditforcourage故其战胜不忒。不忒者其所措胜胜已败者也。wwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucomHewinshisbattlesbymakingnomistakesMakingnomistakesiswhatestablishesthecertaintyofvictory,foritmeansconqueringanenemythatisalreadydefeated故善战者立于不败之地而不失敌之败也。Hencetheskillfulfighterputshimselfintoapositionwhichmakesdefeatimpossible,anddoesnotmissthemomentfordefeatingtheenemy是故胜兵先胜而后求战败兵先战而后求胜。Thusitisthatinwarthevictoriousstrategistonlyseeksbattleafterthevictoryhasbeenwon,whereashewhoisdestinedtodefeatfirstfightsandafterwardslooksforvictory善用兵者修道而保法故能为胜败之政。Theconsummateleadercultivatesthemorallaw,andstrictlyadherestomethodanddisciplinethusitisinhispowertocontrolsuccess兵法:一曰度二曰量三曰数四曰称五曰胜。Inrespectofmilitarymethod,wehave,firstly,Measurementsecondly,Estimationofquantitythirdly,Calculationfourthly,Balancingofchancesfifthly,Victory地生度度生量量生数数生称称生胜。MeasurementowesitsexistencetoEarthEstimationofquantitytoMeasurementCalculationtoEstimationofquantityBalancingofchancestoCalculationandVictorytoBalancingofchances故胜兵若以镒称铢败兵若以铢称镒。Avictoriousarmyopposedtoaroutedone,isasapound'sweightplacedinthescaleagainstasinglegrain称胜者之战民也若决积水于千仞之溪者形也。Theonrushofaconqueringforceisliketheburstingofpentupwatersintoachasmathousandfathomsdeep兵势第五VEnergy孙子曰:凡治众如治寡分数是也SunTzusaid:Thecontrolofalargeforceisthesameprincipleasthecontrolofafewmen:itismerelyaquestionofdividinguptheirnumbers斗众如斗寡形名是也Fightingwithalargearmyunderyourcommandisnowisedifferentfromfightingwithasmallone:itismerelyaquestionofinstitutingsignsandsignals三军之众可使必受敌而无败者奇正是也Toensurethatyourwholehostmaywithstandthebruntoftheenemy'sattackandremainunshakenthisiseffectedbymaneuversdirectandindirectwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom兵之所加如以□①投卵者虚实是也。Thattheimpactofyourarmymaybelikeagrindstonedashedagainstaneggthisiseffectedbythescienceofweakpointsandstrong凡战者以正合以奇胜。Inallfighting,thedirectmethodmaybeusedforjoiningbattle,butindirectmethodswillbeneededinordertosecurevictory故善出奇者无穷如天地不竭如江海。终而复始日月是也。死而更生四时是也。Indirecttactics,efficientlyapplied,areinexhaustibleasHeavenandEarth,unendingastheflowofriversandstreamslikethesunandmoon,theyendbuttobeginanewlikethefourseasons,theypassawaytoreturnoncemore声不过五五声之变不可胜听也Therearenotmorethanfivemusicalnotes,yetthecombinationsofthesefivegiverisetomoremelodiesthancaneverbeheard色不过五五色之变不可胜观也Therearenotmorethanfiveprimarycolors(blue,yellow,red,white,andblack),yetincombinationtheyproducemorehuesthancaneverbeenseen味不过五五味之变不可胜尝也Therearenotmorethanfivecardinaltastes(sour,acrid,salt,sweet,bitter),yetcombinationsofthemyieldmoreflavorsthancaneverbetasted战势不过奇正奇正之变不可胜穷也。Inbattle,therearenotmorethantwomethodsofattackthedirectandtheindirectyetthesetwoincombinationgiverisetoanendlessseriesofmaneuvers奇正相生如循环之无端孰能穷之哉!ThedirectandtheindirectleadontoeachotherinturnItislikemovinginacircleyounevercometoanendWhocanexhaustthepossibilitiesoftheircombination激水之疾至于漂石者势也Theonsetoftroopsisliketherushofatorrentwhichwillevenrollstonesalonginitscourse鸷鸟之疾至于毁折者节也。Thequalityofdecisionislikethewelltimedswoopofafalconwhichenablesittostrikeanddestroyitsvictim故善战者其势险其节短。Thereforethegoodfighterwillbeterribleinhisonset,andpromptinhisdecision势如扩弩节如发机。wwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucom:wwwxuexicomwwwyingyucomEnergymaybelikenedtothebendingofacrossbowdecision,tothereleasingofatrigger纷纷纭纭斗乱而不可乱浑浑沌沌形圆而不可败。Amidtheturmoilandtumultofbattle,theremaybeseemingdisorderandyetnorealdisorderatallamidconfusionandchaos,yourarraymaybewithoutheadortail,yetitwillbeproofagainstdefeat乱生于治怯生于勇弱生于强。Simulateddisorderpostulatesperfectdiscipline,simulatedfearpostulatescouragesimulatedweaknesspostulatesstrength治乱数也勇怯势也强弱形也。Hidingorderbeneaththecloakofdisorderissimplyaquestionofsubdivisionconcealingcourageunderashowoftimiditypresupposesafundoflatentenergymaskingstrengthwithweaknes

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