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首页 *新书上架*交换、行动和社会结构:经济社会学的要素

*新书上架*交换、行动和社会结构:经济社会学的要素.pdf

*新书上架*交换、行动和社会结构:经济社会学的要素

九月虺
2009-10-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*交换、行动和社会结构:经济社会学的要素pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Exchange,Action,andSocialStructure:ElementsofEconomicSociologyMILANZAFIROVSKIGREENWOODPRESSExchange,Action,andSocialStructureRecentTitlesinContributionsinSociologyTheAmericanRitualTapestry:SocialRulesandCulturalMeaningsMaryJoDeegan,editorBirthAlternatives:HowWomenSelectChildbirthCareSandraHowellWhiteCrossingtheLine:InterracialCouplesintheSouthRobertMcNamara,MariaTempenis,andBethWaltonAuthenticEthnicities:TheInteractionofIdeology,GenderPower,andClassintheItalianAmericanExperiencePatriciaBosciaMule´StalkingtheSociologicalImagination:JEdgarHoover’sFBISurveillanceofAmericanSociologyMikeForrestKeenKoreanImmigrantsandtheChallengeofAdjustmentMoonHJoCitizenshipandEthnicity:TheGrowthandDevelopmentofaDemocraticMultiethnicInstitutionFeliksGrossMakingaLifeinYorkville:ExperienceandMeaningintheLifeCourseNarrativeofanUrbanWorkingClassManGeraldHandelMovies,Masculinity,andModernity:AnEthnographyofMen’sFilmgoinginIndiaSteveDerne´IdeologyandtheSocialSciencesGrahamCKinlochandRajPMohan,editorsSociocybernetics:Complexity,Autopoiesis,andObservationofSocialSystemsFelixGeyerandJohannesvanderZouwen,editorsVoluntaryActionandNGOs:ACrossSectionalStudyofNGOsinIndiaRadhamonyammaSooryamoorthyandKesharichandDasharathasaGangradeExchange,Action,andSocialStructureElementsofEconomicSociologyMILANZAFIROVSKIContributionsinSociology,NumberDanAChekki,SeriesAdviserGREENWOODPRESSWestport,Connecticut•LondonLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataZafirovski,Milan,–Exchange,action,andsocialstructure:elementsofeconomicsociologyMilanZafirovskipcm(Contributionsinsociology,ISSN–no)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN–––(alkpaper)EconomicsSociologicalaspectsExchangeSocialaspectsExchangetheory(Sociology)ITitleIISeriesHMZdc–BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataisavailableCopyright�byMilanZafirovskiAllrightsreservedNoportionofthisbookmaybereproduced,byanyprocessortechnique,withouttheexpresswrittenconsentofthepublisherLibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:–ISBN:–––ISSN:–FirstpublishedinGreenwoodPress,PostRoadWest,Westport,CTAnimprintofGreenwoodPublishingGroup,IncwwwgreenwoodcomPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaTMThepaperusedinthisbookcomplieswiththePermanentPaperStandardissuedbytheNationalInformationStandardsOrganization(Z–)ContentsAcknowledgmentsixIntroductionxiAnOverviewofEconomicSociologyAnotherLookatEconomicSociologyTheSocialConstitutionoftheEconomyCharacteristicsofNeoWeberianEconomicSociologyApplyingaSociologicalApproachtoEconomicExchangeGroundingEconomicExchangeonSocialActionStructureEconomicAnomaliesorNormalSociologicalPhenomenaTheConceptofSocialExchangeRevisedANoteonCatallacticsEconomicExchangeandSociallyFormedMotivationsExtrinsicandIntrinsicMotivationinEconomicExchangeTheSocialConstructionoftheRoleofMoneyinEconomicExchangeMoneyandNonMonetaryMotivationinEconomicExchangeInstitutionalMotivationsversusPropensitiesforExchangingSocialMotivationinNonMarketModesofEconomicExchangeviContentsThePoliticalStructurationofEconomicExchangePoliticalInstitutionsandEconomicExchangeTheStateandEconomicExchangeTheImpactofOtherPoliticalFactorsonEconomicExchangePoliticalIdeologyandEconomicExchangeMarketsasPowerConstellationsAnInstanceofthePoliticalStructurationofEconomicExchangeTheCulturalConstitutionofEconomicExchangeExchangeasaCulturalCreationExchangeandMoralNormsExchangeandTraditionsCulturalFoundationsoftheSpiritandPracticeofCapitalismInstancesoftheCulturalConstructionofExchangeTheInstitutionalOrganizationofLaborMarkets(IncomeDistribution)The(Neo)ClassicalEconomicTheoryofDistributionInstitutionalInfluencesonIncomeDistributionPostMaterialisticTendenciesinLaborMarketsandSociety(Labor)MarketsasInstitutionalArrangementsTheSocialConstructionofExchange(Business)CyclesExchangeCyclesin(Neo)ClassicalEconomicsExchangeCyclesasSocialPhenomenaExchangeCyclesinRetrospectInflationversusUnemploymentEconomicExchangeinComparativeSocialSystemsSocialProcessesintheRiseofCapitalismTheStateandtheExpansionofCapitalismProtestantismandModernCapitalismExchangeinTraditionalandCapitalistSocietiesExchangeinPostSocialistSocietiesContentsviiExchange,EconomicDevelopment,andSocialVariablesEconomicDevelopmentin(Neo)ClassicalEconomicsSocialandOtherDeterminantsofEconomicDevelopmentDevelopedversusDevelopingSocietiesTheGrowthResidualReinterpretedExchangeProcessesandEconomicDevelopmentConclusionBibliographyIndexAcknowledgmentsIwishtoexpressmythankstoprofessorsBarryLevine,StephenFjellman,andWalterPeacockfortheirvaluablecommentsonearlierdraftsofthisbook,aswellasfortheirencouragementandsupportIalsowishtothankMichelleLamarreforherextraordinarysecretarialassistanceIntroductionThisworkfocusesontheeffectsofsocialactionandsocialstructureoneconomicexchangeItisatheoreticalempiricalanalysisofexchangeprocesses,whichsituatesandconstitutesthemwithintheirsocial(includinginstitutional,political,andcultural)frameworkAssuch,itrepresentsacontributiontoaneoWeberianeconomicsociologyasanexplorationintowhatMaxWebercalledthesociologicalcategoriesofeconomicactioninlightofthepresenceandsalienceofsocialinfluencesintheeconomyTheworkparticularlycontributestobuildinganeoWeberiansociologyofthemarket,combiningWeber’sclassicalinsightswithrecenttheoreticaldevelopmentsandempiricalfindingsintheneweconomicsociologyThereby,thepresentworkperformsanessentialrevisionandinversion(“creativedestruction”)ofcurrentsocialexchangetheoryinsociology,andsecondarilyofpureexchangetheoryineconomicsModernexchangetheoryinsociologytendstoconceptualizesocialactionas(anextensionof)economicexchangebyreducingallsocialrelationsandprocessestomarketstyletransactionsIncontrast,aneoWeberianapproachconceptualizesmarketeconomicexchangeasaparticularformofsocialactionThesamecanbesaidofotherconcreteformsofeconomicbehavior,sincethesetooaretypesofsocialactionRatherthanreducingsocialrelationstoexchangetransactions,aneoWeberianapproachidentifiesandanalyzesthesocialfactorsofthesetransactionsThesocialconstitutionandconstructionofexchangetransactionsconstitutestherealmofthesociologyofthemarket(Weber:)TheneoWeberianapproachoriginatesfromtheframeworkofatheoreticalempiricaleconomicsociology,thesubjectmatterofwhichisthesocialconstitutionofeconomicactiongenerallyandofexchangeparticuxiiIntroductionlarlySuchaneoWeberianapproachtherebyleadstothereversalofcurrentexchangetheoryinrationalchoicesociologyaswellaspureexchangetheoryinorthodoxeconomicsWhereassocialexchangetheoryconstruessocialactionsasmarketeconomictransactions,usingthisapproachwetreatthelatterasanidealtypeoftheformerSuchatreatmentisconsistentwithWeber’sclassicalconceptionofsocialactionandwiththemajortenetsoftheneweconomicsociology,andtothatextentneoWeberianThescopeofthisworkinthefieldofeconomicsociologyiswelldefinedandlimitedinrelationtocurrentsocialexchangetheory,withitsattendantambitiontoexplainallsocialaction,economicaswellasnoneconomic,intermsofexchangeThisworkanalyzessolelythesocialstructurationorconstructionofmarketeconomicexchange,notthelatterinitself,letaloneallhumanaction(“socialexchange”)ThisgivestothisanalysisadistinctivecharacteristicinrelationtosocialexchangetheoryinrationalchoicesociologyandtopureexchangetheoryinconventionaleconomicsalikeFirst,theanalysis,byfocusingexclusivelyonsociologicalvariablesinmarketeconomicexchange,differentiatesitselffromsocialexchangetheory,insofarasthelatterreducessocialactiontosuchexchangeSecond,byemphasizingthesocialsettingofeconomicexchange,thisanalysisdiffersfrompuremarkettheory,whichexaminesexchangetransactionsandrelatedprocessesasiftheyemergeandexistwithinasocialvacuum(ie,aRobinsonCrusoe–styleeconomy)Suchanemphasisisjustifiedbythefactthatexchange,andgenerallytheeconomy,isplacedwithinasocialmilieu,includingrelationshipsbetweenindividualsaswellasbetweencollectivities,expressedasvalues,symbols,norms,andculturallyconditionedpatternsofeconomicconductDevelopmentsineconomicsarethereforeofsecondaryinteresthererelativetothoseineconomicsociologyTheintentionisnottoreformulatetheconventionaleconomictheoryofexchangeprocessesbuttocarryoutadifferent,sociologicalanalysisoftheseprocessesAlthoughthisworkisintendedtobeaninterdisciplinaryendeavorinatheoreticalempiricalanalysisofexchangephenomena,primaryemphasisisplacedonasociologicaltreatmentofthematterunderconsiderationratherthanonapurelyeconomicapproachtothesephenomenaThiswouldbeadistinctivecharacteristicofthisworkrelativetoanalysesofthesamephenomenainorthodoxeconomicsOntheotherhand,bynotneglectingmajordevelopmentsinthisregardwithinnonorthodoxeconomics,thisworkwouldbedistinctiveinrelationtothosesociologicalanalysesofeconomicexchangethatoverlookordownplaythesedevelopmentsTherebyboththeoreticalmethodologicaleconomismandsociologismareavoided,byvirtueoftheirconjunctioninasynthesis,inwhich,nevertheless,sociologicalingredientsareprimaryrelativetoeconomiconesThemainpurposeandcontributionoftheworkistopostulateanddemonstratethesocialconstitution,construction,andstructurationofmarketIntroductionxiiieconomicexchangeandrelatedphenomena(ie,theoperationoftheprincipleofsociologicsintheeconomy)FromaneoWeberiansociologicalperspectiveontheeconomy,itseemsmoresensibleformodernsociologytoengageinidentifyingandanalyzingsocialculturalvariablesineconomicactionthaninconceivingallhumanactionasamarketlikeexchangeofobjectsandrewardsThisisespeciallysogiventheneglectofthesevariablesinmodernexchangetheoryinsociology,justasinpureeconomicsSomeexponentsofrationalchoicemodelsofexchangehaveconcededthisneglectMultipleandcomplexinstitutionalarrangementscreatethesettingwithinwhichexchangeandothertransactionsoccur,withsuchstructuralconditionsplacinglimitsonthesetransactions(Blau)Nevertheless,inrationalchoicemodelsof(social)exchange,justasinneoclassicaleconomics,theimpactofthesocialandinstitutionalstructurewithinwhichmarketsemergeandfunctionisadmittedlyunexamined(Coleman)ItisthetaskofthisworktoreexaminetheimpactofsocialinstitutionalstructureonmarketeconomicexchangebyapplyingtheframeworkofaneoWeberianeconomicsociologyMoreprecisely,weanalyzeeconomicexchangeatthreelevels:thelevelofhumanagencyorsocialaction,thelevelofsociety,culture,orinstitutionalsocialstructure,andthecomparativehistoricallevelOnthefirstanalyticallevel,weanalyzetheimpactofindividualhumanagencyandsocialactiononeconomicexchangeAkeypremiseoftheanalysisontheagencylevelderivesfromWeber’sinsightthateconomicactivitiesgenerally,andexchangeparticularly,aresituatedinandaffectedbytheautonomouscharacterofsocialactionAtthesecondlevel,weanalyzetheeffectsofsocietyandcultureaswholesorinstitutionalsocialstructureonmarketeconomicexchangeSuchananalysisofaninstitutionalstructurallevelisalsopredicatedontheneoWeberianassumptionthattheeconomyoreconomicorganizationasawholeexistswithinandisinfluencedbysocietyorsocialorganizationOnthethirdlevel,weundertakeacomparativehistoricalanalysisofthesephenomenaIndoingso,weaimatlinkinghumanagencylevelsofanalysiswithinstitutionalstructuralanalyticallevelbyexaminingtheinfluenceofbothsocialactionsandsocietyonmarketeconomicexchangeincomparativehistoricalperspectiveChapterAnOverviewofEconomicSociologyANOTHERLOOKATECONOMICSOCIOLOGYEconomicsociologyrepresentsaninterdisciplinaryfieldattheintersticebetweensociologyandeconomicsInthissense,economicsociologyisoftenconsideredanoman’sandeveryman’sland(Schumpeter:cfalsoSimon),almostakindofvirginterritory(Coleman),placedbetweeneconomicscienceandsociologyEconomicsociology,especiallyitsneoWeberianformulation,canbedefinedasasociologicaltheoryofeconomicaction(Weber:)Asthesociologyofeconomicaction(Weber:),thehallmarkofeconomicsociologyisapplyingasociologicalperspectiveontheeconomy(SmelserandSwedberg)Indoingso,economicsociologyconceptualizeseconomicvariablesintermsoftheirsociologicalcategories(Weber:)Notably,neoWeberianeconomicsociologytreatseconomicexchangeasaparticularformofsocialactionandthemarketasasetofsocialrelationsandrules(ie,asasocialinstitutionorstructureWeber:–)Inthisconnection,itstipulatesthatthosesocialculturalphenomena(viz,institutions,power,rules,valuesandpreferences,rationality,etc)thateconomicsusuallytakesasgiven,constant,orexogenoustotheeconomyareendogenousandfeaturestructuralvariationfromasociologicalstandpoint(Weber:)Thus,fromasociologicalperspectiveontheeconomy,economicrationality(viz,maximizationofutility,wealth,orprofit)isnotaparameter,asitiswithinconventionaleconomics,butavariablesubjecttovariationoverhistoricaltimeandacrosssocieties(GranovetterandSwedbergMartineliandSmelser)Incontrast,inneoclassicaleconomics,exogenousphenomenasuchastastes(preferences),Exchange,Action,andSocialStructuretechnology,governments,institutions,norms,orculturearetakenasgivens,data,orparameters,andthusarevirtuallyrejectedasirrelevant,ignored,orrelegatedinaresidualcategory(Fararo)Yet,specificculturalconventionsandinstitutions(eg,money,credit,accounting,contract,decisionmakingentities,etc)admittedlyunderscoreeconomicagents,includingfirms’productionfunctions(Samuelson:,)Inconsequence,firmsbecomeinstitutional,includinggovernance,structuresratherthanproductionfunctionsortechnologicalconstructions(Williamson),asassumedinstandardeconomicsTheprecedingindicatesthatneoWeberianeconomicsociologyreconstitutes(ie,situatesandembeds)economicactors,behaviors,andvariableswithinwhatWeber(:–)termedthe“totality”ofsocialculturallifeInthisconnection,recentreformulationsofWeber’seconomicsociologystressthesalienceofsocioculturalfactorsfortheconstitutionandfunctioningoftheeconomyandproposeacultureinclusivetheoryofeconomicprocessesashavingdefiniteadvantagesoverstandardeconomics(Holton)ThesefactorsareoftenexemplifiedinwhatWeber(:–)calledeconomiccultures(viz,economictraditionsandconventions),workandmarketethics,thecapitalistethosandspirit,religiousvaluationandpenetrationoftheeconomy(viz,religiouseconomies),andthelikeThepreviousalsosuggeststhatneoWeberian(andany)economicsociologyrepresentsamultidimensionalexplanationoforapproachtotherelationshipbetweentheeconomyandsociety(ie,betweeneconomicandsocialactionorganization)(Parsons)Moreprecisely,economicsociologyidentifiesandexaminestheeffectsofsocialphenomenaoneconomicactorsandbehaviors(Weber:)Hence,economicsociologycentersonthepresenceandsalienceofsociologicalrelationsintheeconomy(Weber:Wieser:–),includingtheoperationofexchangeandcompetition(thesociologyofthemarket)Particularlyemphasizedisthesocietal“heteronomy”ordeterminationofeconomicaims(Webera:)(ie,thesocialconstructionofmotivesandgoals(includingutility,wealth,orprofit)ineconomicbehavior),aswellasofeconomicinstitutionssuchasmarketsandfirms(Granovettera)Thecentralthemesofeconomicsociologythereforeinvolvesocialinstitutions,relationships(networks),andembeddednessandtheirimportanceinshapingeconomicbehaviorsandprocesses(Carruthersa)Inthisregard,thecoreofeconomicsociologyisoftenconsideredtheanalysisofinstitutions(Schumpetera:–Stinchcombe)andtheirimpactonindividualeconomicbehaviorversusmechanisms(eg,marketsperse)dealtwithbypureeconomics(butforrecentadvocacyofsocialmechanismsinsocialtheory,cfHedstromandSwedberg)Inthisconnection,economicsociologypostulatesinstitutionalizedindividualismmotivationineconomicbehaviorratherthaninnatepropensities(eg,thepropensityforexchange,maximization,andcalculation),asdoesorthodoxeconomics,theAnOverviewofEconomicSociologyleadingprincipleofwhichisthat“everyagentisactuatedonlybyselfinterest”(Edgeworth:)Generally,economicsociologyobservesmarketeconomicvariablesassocialphenomenabyvirtueofbeingoutcomesofsocialactioninteractionwithinthesettingoflargersocietalstructures,includinginstitutionalarrangements,culturalpatterns,andhistoricalconditionsSuchamultidimensionalapproach(Holton)alsocalledSchumpeter’s,and,forthatmatter,WeberDurkheim’srecipe(Kovalainen)involvesabroadlyconceivedanalysisofeconomicphenomenacombiningeconomicsociologywithsomeinsightsfromconventionaleconomicsaswellashistory(GranovetterandSwedberg)Tosomedegree,thiscanleadtocomplementaryrelationsorcrossfertilizationbetweenthetwo(Ritzer),aboveallinaWeberianframeworkHowever,theneweconomicsociologyisoftenseenasacompetitororsubstituteratherthanasasupplement(aswasinpartitsoldversion)ofmainstreameconomics(Carruthersb)ThisisexemplifiedbythecomparativetreatmentofmarketswithineconomicsociologyandpureeconomicsSinceincontemporary(andclassical)economicsociology,marketsareprimarilyunderstoodassocialstructures(BurtSwedbergWhite)ratherthanautomaticmechanisms,asviewedinorthodoxeconomics,economicsociologistsrejectthelatter’snonorantisocialassumptionInstead,they,startingfromWeberandDurkheimtotheneweconomicsociologists,substitutefortheseadmittedlyunrealisti

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