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首页 *新书上架*【奥斯汀】感觉和可感物

*新书上架*【奥斯汀】感觉和可感物.pdf

*新书上架*【奥斯汀】感觉和可感物

九月虺
2009-10-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【奥斯汀】感觉和可感物pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

SenseandSensibiliaJLAUSTINRECONSTRUCTEDFROMTIlEMANUSCRIPTNOTESBYGJWARNOCKOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSLondonOxfordNewYorkFOREWORDOxfordUniversityPressFirstpublishedbytheClarendonPress,FirstissuedasanOxfordUniversityPresspaperback,printing,lastdigit:PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaAU~TINlecturedmanytimesontheproblemswithwhichthisbookisconcernedThefirstlectureswhichweresubstantiallyintheformherepresentedwerethosewhichhegaveinOxfordinTrinityTerm,,underthegeneraltitle'ProblemsinPhilosophy'Hefirstusedthetitle'SenseandSensibilia'inTrinityTermofthefollowingyear,andthiswasthetitlethathesubsequentlyretainedInthiscase,asinothers,AustinrepeatedlyrevisedandrewrotehisownnotesSomeundatedandveryfragmentarynotessurvivewhicharepresumablythosethatheusedinAnothersetofnoteswaspreparedin,andyetanotherinThisset,inwhichAustinmadeinsertionsandcorrectionsin,coverstheearlierpartsofhisargumentinconsiderabledetailbutthenotesforthelaterlecturesaremuchlessfull,andarealsoevidentlynotcompleteAfourthsetofnoteswaswrittenin,andthelastin,forthelecturesAustingaveintheautumnofthatyearintheUniversityofCaliforniaHislectureson'SenseandSensibilia'weregivenforthelasttimeinOxfordinHilaryTerm,InadditiontothesemoreorlesscontinuousdraftsAustin'spaperscontainedanumberofseparatesheets,ofveryvariousdates,onwhichhehadmadenotesviForewordForewordviiconcerningthesamerangeofproblemsThesubstanceofmanyofthesewasincorporatedinthenotesforhislectures,andthereforealsointhepresentbookSome,however,appearedtobemerelytentativeandprovisionalandothers,thoughsometimesverydetailed,wereclearlymadeinthecourseofpreparinglecturesbutnotintendedtobeactuallyincorporatedinthemAllthemanuscriptmaterialisnowintheBodleianLibrary,andisavailableforstudythereThelatersetsofnotes,thoseofand,donotcoverthetopicsdiscussedcompletelyTheyconsistforthemostpartofadditionalmaterial,andfortherestreferback,withminorrearrangements,revisions,andcorrections,tothedraftsofandThisadditionalmaterialischieflycontained,inthepresenttext,insectionVII,thelaterpartofsectionX,andinsectionXIInlecturingatBerkeleyAustinalsousedsomeofthematerialcontainedinhispaper'UnfairtoFacts'butthisdidnotnormallyformpartofhislecturesonthissubject,andhasbeenomittedheresincethatpaperitselfhasnowappearedinprintItisnecessarytoexplaininsomedetailhowthepresenttexthasbeenpreparedAustincertainlyhaditinmindthathisworkonperceptionmightsomedaybepublished,buthehimselfhadneverbeguntoprepareitforpublicationThushisnotesthroughoutweresimplysuchasheneededinlecturinganditis,fromourpointofview,amisfortunethathewasabletolecturewithcompletefluencyandprecisionwithoutwritingouthismaterialatallfullyPublicationofhisnotesastheystoodwasthusoutofthequestioninthatformtheywouldhavebeenunreadable,andindeedscarcelyintelligibleItwasthereforedecidedthattheyshouldbewrittenoutinacontinuousformanditmustbecarefullyborneinmindthatthetextwhichfollows,whilebasedascloselyaspossibleonAustin'snotes,containshardlyanysentencewhichisadirecttranscriptionfromhisownmanuscriptTheversionherepresentedisatitsclosesttoAustin'sownnotesinsectionsIVI,VIII,andIX,inwhichhisargumentvariedverylittlefromonwardsInsectionsVII,X,andXI,thoughthereisnoroomforseriousdoubtastowhatAustin'sargumentwas,itwasconsiderablylesseasytotellfromhisnotesexactlyhow,andinwhatorder,theargumentshouldbedeployedInthesesections,then,thereadershouldbeparticularlywaryofattachingtoomuchweighttoeverydetailofthepresentationitisherethateditorialblundersaremostliabletohaveoccurredIndeed,itistoomuchtohopethattheyhavenotcreptinelsewhereThepresenttext,insheernumberofwords,musthavebeenexpandedtofiveorsixtimesthelengthofeventhemostcompletesetofnotesandalthoughthereisnoreasontodoubtthatAustin'sviewsweresubstantiallyastheyareherepresented,itisimpossibletobecertainthattheyarenowheremisrepresentedindetailHisexactmeaninghow,forinstance,hewouldhaveexpandedorqualifiedinlecturingsomephrase,orevensomesingleword,appearinginhisnoteswasviiiForewordForewordixsometimesconjecturalandatsomepointsitismorethanpossiblethatadifferenteditorwouldhavefavouredadifferentinterpretationThisisdoubtlessinherentintheunsatisfactory,butinthiscaseunavoidable,procedureofrewritingThetextthatfollows,then,cannotbereadasreproducing,wordforword,whatAustinactuallysaidinhislecturesnor,ofcourse,doesitcomeclosequiteprobablyitcomesnowhereneartowhathewouldhavewritten,ifhehadhimselfpreparedatextonthissubjectforpublicationThemostthatcanbeclaimedthoughIventuretoclaimthiswithconfidenceisthatinallpointsofsubstance(andinmanypointsofphraseology)hisargumentwastheargumentwhichthisbookcontainsIndeed,ifithadnotbeenpossibletomakethisclaim,therecouldhavebeennoquestionofpublicationinthisformItshouldbeaddedthatthedivisionofthetextintosectionsisnotAustin'sown,andhasbeenmademerelywithaneyetodistinguishingthesuccessivestagesofthediscussionHisowndivisionintoseparatelectureswas,ofcourse,inevitablysomewhatarbitrary,andalsonotuniformfromtimetotime,sothatitwouldhavebeenneitherdesirablenorpracticabletoadheretoitSeveralofthosewhoattendedAustin'slectures,inOxfordorAmerica,werekindenoughtosendmethenotestheymadeThesewereextremelyhelpfulparticularlythoseofMrGWPitcherofPrinceton,andofmembersoftheDepartmentofPhilosophyatBerkeley,whichwerealmostasfullasanyofAustin'sownItistobefearedthatthosewhoheardthelectures(asIdidmyselfin)willfindinthisbookamostimperfectapproximationtowhatAustinsaidIhope,however,thattheywillbewillingtoagreethateventhiskindofpermanentrecordisbetterthannoneIshouldliketoexpressmythankstoMrJUrmson,whoreadthetextintypescriptandmademanyusefulsuggestionsforitsimprovementGJWARNOCKNovemberCONTENTSIpageIVIIpageIIVIIIIIIIXIVXvXIVIIndexNTHESELECTURESIAMGOINGTODISCUSSsomecurrentdoctrines(perhaps,bynow,notsocurrentastheyoncewere)aboutsenseperceptionWeshallnot,Ifear,getsofarastodecideaboutthetruthorfalsityofthesedoctrinesbutinfactthatisaquestionthatreallycan'tbedecided,sinceitturnsoutthattheyallbiteoffmorethantheycanchewIshalltakeaschiefstalkinghorseinthediscussionProfessorAJAyer'sTheFoundationsofEmpiricalKnowledge'butIshallmentionalsoProfessorHHPrice'sPerception,zand,lateron,GJWarnock'sbookonBerkeleyIfindinthesetextsagooddealtocriticize,butIchoosethemfortheirmeritsandnotfortheirdeficienciestheyseemtometoprovidethebestavailableexpositionsoftheapprovedreasonsforholdingtheorieswhichareatleastasoldasHeraclitusmorefull,coherent,andterminologicallyexactthanyoufind,forexample,inDescartesorBerkeleyNodoubttheauthorsofthesebooksnolongerholdthetheoriesexpoundedinthem,oratanyratewouldn'tnowexpoundtheminjustthesameformButatleasttheydidholdthemnotverylongagoandofcourseverynumerousgreatphilosophershaveheldtheseMcmillan,Methuen,PenguinBooks,SenseandSensibiliaSenseandSensibiliatheories,andhavepropoundedotherdoctrinesresultingfromthemTheauthorsIhavechosentodiscussmaydifferfromeachotherovercertainrefinements,whichweshalleventuallytakenoteoftheyappeartodiffer,forexample,astowhethertheircentraldistinctionisbetweentwo'languages'orbetweentwoclassesofentitiesbutIbelievethattheyagreewitheachother,andwiththeirpredecessors,inalltheirmajor(andmostlyunnoticed)assumptionsIdeally,Isuppose,adiscussionofthissortoughttobeginwiththeveryearliesttextsbutinthiscasethatcourseisruledoutbytheirnolongerbeingextantThedoctrinesweshallbediscussingunlike,forexample,doctrinesabout'universals'werealreadyquiteancientinPlato'stimeThegeneraldoctrine,generallystated,goeslikethis:weneverseeorotherwiseperceive(or'sense'),oranyhowweneverdirectlyperceiveorsense,materialobjects(ormaterialthings),butonlysensedata(orourownideas,impressions,sensa,senseperceptions,percepts,c)Onemightwellwanttoaskhowseriouslythisdoctrineisintended,justhowstrictlyandliterallythephilosopherswhopropounditmeantheirwordstobetakenButIthinkwehadbetternotworryaboutthisquestionforthepresentItis,asamatteroffact,notatalleasytoanswer,for,strangethoughthedoctrinelooks,wearesometimestoldtotakeiteasyreallyit'sjustwhatwe'veallbelievedallalong(There'sthebitwhereyousayitandthebitwhereyoutakeitback)Inanycaseitisclearthatthedoctrineisthoughtworthstating,andequallythereisnodoubtthatpeoplefinditdisturbingsoatleastwecanbeginwiththeassurancethatitdeservesseriousattentionMygeneralopinionaboutthisdoctrineisthatitisatypicallyscholasticview,attributable,first,toanobsessionwithafewparticularwords,theusesofwhichareoversimplified,notreallyunderstoodorcarefullystudiedorcorrectlydescribedandsecond,toanobsessionwithafew(andnearlyalwaysthesame)halfstudied'facts'(Isay'scholastic',butImightjustaswellhavesaid'philosophical'oversimplification,schematization,andconstantobsessiverepetitionofthesamesmallrangeofjejune'examples'arenotonlynotpeculiartothiscase,butfartoocommontobedismissedasanoccasionalweaknessofphilosophers)Thefactis,asIshalltrytomakeclear,thatourordinarywordsaremuchsubtlerintheiruses,andmarkmanymoredistinctions,thanphilosophershaverealizedandthatthefactsofperception,asdiscoveredby,forinstance,psychologistsbutalsoasnotedbycommonmortals,aremuchmorediverseandcomplicatedthanhasbeenallowedforItisessential,hereaselsewhere,toabandonoldhabitsofGleichschaltung,thedeeplyingrainedworshipoftidylookingdichotomiesIamnot,thenandthisisapointtobeclearaboutfromthebeginninggoingtomaintainthatweoughttobe'realists',toembrace,thatis,thedoctrinethatwedoperceivematerialthings(orobjects)ThisdoctrinewouldSenseandSensibiliabenolessscholasticanderroneousthanitsantithesisThequestion,doweperceivematerialthingsorsensedata,nodoubtlooksverysimpletoosimplebutisentirelymisleading(cpThales'similarlyvastandoversimplequestion,whattheworldismadeofponeofthemostimportantpointstograspisthatthesetwoterms,'sensedata'and'materialthings',livebytakingineachother'swashingwhatisspuriousisnotonetermofthepair,buttheantithesisitself'Thereisnoonekindofthingthatwe'perceive'butmanydzferentkinds,thenumberbeingreducibleifatallbyscientificinvestigationandnotbyphilosophy:pensareinmanywaysthoughnotinallwaysunlikerainbows,whichareinmanywaysthoughnotinallwaysunlikeafterimages,whichinturnareinmanywaysbutnotinallwaysunlikepicturesonthecinemascreenandsoon,withoutassignablelimitSowearenottolookforananswertothequestion,whatkindofthingweperceiveWhatwehaveabovealltodois,negatively,toridourselvesofsuchillusionsas'theargumentfromillusion'an'argument'whichthose(egBerkeley,Hume,Russell,Ayer)whohavebeenmostadeptatworkingit,mostfullymastersofacertainspecial,happystyleofblinkeringphilosophicalEnglish,haveallthemselvesfelttobesomehowspuriousThereisnosimplewayofdoingthispartlybecause,asweshallsee,thereisnosimple'argument'Itisamatterofunpicking,IThecaseof'universal'and'particular',or'individual',issimilarinsomerespectsthoughofcoursenotinallInphilosophyitisoftengoodpolicy,whereonememberofaputativepairfallsundersuspicion,toviewthemoreinnocentseemingpartysuspiciouslyaswebSenseandSensibiliaonebyone,amassofseductive(mainlyverbal)fallacies,ofexposingawidevarietyofconcealedmotivesanoperationwhichleavesus,inasense,justwherewebeganInasensebutactuallywemayhopetolearnsomethingpositiveinthewayofatechniquefordissolvingphilosophicalworries(somekindsofphilosophicalworry,notthewholeofphilosophy)andalsosomethingaboutthemeaningsofsomeEnglishwords('reality','seems','looks',c)which,besidesbeingphilosophicallyveryslippery,areintheirownrightinterestingBesides,thereisnothingsoplainboringastheconstantrepetitionofassertionsthatarenottrue,andsometimesnotevenfaintlysensibleifwecanreducethisabit,itwillbealltothegoodETUSHAVEALOOK,THEN,ATTHEVERYBELginningofAyer'sFoundationsthebottom,onemightperhapscallit,ofthegardenpathIntheseparagraphswealreadyseemtoseetheplainman,hereundertheimplausibleaspectofAyerhimself,dribblingbrisklyintopositioninfrontofhisownIgoal,andsquaringuptoencompasshisowndestructionItdoesnotnormallyoccurtousthatthereisanyneedforustojustifyourbeliefintheexistenceofmaterialthingsAtthepresentmoment,forexample,IhavenodoubtwhatsoeverthatIreallyamperceivingthefamiliarobjects,thechairsandtable,thepicturesandbooksandflowerswithwhichmyroomisfurnishedandIamthereforesatisfiedthattheyexistIrecognizeindeedthatpeoplearesometimesdeceivedbytheirsenses,butthisdoesnotleadmetosuspectthatmyownsenseperceptionscannotingeneralbetrusted,oreventhattheymaybedeceivingmenowAndthisisnot,Ibelieve,anexceptionalattitudeIbelievethat,inpractice,mostpeopleagreewithJohnLockethat'thecertaintyofthingsexistinginrerumnatura,whenwehavethetestimonyofoursensesforit,isnotonlyasgreatasourframecanattainto,butasourconditionneeds'When,however,oneturnstothewritingsofthosephilosopherswhohaverecentlyconcernedthemselveswiththesubjectofperception,onemaybegintowonderwhetherthisAyer,opcit,ppSenseandSensibiliamatterisquitesosimpleItistruethattheydo,ingeneral,allowthatourbeliefintheexistenceofmaterialthingsiswellfoundedsomeofthem,indeed,wouldsaythattherewereoccasionsonwhichweknewforcertainthetruthofsuchpropositionsas'thisisacigarette'or'thisisapen'Butevensotheyarenot,forthemostpart,preparedtoadmitthatsuchobjectsaspensorcigarettesareeverdirectlyperceivedWhat,intheiropinion,wedirectlyperceiveisalwaysanobjectofadifferentkindfromtheseonetowhichitisnowcustomarytogivethenameof'sensedatum'Nowinthispassagesomesortofcontrastisdrawnbetweenwhatwe(ortheordinaryman)believe(orbelieves),andwhatphilosophers,atleast'forthemostpart',believeorare'preparedtoadmit'Wemustlookatbothsidesofthiscontrast,andwithparticularcareatwhatisassumedin,andimpliedby,whatisactuallysaidTheordinaryman'sside,then,firstIItisclearlyimplied,firstofall,thattheordinarymanbelievesthatheperceivesmaterialthingsNowthis,atleastifitistakentomeanthathewouldsaythatheperceivesmaterialthings,issurelywrongstraightofffor'materialthing'isnotanexpressionwhichtheordinarymanwouldusenor,probably,is'perceive'Presumably,though,theexpression'materialthing'ishereputforward,notaswhattheordinarymanwouldsay,butasdesignatinginageneralwaytheclassofthingsofwhichtheordinarymanbothbelievesandfromtimetotimesaysthatheperceivesparticularinstancesButthenwehavetoask,ofcourse,whatthisclasscomprisesWearegiven,asexamples,'familiarobjects'chairs,tables,sSenseandSensibiliapictures,books,flowers,pens,cigarettestheexpression'materialthing'isnothere(oranywhereelseinAyer'stext)furtherdefined'Butdoestheordinarymanbelievethatwhatheperceivesis(always)somethinglikefurniture,orliketheseother'familiarobjects'moderatesizedspecimensofdrygoodsWemaythink,forinstance,ofpeople,people'svoices,rivers,mountains,flames,rainbows,shadows,picturesonthescreenatthecinema,picturesinbooksorhungonwalls,vapours,gasesallofwhichpeoplesaythattheyseeor(insomecases)hearorsmell,ie'perceive'Aretheseall'materialthings'Ifnot,exactlywhicharenot,andexactlywhyNoanswerisvouchsafedThetroubleisthattheexpression'materialthing'isfunctioningalready,fromtheverybeginning,simplyasafoilfor'sensedatum'itisnotheregiven,andisnevergiven,anyotherroletoplay,andapartfromthisconsiderationitwouldsurelyneverhaveoccurredtoanybodytotrytorepresentassomesinglekindofthingsthethingswhichtheordinarymansaysthathe'perceives'Further,itseemstobealsoimplied(a)thatwhentheordinarymanbelievesthatheisnotperceivingmaterialthings,hebelievesheisbeingdeceivedbyhissensesand(b)thatwhenhebelievesheisbeingdeceivedbyhissenses,hebelievesthatheisnotperceivingmaterialthingsButbothofthesearewrongAnordinarymanwhosaw,forexample,arainbowwouldnot,ifpersuadedComparePrice'slistonpIofPerception'chairsandtables,catsandrocks'thoughhecomplicatesmattersbyadding'water'and'theearth'Seealsop,on'physicalobjects','visuotactualsolids'SenseandSensibiliathatarainbowisnotamaterialthing,atonceconcludethathissensesweredeceivinghimnor,whenforinstanceheknowsthattheshipatseaonacleardayismuchfartherawaythanitlooks,doesheconcludethatheisnotseeingamaterialthing(stilllessthatheisseeinganimmaterialship)Thatistosay,thereisnomoreasimplecontrastbetweenwhattheordinarymanbelieveswhenalliswell(thatheis'perceivingmaterialthings')andwhensomethingisamiss(thathis'sensesaredeceivinghim'andheisnot'perceivingmaterialthings')thanthereisbetweenwhathebelievesthatheperceives('materialthings')andwhatphilosophersfortheirpartarepreparedtoadmit,what

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*新书上架*【奥斯汀】感觉和可感物

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