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首页 *新书上架*【本纳德·威廉斯】笛卡尔:纯粹研究计划

*新书上架*【本纳德·威廉斯】笛卡尔:纯粹研究计划.pdf

*新书上架*【本纳德·威廉斯】笛卡尔:纯粹研究计划

九月虺
2009-10-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【本纳德·威廉斯】笛卡尔:纯粹研究计划pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Descartes‘Excellent’TheTimesEducationalSupplement‘Hisbiographicaldigestisassuccinctashisphilosophicalanalysisisthorough’TheSundayTimesDescarteshasoftenbeencalledthe‘fatherofmodernphilosophy’Hisattemptstofindfoundationsforknowledge,andtoreconciletheexistenceofthesoulwiththeemergingscienceofhistime,areamongthemostinfluentialandwidelystudiedinthehistoryofphilosophyThisisaclassicandchallengingintroductiontoDescartesbyoneofthemostdistinguishedmodernphilosophersBernardWilliamsnotonlyanalysesDescartes’sprojectoffoundingknowledgeoncertainty,butuncoversthephilosophicalmotivesforhissearchWithacuteinsight,hedemonstrateshowDescartes’sMeditationsarenotmerelyadescriptionbuttheveryenactmentofphilosophicalthoughtanddiscoveryWilliamscoversallofthekeyareasofDescartes’sthought,includingGod,thewill,thepossibilityofknowledge,andthemindanditsplaceinnatureHealsomakessomeprofoundcontributionstothetheoryofknowledge,metaphysicsandphilosophygenerally,makingDescartesessentialreadingforanystudentofphilosophyThisreissueincludesanewforewordbyJohnCottingham,UniversityofReading‘BernardWilliamsisarguablythegreatestphilosopherofhisera’TheGuardian‘Oneofthemostbrilliantfiguresofhisgeneration’GlasgowHeraldBernardWilliamsdiedinHetaughtattheUniversitiesofOxfordandCalifornia,BerkeleyandwasoneoftheleadingphilosophersofhisgenerationHewrotemanyinfluentialbooksincludingProblemsoftheSelfandEthicsandtheLimitsofPhilosophyHislastworkwasTruthandTruthfulness()Descartes:TheProjectofPureEnquiryBernardWilliamsFirstpublishedbyPenguininThiseditionfirstpublishedbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxfordshireOXRNSimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeMadisonAvenue,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup©BernardWilliams©ForewordJohnCottinghamAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataWilliams,BernardArthurOwenDescartes:theprojectofpureenquiryBernardWilliamsRevedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(hardback:alkpaper)ISBNX(pbk:alkpaper)Descartes,René,–ITitleBWdcISBN–––pbISBN–––XhbThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”ISBNXMasterebookISBNCONTENTSForewordixPrefacexiiiBooksandReferencesxviDescartesTheProjectCogitoandSumTheRealDistinctionGodErrorandtheWillKnowledgeisPossiblePhysicalObjectsScienceandExperimentMindanditsPlaceinNatureAppendixEpistemologicalConceptsAppendixWhatthePureEnquirerKnowsAppendixDreamingIndexToStanleyandCathyCavellFOREWORDByJohnCottinghamThereissueofBernardWilliams’sfascinatingstudyofDescartes,overaquarterofacenturyafteritsfirstpublication,isatributetothestillvividlyfreshthinkingofoneofBritain’sforemostphilosophers,whosedeathinwassuchagrievouslosstothesubjectAlthoughitdealswithoneofthemajorcanonicalfiguresinthehistoryofphilosophy,thebookisnotprimarilyahistoricalwork:itisintended(astheauthorindicatesinhisownpreface)tobephilosophybeforeitishistoryThisisnottosaythatWilliamssharedthedismissiveattitudewhichsomeofhiscolleaguesfelttowardshistoricalandcontextualapproachestothegreatphilosophersreadersofthebookwillfind,forexample,awealthofdetailedreferencetotheactualCartesiantexts,andtohowDescartesshapedhisideasinresponsetocontemporarycriticsButWilliamsbelievedthatinthesortofhistoryofphilosophythatwasfundamentallyworthdoing,therehadtobe,asheputit,‘acutoffpoint,whereauthenticityisreplacedastheobjectivebytheaimofarticulatingphilosophicalideas’(pxiv)Beyonddisputeoneofthemostarticulateandinsightfulphilosophersofourtime,WilliamswaspreeminentlyequippednotjusttoexpoundthestructureoftheCartesiansystemwithgreateleganceandpanache,butalsotointerpret,reinterpretanddevelopthecentralideasinwaysthatwouldresonatepowerfullywithourpresentdayphilosophicalconcernsAnobituaryofBernardWilliamsinLeMondeobservedthathisbookonDescartes‘futàl’originedurenouveaudesétudescartésiennesdanslespaysdelangueanglaise’Certainly,alongwithAnthonyKenny’sDescartes(whichappearedsomeyearsearlier),ithadastronglyinvigoratingeffectonanglophoneCartesianscholarship,thewelcomeeffectsofwhichcontinuetobeapparentButwhatitalsodid(andstilldoes)istoputintosharpfocusthepredicamentinwhichourowncontemporaryphilosophicalculturefindsitself:dowehavetogiveupthegrandtraditionalaspirationsofphilosophytoarriveatauthenticknowledgeofthenatureofrealityDescartesisoftensaidtohaveinauguratedthemodernphilosophicalagebymakingthequestion‘WhatdoIknow’thestartingpointofphilosophicalinquiryThereissometruthinthis,andWilliams’sstudydoesdevotecarefulandilluminatingattentiontothestandardstepsintheCartesiansearchforknowledge:theapplicationofmethodicaldoubt,theCogito(‘Iamthinking,thereforeIexist’),andtheargumentsforGod’sexistencethataresupposedtoallowthemeditatortobroadenhiscertainty,beyondtheinitialawarenessofhimselfasa‘thinkingthing’,toencompasssystematicmathematicalknowledge(andhencetheprinciplesofphysics)andourrelationshiptothematerialworldButDescartes’s‘knowledgequestion’broadlyconstrued,asWilliamshimselfisinclinedtoconstrueit,reacheswellbeyondthenarrowconfinesofthespecialisedacademicdisciplinewehavecometoknowas‘epistemology’ThemoreprofoundthemethatisskilfullyunravelledduringthecourseofWilliams’saccountistheideathatDescartes’sultimatequestisforan‘absoluteconception’ofrealityThischaracteristicallyfertilenotionreceivesvariousformulationsinthebook,ofwhichthemostvividisthefollowing:OnemightsaythatwhatGodhasgivenus,accordingtoDescartes,isaninsightintothenatureoftheworldasitseemstoGod,andtheforewordxworldasitseemstoGodmustbetheworldasitreallyisGodisthus,ontheCartesianconstruction,deeplyinvolvedinourhavingan‘absoluteconception’ofreality–aconceptionofrealityasitisindependentlyofourthought,andtowhichallrepresentationsofrealitycanberelated(p)ThiscentralideaislinkedwiththeinterpretationofDescartesthatissignalledinthebook’ssubtitle:Descartes’sprojectof‘pureinquiry’issupposedtogiveusthekindofknowledgethatisfreefromtherelativityarisingfromthepreconceptionsofthelocalculturalcontextinwhichweoperate,andevenfreefromtheparticularperspectiveofourhumanstandpoint(forexampleourhumanmodesofsensoryawareness)Whethersuchanabsolutistaspirationisacoherentgoalhas,sincethebook’spublication,becomeanincreasinglyurgentquestion,withtheriseofpostmodernism,anditsstressonthemultiplicityofhumandiscourses,coupledwithitsinsistentcritiqueoftheideaofasingle‘grandnarrative’thatcoulddescribethings‘astheyreallyare’ButWilliamswasfartoosubtleandresoluteathinkertobesatisfiedwiththeglibcapitulationsoftherelativists,andinthecourseofhisargumentitbecomesclearthathebelievesthatabandoningtheveryideaoftheabsoluteconceptionwouldbefarfromcostfreeInDescartes,theconceptionisinextricablylinkedwithanappealtoGod–somethingWilliamscouldnotacceptButtowardstheendofthebookheposesthedisturbingquestionofwhetherwecaneasilygiveuptheideaofanabsoluteconceptionofrealityifthereistobeanyknowledgeatall–andhavingansweredthisinthenegative,pointsthewaytohowitmightbesalvaged,albeitatthesametimediscardingthelinkwithconsiderationsofcertaintythatwassoimportanttoDescarteshimself(cfp)DespitethefactthatDescarteswasregardedformuchofthesecondhalfofthetwentiethcenturyasanegregioussourceofphilosophicalerror,thefertilityofhisideas,forthosewhoarepreparedtolookatwhatheactuallywroteratherthanatthecaricaturesofthecritics,remainsimmenseandinmanyrespectsundiminishedWilliams’sbookbringsoutthatfertilitywithforewordxispectacularsuccess–certainlynotinareverentialway,forheneverabandonshissharpcriticaleyeforanyweaknessesinargument,butinawaythattakesinthefullrangeofDescartes’sthinking(thefoundationsofknowledge,theroleofGod,materialsubstance,thestructureofscience,andthemindanditsplaceinnature)Anyattemptatwhathecalled‘featherbedding’wasanathematoWilliams:hewouldnotcountenanceanyglossingoverofthenecessarycomplexitiesandsubtletiesofthoughtwefindinanytrulyinterestingphilosophersointhatsensethebookisnotmeanttoappealtothoselookingforpottedsummariesoreasysolutionsBut,forallthat,itisanengagingandaccessiblebook,likelytocapturetheintellectualcuriosityandimaginationofanyonewhoispreparedtowrestle‘onceinalifetime’,asDescartesputit,withthosefundamentalmetaphysicalquestionsaboutthenatureoftheselfanditsawarenessofrealitythatare,intheend,inseparablefromphilosophicalinquiryitselfReading,AugustforewordxiiPREFACEThisisastudyinthehistoryofphilosophyratherthaninthehistoryofideasIusethoselabelstomarkthedistinctionthatthehistoryofideasishistorybeforeitisphilosophy,whilewiththehistoryofphilosophyitistheotherwayroundInanyworthwhileworkofeithersort,bothconcernsarelikelytoberepresented,butthereisagenuinedistinctionForthehistoryofideas,thequestionaboutaworkwhatdoesitmeaniscentrallythequestionwhatdiditmean,andthepursuitofthatquestionmoveshorizontallyintimefromthework,aswellasbackwards,toestablishtheexpectations,conventions,familiarities,intermsofwhichtheauthorcouldhavesucceededinconveyingameaningThisenterpriseitselfcannotbeuncorruptedbyhindsightThisisnotjustbecausetheunderstandingwebringtotheexplanationsisalaterone,thoughthatistrueandimportant,muchasplayingseventeenthcenturyscoresonseventeenthcenturyinstrumentsaccordingtoseventeenthcenturypractice,admirableenterprisethoughitmaybeotherwise,doesnotproduceseventeenthcenturymusic,sincewehavenecessarilytwentiethcenturyearsBeyondthat,itisalsotruethatourselectionoftheworksthatwetaketorewardthisenquiryisgovernedbytheirsubsequenthistoryandourpresentsituationandwithintheworksthemselves,whatutterancesstrikeusandstrikeourhistoricalcuriosityis,again,governedinthatwayYetwhatwearemovedto,ashistoriansofideas,isanhistoricalenquiry,andthegenreoftheresultingworkisunequivocallyhistoryThehistoryofphilosophyofcoursehastoconstituteitsobject,thework,ingenuinelyhistoricalterms,yetthereisacutoffpoint,whereauthenticityisreplacedastheobjectivebytheaimofarticulatingphilosophicalideasThe‘horizontal’searchforwhatDescartesmeantwill,ifitisproperlydone,yieldanobjectessentiallyambiguous,incomplete,imperfectlydeterminedbytheauthor’sandhiscontemporaries’understanding,forthatiswhatthework–atleastifitisnowofanyautonomousinterestatall–cannotfailtohavebeenThepresentstudy,whileIhopethatitisnotunawarethatthatisso,prefersthedirectionofrationalreconstructionofDescartes’sthought,wheretherationalityoftheconstructionisessentiallyandundisguisedlyconceivedinacontemporarystyleHerethemusicalanalogyis,asanideal,Stravinsky’sPulcinella,inwhichthemelodiclineisPergolesi’s,theharmonyandorchestrationStravinsky’sTheanalogyisnotexact,sincethedistinctionbetweenmelodyandharmonyis(largely)givenintheworksofPergolesiinworksofphilosophy,whatisthemelodyisitselfdetermined,insomepart,bysubsequentphilosophicalexperienceThereisthegenuineanalogy,however,thatthenewworkisbroadlyofthesamegenreastheoriginalThisstudyismeanttoconsist,toaconsiderableextent,ofphilosophicalargument,thedirectionofitshapedbywhatItaketobe,now,themostinterestingphilosophicalconcernsofDescartesTheargumentisintwentiethcenturytermsthejudgementofinterestisatwentiethcenturyjudgementitisabsolutelycertainthataworkwhichwasprimarilyhistoricalwouldrepresentDescartes’sconcernsinadifferentwayYet,forallthat,IhopethattheconcernsrepresentedinthiswaywereconcernsofDescartes,andthattospeakofhishavinghadthespecialkindofprojectthatIhavetriedtoarticulateinthisbookrelatesilluminatinglytosomethinghistoricallyandimportantlytrueabouthisoutlookThewritingofthisbookhasstretchedoveranabsurdlylongperiod,particularlybecauseitwaslaidasideforanumberofyearsprefacexivIthaslargelybeenrewrittenmorerecently,andIhopethatitisnottooobviousthatafewpassageswerewrittenuptofourteenyearsbeforeothersOneresultofthesedelaysisthattheworkhashadthechanceofbenefitingfrommyopportunitytogivecoursesonDescartesduringtwoseparateandenjoyablevisitstotheUSA:inatPrincetonUniversity,andinatHarvardIshouldliketoexpressthankstocolleaguesandstudentsinthosedepartmentsofphilosophyformanyhelpfuldiscussionsIamgratefultomanypeoplewhoinprintorindiscussionhavehelpedmyunderstandingofCartesianproblemsIcannotthankthemall,butIshouldliketomentionDavidWigginsandChrisHookway,towhomIamindebtedfordiscussionofseveralpointsNeithertheynoranyoneelseexceptmyselfistobeblamedforwhatappearsIam,inaddition,gratefultoSheelaghBarnardforresearchassistance,andtoHeatherStephensforthefinaltypescriptCambridge,FebruaryNOTEForthispoint,andforotherhelpfulconsiderations,seeJohnDunn,‘TheIdentityoftheHistoryofIdeas’,PhilosophyXLIII(),–prefacexvBOOKSANDREFERENCESThestandardeditionoftheworksofDescartesisthateditedbyCharlesAdamandPaulTannery,inelevenvolumes(twelfthandthirteenthvolumesofbiography,index,etc),nowreissuedbyVrin(Paris)inassociationwiththeCentreNationaldelaRechercheScientifique(–)Thisisknownas‘AT’Referencestothiseditionaremademerelybyvolumeandpage,thus:‘VII’ThefirstfivevolumesofATaredevotedtocorrespondenceThereisamorecompleteeditionofDescartes’scorrespondencebyCharlesAdamandGérardMilhaud(Paris,–),butallthereferencestolettersinthepresentbookaremadetoATATpresentsworksinFrenchandinLatin,includingtheFrenchtranslationsoftheMeditationsandthePrinciplesAusefulcollectionwhichisallinFrench,includingsomecorrespondence,isthatintheBibliothèquedelaPléiade(Paris,)ThebestknownandmostcomprehensiveEnglishtranslationofDescartes’sphilosophicalwritingsisbyESHaldaneandGRTRoss,intwovolumes(Cambridge,,corrected)ItdoesnotincludeanycorrespondenceandomitssubstantialpartsofthePrinciplesThetranslationisratherstiff,andnotalwaysaccurateonpointsofphilosophicaldetailReferencestothistranslationaremadeinthestyle:‘HR’,‘HR’SubstantialselectionsfromtheHaldaneandRosstranslation,withsomecorrections,arepresentedinTheEssentialDescartes,edMargaretDWilson(NewYork,)Othertranslationsofselectionsinclude:Descartes:PhilosophicalWritings,trNormanKempSmith(London,)andDescartes:PhilosophicalWritings,trElizabethAnscombeandPeterThomasGeach(LondonandEdinburgh,)ThereisnocompletetranslationofthecorrespondenceAusefulselectionistranslatedandeditedbyAnthonyKenny,Descartes:PhilosophicalLetters(Oxford,)Referencestothisaremadebypagenumberprecededby‘K’:‘K’InDescarteshadaconversationwithayoungmancalledBurman,whovisitedhiminHollandanddiscussedwithhimaseriesofwellpreparedquestionsWehaveBurman’snotesofthisconversation(V–)TheyhavebeentranslatedandannotatedbyJohnCottingham:Descartes’sConversationwithBurman(Oxford,)Referencestothisaremadethus:‘Cp’(thisemphasizesthatthereferenceistothepage,notthesectionnumber,ofCottingham’sedition)ThesecondaryliteratureonDescartesis,ofcourse,enormousForabibliographyupto,seeGSebba,BibliographiaCartesiana(TheHague,)VarioussecondaryworksreferredtointhetextareidentifiedinthenotesWorkstowhichseveralreferenceshavebeenmadeincludethefollowing:WDoney,ed:Descartes:ACollectionofCriticalEssays(NewYork,)HGFrankfurt:Demons,DreamersandMadmen:theDefenseofReasoninDescartes’‘Meditations’(NewYork,)EGilson:DiscoursdelaMéthode,TexteetCommentaire(Paris,)AdeeplyinformedandvaluableworkAKenny:Descartes,AStudyofhisPhilosophy(NewYork,)Passagesfrom:theRegulaetheDiscourseontheMethodanditsaccompanyingEssaystheMeditations,theObjections,andtheRepliesandLaRecherchedelaVérité,aregivenbyanATreferencefollowedbyaHaldaneandRossreference,as:IIRep:VII,HRAfewpassagesfromminorworksnotappearinginHRhaveonlyanATreferencebooksandreferencesxviiReferencestolettersaregivenbyrecipient,date,andATreference,followedbyKennyreferencewhenthereisone,as:toRegius,May:III,K–ReferencestotheConversationwithBurmanaregivenbyATreference,followedbypagereferencetoCottingham:V,Cpp–ThePrinciplesandThePassionsoftheSoularedividedintoshortnumberedsections,andreferencestotheseworksaregivenonlybynumberofbookandsection:Princi,PassionsoftheSouli(infactthesectionnumbersofthePassionsoftheSoulruncontinuouslythroughitsbooks)AllquotedpassageshavebeentranslatedbymyselfmydebtstoothertranslatorsareconsiderableandnodoubtobviousbooksandreferencesxviiiDESCARTESRenéDescarteswasbornonMarchinasmalltownnearTours,nowcalledlaHayeDescartes,wherethehouseofhisbirthcanstillbeseenHisfamilybelongedtothelessernobility,hisfatherandhise

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*新书上架*【本纳德·威廉斯】笛卡尔:纯粹研究计划

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