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首页 *新书上架*【哈耶克】个人主义与经济秩序

*新书上架*【哈耶克】个人主义与经济秩序.pdf

*新书上架*【哈耶克】个人主义与经济秩序

九月虺
2009-10-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【哈耶克】个人主义与经济秩序pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

IndividualismandEconomicOrderByFRIEDRICHAHAYEKIndividualismandEconomicOrderTHEUNIVERSITYOFCHICAGOPRESSTHEUNIVERSITYOFCHICAGOPRESS•CHICAGOGeorgeRoutledgeSons•London•EnglandCopyrightbyTheUniversityojChicagoAllrightsreservedPublishedThirdImpressionComposedandprintedbyTHEUNIVERSITYOFCHICAGOPRESS,Chicago,Illinois,USAPrefaceALTHOUGHtheessayscollectedinthisvolumemayatfirstapnpeartobeconcernedwithagreatvarietyoftopics,IhopethatthereaderwillsoondiscoverthatmostofthemtreatofcloselyconnectedproblemsWhiletheyrangefromdiscussionsofmoralphilosophytothemethodsofthesocialsciencesandfromproblemsofeconomicpolicytopureeconomictheory,thesequestionsaretreatedinmostoftheessaysasdifferentaspectsofthesamecentralissueThisconnectionwillbeseenmostreadilyinthefirstsixessays,yetinsomemeasurethethreeontheproblemofsocialistcalculationwhichfollowthemmayberegardedasanapplicationofthesameideastoaparticularproblem,althoughwhenIwrotetheseIdidnotyetquiteseeitinthatlightOnlythelastthreeessaysdealwithsomewhatdifferentpointsoftheoryorpolicybut,sinceIbelievethattheproblemswithwhichtheyareconcernedwillbediscussedevenmoreinthefuturethantheyhavebeeninthepast,IhavetakenthisopportunitytomakethemavailableinamoreconvenientformSinceIpublishednotlongagoamorepopularbookonproblemsrelatedtosomeofthosediscussedhere,IshouldinfairnesswarnthereaderthatthepresentvolumeisnotintendedforpopularconsumptionOnlyafewoftheessayscollectedhere(chapsiandvi,andpossiblyivandv)mayinasenseberegardedassupplementarytothatadvancesketchofcertainpracticalconclusionswhichasenseofurgencyhastemptedmetopublishunderthetitleTheRoadtoSerfdomTherestaredefinitelyaddressedtofellowstudentsandarefairlytechnicalincharacterAllareadmittedlyfragments,productswhichhaveemergedinthepursuitofadistantgoal,whichforthetimebeingmustserveinplaceofthefinishedproductIshouldperhapsaddthatfrommyrecentpublicationsinthefieldwithwhichmostoftheessaysinthisvolumedealIhavenotincludedtwoseriesofarticleson"ScientismandtheStudyofSociety"andthe"CounterrevolutionofvPrefaceScience"becausetheyareintendedtoformpartofalargerandmoresystematicworkinthemeantimetheycanbefoundinthevolumesofEconomicaforand,respectivelyMythanksareduetotheeditorsoftheAmericanEconomicReview}Economica}theEconomicJournal}Ethics}andtheNewCommonwealthQuarterlyforpermissiontoreprintarticleswhichfirstappearedinthesejournals,andtoMessrsGeorgeRoutledgeSons,Ltd,London,forpermissiontoreproducethetwoessaysoriginallycontributedtothevolumeonCollectivistEconomicPlanningpublishedbytheminFAHAYEKLONDONSCHOOLOFECONOMICSJuneViContentsINDIVIDUALISM:TRUEANDFALSEIIECONOMICSANDKNOWLEDGEIIITHEFACTSOFTHESOCIALSCIENCESIVTHEUSEOFKNOWLEDGEINSOCIETYVTHEMEANINGOFCOMPETITIONVI"FREE"ENTERPRISEANDCOMPETITIVEORDERVIISOCIALISTCALCULATIONI:THENATUREANDHISTORYOFTHEPROBLEMVIIISOCIALISTCALCULATIONII:THESTATEOFTHEDEBATE()IXSOCIALISTCALCULATIONIII:THECOMPETITIVE"SOLUTION"XACOMMODITYRESERVECURRENCYXITHERICARDOEFFECTXIITHEECONOMICCONDITIONSOFINTERSTATEFEDERALISMVll*IIndividualism:TrueandFalseDudixhuitiemesiecleetdelarevolution,commed'unesourcecommune,etaientsortisdeuxfleuves:IepremierconduisaitIeshommesauxinstitutionsIibres,tandisqueIesecondIesmenaitaupouvoirabsoluALEXISDETOCQUEVILLEToADVOCATEanyclearcutprinciplesofsocialorderistodayanalmostcertainwaytoincurthestigmaofbeinganunpracticaldoctrinaireIthascometoberegardedas'thesignofthejudiciousmindthatinsocialmattersonedoesnotadheretofixedprinciplesbutdecideseachquestion"onitsmerits"thatoneisgenerallyguidedbyexpediencyandisreadytocompromisebetweenopposedviewsPrinciples,however,haveawayofassertingthemselveseveniftheyarenotexplicitlyrecognizedbutareonlyimpliedinparticulardecisions,oriftheyarepresentonlyasvagueideasofwhatisorisnotbeingdoneThusithascomeaboutthatunderthesignof"neitherindividualismnorsocialism"weareinfactrapidlymovingfromasocietyoffreeindividualstowardoneofacompletelycollectivistcharacterIproposenotonlytoundertaketodefendageneralprincipleofsocialorganizationbutshallalsotrytoshowthattheaversiontogeneralprinciples,andthepreferenceforproceedingfromparticularinstancetoparticularinstance,istheproductofthemovementwhichwiththe"inevitabilityofgradualness"leadsusbackfromasocialorderrestingonthegeneralrecognitionofcertainprinciplestoasysteminwhichorderiscreatedbydirectcommandsAftertheexperienceofthelastthirtyyears,thereisperhapsnot•ThetwelfthFinlayLecture,deliveredatUniversityCollege,Dublin,onDecember,PublishedbyHodges,FiggisCo,Ltd,Dublin,andBHBlackwell,Ltd,Oxford,IndividualismandEconomicOrdermuchneedtoemphasizethatwithoutprincipleswedriftThepragmaticattitudewhichhasbeendominantduringthatperiod,farfromincreasingourcommandoverdevelopments,hasinfactledustoastateofaffairswhichnobodywantedandtheonlyresultofourdisregardofprinciplesseemstobethatwearegovernedbyalogicofeventswhichwearevainlyattemptingtoignoreThequestionnowisnotwhetherweneedprinciplestoguideusbutratherwhethertherestillexistsabodyofprinciplescapableofgeneralapplicationwhichwecouldfollowifwewishedWherecanwestillfindasetofpreceptswhichwillgiveusdefiniteguidanceinthesolutionoftheproblemsofourtimeIsthereanywhereaconsistentphilosophytobefoundwhichsuppliesusnotmerelywiththemoralaimsbutwithanadequatemethodfortheirachievementThatreligionitselfdoesnotgiveusdefiniteguidanceinthesemattersisshownbytheeffortsofthechurchtoelaborateacompletesocialphilosophyandbytheentirelyoppositeresultsatwhichmanyarrivewhostartfromthesameChristianfoundationsThoughthedeclininginfluenceofreligionisundoubtedlyonemajorcauseofourpresentlackofintellectualandmoralorientation,itsrevivalwouldnotmuchlessentheneedforagenerallyacceptedprincipleofsocialorderWestillshouldrequireapoliticalphilosophywhichgoesbeyondthefundamentalbutgeneralpreceptswhichreligionormoralsprovideThetitlewhichIhavechosenforthischaptershowsthattometherestillseemstoexistsuchaphilosophyasetofprincipleswhich,indeed,isimplicitinmostofWesternorChristianpoliticaltraditionbutwhichcannolongerbeunambiguouslydescribedbyanyreadilyunderstoodtermItisthereforenecessarytorestatetheseprinciplesfullybeforewecandecidewhethertheycanstillserveusaspracticalguidesThedifficultywhichweencounterisnotmerelythefamiliarfactthatthecurrentpoliticaltermsarenotoriouslyambiguousoreventhatthesametermoftenmeansnearlytheoppositetodifferentgroupsThereisthemuchmoreseriousfactthatthesamewordfrequentlyappearstounitepeoplewhoinfactbelieveincontradictoryandirreconcilableidealsTermslike"liberalism"or"democracy,""capitalIndividualism:TrueandFalseism"or"socialism,"todaynolongerstandforcoherentsystemsofideasTheyhavecometodescribeaggregationsofquiteheterogeneousprinciplesandfactswhichhistoricalaccidenthasassociatedwiththesewordsbutwhichhavelittleincommonbeyondhavingbeenadvocatedatdifferenttimesbythesamepeopleorevenmerelyunderthesamenameNopoliticaltermhassufferedworseinthisrespectthan"individualism"ItnotonlyhasbeendistortedbyitsopponentsintoanunrecognizablecaricatureandweshouldalwaysrememberthatthepoliticalconceptswhicharetodayoutoffashionareknowntonstofourcontemporariesonlythroughthepicturedrawnofthembytheirenemiesbuthasbeenusedtodescribeseveralattitudestowardsocietywhichhaveaslittleincommonamongthemselvesastheyhavewiththosetraditionallyregardedastheiroppositesIndeed,wheninthepreparationofthispaperIexaminedsomeofthestandarddescriptionsof"individualism,"IalmostbegantoregretthatIhadeverconnectedtheidealsinwhichIbelievewithatermwhichhasbeensoabusedandsomisunderstoodYet,whateverelse"individualism"maynavecometomeaninadditiontotheseideals,therearetwogoodreasonsforretainingthetermfortheviewImeantodefend:thisviewhasalwaysbeenknownbythatterm,whateverelseitmayalsohavemeantatdifferenttimes,andthetermhasthedistinctionthattheword"socialism"wasdeliberatelycoinedtoexpressitsoppositiontoindividualismItiswiththesystemwhichformsthealternativetosocialismthatIshallbeconcernedBeforeIexplainwhatImeanbytrueindividualism,itmaybeusefulifIgivesomeindicationoftheintellectualtraditiontowhichitBoththeterm"individualism"andtheterm"socialism"areoriginallythecreationoftheSaintSimonians,thefoundersofmodernsocialismTheyfirstcoinedtheterm"individualism"todescribethecompetitivesocietytowhichtheywereopposedandtheninventedtheword"socialism"todescribethecentrallyplannedsocietyinwhichallactivitywasdirectedonthesameprinciplethatappliedwithinasinglefactorySeeontheoriginofthesetermsthepresentauthor'sarticleon"TheCounterRevolutionofScience,"Economica,VIII(newser,),IndividualismandEconomicOrderbelongsThetrueindividualismwhichIshalltrytodefendbeganitsmoderndevelopmentwithJohnLocke,andparticularlywithBernardMandevilleandDavidHume,andachievedfullstatureforthefirsttimeintheworkofJosiahTucker,AdamFerguson,andAdamSmithandinthatoftheirgreatcontemporary,EdmundBurkethemanwhomSmithdescribedastheonlypersonheeverknewwhothoughtoneconomicsubjectsexactlyashedidwithoutanypreviouscommunicationhavingpassedbetweenthemInthenineteenthcenturyIfinditrepresentedmostperfectlyintheworkoftwoofitsgreatesthistoriansandpoliticalphilosophers:AlexisdeTocquevilleandLordActonThesetwomenseemtometohavemoresuccessfullydevelopedwhatwasbestinthepoliticalphilosophyoftheScottishphilosophers,Burke,andtheEnglishWhigsthananyotherwritersIknowwhiletheclassicaleconomistsofthenineteenthcentury,oratleasttheBenthamitesorphilosophicalradicalsamongthem,cameincreasinglyundertheinfluenceofanotherkindofindividualismofdifferentoriginThissecondandaltogetherdifferentstrandofthought,alsoknownasindividualism,isrepresentedmainlybyFrenchandotherContinentalwritersafactdue,Ibelieve,tothedominantrolewhichCartesianrationalismplaysinitscompositionTheoutstandingrepresentativesofthistraditionaretheEncyclopedists,Rousseau,andthephysiocratsand,forreasonsweshallpresentlyconsider,thisrationalisticindividualismalwaystendstodevelopintotheoppositeofindividualism,namely,socialismorcollectivismItisbecauseonlythefirstkindofindividualismisconsistentthatIclaimforitthenameoftrueindividualism,whilethesecondkindmustprobablyberegardedasasourceofmodernsocialismasimportantastheproperlycollectivisttheoriesRBisset,LifeofEdmundBurke(ded,),II,CfalsoWCDunn,"AdamSmithandEdmundBurke:ComplimentaryContemporaries,"SouthernEconomicTournai(UniversityofNorthCarolina),VolVII,No(January,)CarlMenger,whowasamongthefirstinmoderntimesconsciouslytorevivethemethodicalindividualismofAdamSmithandhisschool,wasprobablyalsothefirsttopointouttheconne<tionbetweenthedesigntheoryofsocialinstitutionsandIndividualism:TrueandFalseIcangivenobetterillustrationoftheprevailingconfusionaboutthemeaningofindividualismthanthefactthatthemanwhotomeseemstobeoneofthegreatestrepresentativesoftrueindividualism,EdmundBurke,iscommonly(andrightly)representedasthemainopponentofthesocalled"individualism"ofRousseau,whosetheorieshefearedwouldrapidlydissolvethecommonwealth"intothedustandpowderofindividuality,"andthattheterm"individualism"itselfwasfirstintroducedintotheEnglishlanguagethroughthetranslationofoneoftheworksofanotherofthegreatrepresentativesoftrueindividualism,DeTocqueville,whousesitinhisDemocracyinAmericatodescribeanattitudewhichhedeploresandrejects£>YettherecannodoubtthatbothBurkeandDeTocquevillestandinallessentialsclosetoAdamSmith,towhomnobodywilldenythetitleofindividualist,andthatthe"individualism"towhichtheyareopposedissomethingaltogetherdifferentfromthatofSmithsocialismSeehisUntersuchungenuberdieMethodederSozialwissenschaften(),espBookIV,chap,towardtheendofwhich(p)hespeaksof"apragmatismwhich,againsttheintentionofitsrepresentatives,leadsinevitablytosocialism"Itissignificantthatthephysiocratsalreadywereledfromtherationalisticindividualismfromwhichtheystarted,notonlyclosetosocialism(fullydevelopedintheircontemporaryMorelly'sLeCodedelanature,buttoadvocatetheworstdepotism"L'Etatfaitdeshommestoutcequ'ilveut,"wroteBodeauEdmundBurke,ReflectionsontheRevolutioninFrance(),inWorks(World'sClassicsed),IV,:"Thusthecommonwealthitselfwould,inafewgenerations,bedisconnectedintothedustandpowderofindividuality,andatlengthdispersedtoallwindsofheaven"ThatBurke(asAMOsbornpointsoutinherbookonRousseauandBurkeOxford,,p),afterhehadfirstattackedRousseauforhisextreme"individualism,"laterattackedhimforhisextremecollectivismwasfarfrominconsistentbutmerelytheresultofthefactthatinthecaseofRousseau,asinthatofallothers,therationalisticindividualismwhichtheypreachedinevitablyledtocollectivismAlexisdeTocqueville,DemocracyinAmerica,transHenryReeve(London,),VolII,BookII,chap,whereDeTocquevilledefinesindividualismas"amatureandcalmfeeling,whichdisposeseachmemberofthecommunitytoseverhimselffromthemassofhisfellows,andtodrawapartwithhisfamilyandfriendssothat,afterhehasthusformedalittlecircleofhisown,hewillinglyleavessocietyatlargetoitself"ThetranslatorinanotetothispassageapologizesforintroducingtheFrenchterm"individualism"intoEnglishandexplainsthatheknows"noEnglishwordexactlyequivalenttotheexpression"AsAlbertSchatzpointedoutinthebookmentionedbelow,DeTocqueville'suseofthewellestablishedFrenchterminthispeculiarsenseisentirelyarbitraryandleadstoseriousconfusionwiththeestablishedmeaningSIndividualismandEconomicOrderWhat,then,aretheessentialcharacteristicsoftrueindividualismThefirstthingthatshouldbesaidisthatitisprimarilyatheoryofsociety,anattempttounderstandtheforceswhichdeterminethesociallifeofman,andonlyinthesecondinstanceasetofpoliticalmaximsderivedfromthisviewofsocietyThisfactshouldbyitselfbesufficienttorefutethesilliestofthecommonmisunderstandings:thebeliefthatindividualismpostulates(orbasesitsargumentsontheassumptionof)theexistenceofisolatedorselfcontainedindividuals,insteadofstartingfrommenwhosewholenatureandcharacterisdeterminedbytheirexistenceinsocietyIfthatweretrue,itwouldindeedhavenothingtocontributetoourunderstandingofsocietyButitsbasiccontentionisquiteadifferentoneitisthatthereisnootherwaytowardanunderstandingofsocialphenomenabutthroughourunderstandingofindividualactionsdirectedtowardotherpeopleandguidedbytheirexpectedbehaviorThisargumentisdirectedprimarilyagainsttheproperlycollectivisttheoriesofsocietywhichpretendtobeabledirectlytocomprehendsocialwholeslikesociety,etc,asentitiessuigeneriswhichexistindependentlyoftheindividualswhichcomposethemThenextstepintheindividualisticanalysisofsociety,however,isdirectedagainsttherationalisticpseudoindividualismwhichalsoleadstopracticalcollectivismItisthecontentionthat,bytracingthecombinedeffectsofindividualactions,wediscoverInhisexcellentsurveyofthehistoryofindividualisttheoriesthelateAlbertSchatzrightlyconcludesthat"nousvoyonstoutd'abordavecevidencecequel'individualismen'estpasC'estprecisementcequ'oncroitcommunementqu'ilest:unsystemed'isolementdansl'existenceetuneapologiedel'egoisme"(L'nditJidualismeeconomiqueetsocialParis,,p)Thisbook,towhichIammuchindebted,deservestobemuchmorewidelyknownasacontributionnotonlytothesubjectindicatedbyitstitlebuttothehistoryofeconomictheoryingeneralInthisrespect,asKarlPribramhasmadeclear,individualismisanecessaryresultofphilosophicalnominalism,whilethecollectivisttheorieshavetheirrootsinthe"realist"or(asKRPoppernowmoreappropriatelycallsit)"essentialist"tradition(Pribram,DieEntstehungderinditJidualistischenSozialphilosophieLeipzig,)Butthis"nominalist"approachischaracteristiconlyoftrueindividualism,whilethefalseindividualismofRousseauandthephysiocrats,inaccordancewiththeCartesianorigin,isstrongly"realist"or"essentialist"Individualism:TrueandFalsethatmanyoftheinstitutionsonwhichhumanachievementsresthavearisenandarefunctioningwithoutadesigninganddirectingmindthat,asAdamFergusonexpressedit,"nationsstumbleuponestablishments,whichareindeedtheresultofhumanactionbutnottheresultofhumandesign"andthatthespontaneouscollaborationoffreemenoftencreatesthingswhicharegreaterthantheirindividualmindscaneverfullycomprehendThisisthegreatthemeofJosiahTuckerandAdamSmith,ofAdamFergusonandEdmundBurke,AdamFerguson,AnEssayontheHistoryofCivilSociety(sted,),pCfalsoibid:"Theformsofsocietyarederivedfromanobscureanddistantorigintheyarise,longbeforethedateofphilosophy,fromtheinstincts,notfromthespeculationsofmanWeascribetoapreviousdesign,whatcametobeknownonlybyexperience,whatnohumanwisdomcouldforesee,andwhat,withouttheconcurringhumouranddispositionofhisage,noauthoritycouldenableanindividualtoexecute"(ppand)ItmaybeofinteresttocomparethesepassageswiththesimilarstatementsinwhichFerguson'scontemporariesexpressedthesamebasicideaoftheeighteenthcenturyBritisheconomists:JosiahTucker,ElementsofCommerce(),reprintedinJosiahTucker:ASelectionfromHisEconomicandPoliticalWritings,edRLSchuyler(NewYork,),

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  • 套马驰骋 感激,多谢,此为英文扫描版,已下

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*新书上架*【哈耶克】个人主义与经济秩序

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