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首页 *新书上架*【伯恩斯坦】小说的哲学:卢卡奇与马克思主义的形式辩证法

*新书上架*【伯恩斯坦】小说的哲学:卢卡奇与马克思主义的形式辩证法.pdf

*新书上架*【伯恩斯坦】小说的哲学:卢卡奇与马克思主义的形式辩…

九月虺
2009-10-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【伯恩斯坦】小说的哲学:卢卡奇与马克思主义的形式辩证法pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThePhilosophyoftheNovelThispageintentionallyleftblankLukacs,MarxismandtheDialecticsofFormJMBernsteinLecturerinPhilosophy,UniversityofEssexUniversityofMinnesotaPress•MinneapolisThePhilosophyoftheNovelCopyright©byJMBernsteinAllrightsreservedPublishedbytheUniversityofMinnesotaPress,UniversityAvenueSoutheast,MinneapolisMNPrintedinGreatBritainISBN(pbk)TheUniversityofMinnesotaisanequalopportunityeducatorandemployerContentsPrefacevViiiIntroductionxiANoteonReferencesxxivAcknowledgementsxxivIFromContemplationtoPraxis:NotesforaMarxistHermeneuticIntroduction:BetweenSocialTheoryandPhilosophyReificationandContemplationMetacritique:OntheAntinomiesofBourgeoisThoughtHistoryasPhilosophy(ofPraxisandTruth)LiteratureasaCulturalPracticeIILukacs'sAesthetic:TheEpicandtheNovelAWorldWithoutSubjectsSubjectivityasAlienationProgressorRegressTheQuestionofTotalityTheAbsentOriginsofRepresentationIIICategories:AbstractFormsFromTragedytotheCrisisofCultureFormandLife'TheSenseoftheWorldmustlieoutsidetheWorld'FormGivingandMimesis:DialecticalFictionsIVTheNovel'sSchematism:BindingTimeSchematismTheRightWingEpistemologyVviContentsTheRomanticismofDisillusionmentTimeasFormTheTimeofDialecticalReading:ACodaVParalogisms:TheSelfasFormTheDeliberationTheCartesianNovelTheProblematicIndividualTheAbsoluteNovel:FictionsandParalogismsVITranscendentalDialectic:IronyasFormNarrativeIronyObjectivity:'asurfaceriddledwithholes'IronyasFreedomandSelfConsciousnessTheIronicSelfandLanguageHistoryandTranscendentalSubjectivityVIIPracticalReason:MarxismandModernismMetaphysicalReificationorEmpiricalReductionModernismandDialecticModernismandtheSelfNarrativeandAntiNarrativeNotesNameIndexSubjectIndexForMaggiePrefaceThisbook,likesomanyothers,ismoreaproductofaccidentthandesignSevenyearsagothethoughtofwritingabookaboutLukacsandthephilosophyofthenovelhadnotevenoccurredtomeWhenIfoundmyself,throughdintofsomeunimaginableconcatenationofcircumstances,assignedtoteachacourseinliterarytheoryIpickedonLukacs'sTheTheoryoftheNovel(TN)becauseitseemedtomethen,andstilldoes,themostphilosophicalaccountofthenovelavailableTeachingitwasanexcitingandinfuriatingexperienceItwasexciting,bothformeandmystudentsbecauseitsgrandHegelianmovementreallydidseemtoilluminatethenatureofthenovelitwasinfuriatingbecausethedetailofitsargument,indeedtheverystructureofitsargument,remainedelusiveInthecasualoffertogiveapaperonLukacsataconferenceonMarxistliterarytheorywasthecatalystforbringingmythoughtsonLukacstogetherSeveralcommentatorsonTNhadnotedthecontinuitybetweenitandLukacs'sseminalworkHistoryandClassConsciousnessIdecided,then,thatitwouldbeaworthwhileexercisetotrytoreadhispreMarxisttheoryofthenovelfromtheperspectiveofhisMarxistsocialtheoryThusthepresentworkwasbornInfact,agreatdealhasbeenwrittenaboutTNThesewritingsfallintoroughlythreecategoriesFirst,therearethosehistoricalaccountswhichattempttoplace,itinthecontextofthedevelopmentoftheyoungLukacsfrombourgeoistoMarxistHerethewritingsofAndrewAratoandPaulBreines,MichaelLowyandGyorgyMarkusareprominentTheirscholarshiphasputallstudentsofLukacsintheirdebtSecondly,thereareseveralshortessaysThebestofthesethosebyPauldeMan,MaireKurrickandFerencFeherareworthyofseparatementionareinterestingandacuteintheircriticismsUnavoidably,however,invirtueoftheirlength,theseessaysareallviiiPrefaceixschematic,moreschematicinfactthantheoriginalFinally,therearethosewriterswhohavesimplyusedLukacs'sideasinTJVintheconstructionoftheirownliterarytheoriesItwouldnotbeinappropriateinthiscontexttomakementionofTheodorAdorno,WalterBenjamin,LucienGoldman,EdwardSaidandFredricJamesonNoneofthiswouldbeworryingoroutoforderwereitnotfortheexistenceofclaimslikeAdorno's,forexample,thatTJVsetastandardforphilosophicalaestheticsthathasremainedtothisdayorHarryLevin'sstatementthatTJVin'possiblythemostpenetratingessaythateveraddresseditselftotheelusivesubjectofthenovel'Inotherwords,thereappearstobeaconsensusabouttheimportanceofLukacs'sessaywithoutthereexistinganythinglikeacredibleorrigorousevaluationofwhatthetheorystatesThereare,Isuspect,anumberofreasonsforthisstateofaffairsTheextraordinarilycondensedcharacterofhisargumentcombinedwithhispredilectionforemployingabstractnounsinsteadofconcreteexamplescertainlyhelpmakeLukacs'sessayeasiertopraiseoralludetothananalyseTheovertlyHegelianstructureofhisargumentequallymakeshisessaydifficulttoanalyseinaculturewhereHegelianhabitsofthoughtarealienintheextremeThenthereistheissueofthegenreoftheessayisnotanessayonthesociologyofliterature,norisitwhatwewouldcallthephilosophyofartorliterarytheoryPartofthedifficultyhere,Isuspect,isthatweareourselvesnotquitesureofwhatseparatesliterarytheoryfromthephilosophyofliteratureandnomatterhowweconstruethatdifference,orthedifferencebetweenthosemodesofanalysisandthesociologyofliterature,Lukacs'sconceptionofphilosophicalhistoricalanalysiswillnotfitintoanyofourestablishedmodesoftheoreticalanalysisFinally,thereisthesimplefactthatneitherMarxists,norliberals,northeoretical(post)modernistsfeelstrategicallyobligedeithertodefendorrefutehimInwhatfollowsIhavetriedtomakeLukacs'sargumentsufficientlyprecisefordetailedobjectionstoittoberaisedInordertoachievethis,IhaveadoptedthemethodofphilosophicalreconstructionratherthanhistoricalortextualanalysisSuchamethodologyinvolvestakingwhatappearstobethe'truth'ofthetextinquestionandconstructingone'sanalysisoftheremainderofthetextaroundthisinitialinsightAswillxPrefacebecomeevidem,mymethodofhermeneuticalanalysisisequallythemethodIbelieveLukacswasemployingFurther,sinceIbeginwithwhatItaketobethe'truth'ofwhatLukacswassaying,thisessaynaturallyturnsintoanargumentativedefenceofhistheoryThisinvolvesmeinoccasionallyemployingaterminologythatLukacsdidnothaveathisdisposalThesedeparturesfromLukacs'sownusageswillbejustifiediftheyhelpclarifythestatusofhisargumentWhileIhavetriedtobeclearandpreciseaboutquestionsofmethodologyandgenre,IhavebeenunabletoavoidLukacs'sabstractnessWhatIhavetriedtodoismakethatabstractvocabularyitselfmorepreciseandagreatdealmoreaccessibletothephilosophicallyuntutoredreaderFinally,IclaimthatoncethedetailsofLukacs'stheorybecomeclear,itbecomesevidentthatinTJVwehavetherudimentsofaMarxisttheoryofthenovelIampainfullyawarethatindefendingLukacs'stheoryinthiswayIhaveaccumulatedasmanyphilosophicaldebtsasIpayoffforLukacsTheonestowhichIammostsensitivearemyconstrualofhisphilosophyofpraxisintheopeningchapter,myargumentsconcerningthenatureofnarrativesingeneralinChapterIV,andmytheoryaboutthenarrativecharacterofpersonalidentityinChaptersVandVIIAndthenthereisallthatIhavenotsaidaboutmyreadingofKantandmyconstrualoftranscendentalsubjectivityIhopetobeabletosettleatleastsomeofthesedebtsinaforthcomingstudy,provisionallyentitledIdentityandTotality:InterpretationandRepresentationinSocialTheoryItismypleasuretorecordheremythankstoPeterHulmeforhisindispensablecommentsonthepenultimatedraftofthisessayTerryEagleton'sextensivecommentsonwhatisnowthefinalchapterofthisstudyalertedmetosomeegregiouserrorsintheargumentthereIhopetheargumentinChapterIIIwillconvincehimthatLukacs'sconceptionof'thenovel'isnotanidealtypeGillianRose'sencouragementisofadifferentorder:herintellectualandpoliticalsympathyforwhatIamtryingtodohere(andelsewhere)hasmadeitseemworthdoingMrsMargaretSmithtypedthemanuscriptquicklyandefficientlyhergrammaticalsensesalvagedmorethanonesentenceThisbookisdedicatedtomywife:withoutherpatienceitwouldneverhavebeenbegunwithoutherimpatienceitwouldneverhavebeencompletedIntroductionAMARXISTTHEORYItisuniversallyagreedthatGeorgLukacs'sTheTheoryoftheNovelisoneofitsauthor'spreMarxistworksAfterall,thebookwaswritteninandLukacsdidnotjointheCommunistPartyuntillateinIffurtherjustificationwereneededforrefusingTNaMarxistpedigree,thenonemightcitethework'slackofmentioninitsanalysisofthetransitiontothemodernworldofalienationofclassconflictorclassrelationsIndeed,theMarxisttheoryofclassdoesnotappearintheworkatallThereare,itwouldappear,substantialhistoricalandtheoreticalreasonsforregardingTJVasbelongingtoLukacs'spreMarxistoeuvreAndyetalthoughoriginallyappearedasanessayin,itwaspublishedinunrevisedbookformin,bywhichtimeLukacshadbecomeaCommunistIntheirTheToungLukdcs,AratoandBreinesnotethisas'oneofanumberofphilologicalcuriosities'theyhavebeenunabletoresolveHereisanothercuriosity:inhiscriticalstudyoftheMarxistLukacs'sTheMeaningofContemporaryRealism,TheodorAdornosaysofTNthatithad'abrillianceandprofundityofconceptionwhichwasquiteextraordinaryatthetime,somuchsothatitsetastandardforphilosophicalaestheticswhichhasbeenretainedeversince'Onemight,ofcourse,takeAdorno'sstatementasarhetoricalgesturedesignedtodeflatethevalueofLukacs'sproperlyMarxistworksofliterarycriticismSince,however,Adorno'scriticismofthelaterLukacscanstandonitsown,andfurther,AdornopointstothevalueofLukacs'searlywritingsasthebasisforevenconsideringhislaterwritings,itseemslegitimatetotakehisappraisalofTNasliteralAnothercuriosityisWalterBenjamin'sneartranscriptionofthehistoricalandtheoreticalschemaofTNinhis'TheStoryXIxiiIntroductionteller'ItmightevenbearguedthatLukacs'searlyworkprovidestheessentialhistoricalandtheoreticalschemawithinwhichAdornoandBenjaminemploytheirdistinctive,andquiteunLukacsianbrandofliterarycriticismAfinalcuriosityisLucienGoldman'sexplicitattempttoerecthissociologyofthenovelonthebasisoftheframeworkprovidedbyTjYThesecuriositiesrequireexplanationOnemighthaveexpectedLukacstoreviseorprefaceTNwhenpublishingitinbookformgivenhisapparentchangeinperspectivefromwhenthebookwaswrittenWithrespecttotheothercuriositiesonemightsaythatthereisnoreasonwhyaclearlynonMarxistworkshouldnotinfluenceMarxisttheorybutwhatwehavebeforeusismorethaninfluenceAdornospeaksofTNassettinga'standard'forphilosophicalaestheticsandtheappropriationsofTNbyBenjaminandGoldmanngobeyondmereinfluenceThatthethreeleadingMarxistliterarytheoristsofthiscentury,apartfromLukacshimself,havebothpraisedandusedTNinsuchanunqualifiedmannerrequiresexplanationAssumingthatallthesewritersarenotcompletelymistakenintheirevaluationofTN,thenthesimplestandmostdirectexplanationofthephenomenabeforeusisthatTNis,asamatteroffactifnotintention,aMarxistworkorrather,moreprecisely,aproperlyMarxisttheoryofthenovelcanbeexcavatedfromTNTheinitialstepsofanargumenttosupportthisviewarenotdifficulttomakeoutTherecanbelittledoubtthattheseminalworkinthehistoryofwesternMarxism,asitcametobecalled,isLukacs'sHistoryandClassConsciousness()andthatitwasthisbookwhichconditionedandmadepossibleAdorno's,Benjamin's,andGoldmann's(andHorkheimer's)MarxismTheMarxismofHCCwasaHegelianisedMarxism,withemphasisbeingplacedonMarx'sdialectical'method'asopposedtoanyparticulardoctrinesForgoodorill,theappropriatenessofreadingMarxintermsofhisHegelianrootshasbeenacentralissueofwesternMarxismasawholeandthedefenceoftheHegelianreadingofMarx,whichincludesaMarxistreadingofHegel,hasbeenamajor,ifnotthedominant,strandinthattraditionInhisharshlycriticalPrefacetoTjV,Lukacsnotesthattheworkaimedatafusionof'left'ethicswith'right'epistemology()The'left'ethicreferstotheHegelian,dialecticalandhistorical,elementsoftheIntroductionxiiitheory,whilethe'right'epistemologyreferstotheneoKantianmethodologyofconstructingidealtypesthatisusedinthebookLukacs'sretrospectiveclaimthathewasattemptingto'fuse'thesemethodsistoostrong,forashepointsoutitisonlythefirstpartofTNwhichisHegelian,withthe'right'epistemologydominatingitssecondpart(,)TN,then,isnotaunifiedworkitstwopartsareconstructedinaccordancewithdifferentprinciplesandmethodsHence,ifaMarxisttheoryistobeexcavatedfromTN,thenthatexcavation,thatphilosophicalreconstructionofLukacs'sargument,willhavetobeguidedbytheHegelianmaterialsofPartIToarguethatanauthenticallyHegeliantheoryofthenovelispresentinTNis,however,neithernewnorthesameasarguingthatthetheoryisMarxistThehistoricalanddialecticalproceduresofPartIsuggestthepossibilitythatthegapbetweenTNandaproperlyMarxistanalysismightnotbeaverylargeoneThatgapbeginstodisappearaltogetherwhenwerecognisethattheoperativepremisesforLukacs'sanalysisofthenovelareMarxistIsay'operative'becauseclearlyhisstatedpremisesarenotMarxistbuthisstatedpremises,Ishallargue,donotvalidlylicensetheinferenceshedrawsfromthemThevalidityofhisargumentsconcerningthenovelrequirepremisesthatareexplicitlyMarxist,indeed,theveryparticularconstrualofMarxisttheoryhedefendsinHCCIfthepremisesofhisargumentareMarxist,andhisargumentisvalid,thenhisanalysisitselfmustbeMarxistTheabsenceofaclasscomponentinhisanalysisofthenoveliscompensatedforinthepremisesofthatargumentThereis,however,amoredirectwayinwhichareaderacquaintedwithHCCmightperceivetheanalysisofthenovelinTNtobeMarxistLukacsconceivesofthenovelinfundamentallyKantianterms,thatis,heconceivesofthepracticeofnovelwritingasworkingwithintheKantiananalysisoftherelationbetweenmanandworldThenovel,wemightsay,iswrittenagainstabackgroundofKantianassumptions,andtheseassumptionsareconstitutiveoftheformofthenovelInHCCLukacsidentifiesKant'scriticalphilosophyasthephilosophyofourage,asthetheorywhichmostcompletelyarticulatesourexperienceofourselvesandtheworldnowKant'sphilosophy,forLukacs,isthephilosophyofthebourgeoisworlditphilosophicallyconsecratestheworldofcapitalThus,fromaxivIntroductionMarxistpointofview,theKantiansystemharbourstheessentialantinomies(contradictions)ofbourgeoisthoughtTheantinomiesofKant'sphilosophyaretheantinomiesofbourgeoisthoughtthenovelgivesphenomenologicalexpressiontothosesameantinomiesTheanalysisofthenovelin~JVrepeatsandextendstheHegelianMarxistcritiqueofKantincomingtounderstandthenovelinthesephilosophicalandhistoricaltermsthenatureofourhistoricalworldisrevealedandthewaybeyonditglimpsedIfthisiscorrect,thentheproceduresandanalysesofTNareclosertotheprogrammeforMarxisttheoryandcriticismsketchedinHCCthananyofLukacs'slaterworksofliterarycriticismPHILOSOPHYANDTHENOVELOneofthedifficultiesinreadingTNliesinestablishingwhatsortoftextitiswhatkindofanalysisofthenovelisitattemptingtoprovideTheverylevelofgeneralityatwhichLukacsworksseemstodefyourordinarymodesofclassificationPauldeMan'ssuccinctstatementofLukacs'sprojectnicelycapturesthedifficulty:'Theemergenceofthenovelasthemajormoderngenreisseenastheresultofachangeinthestructureofhumanconsciousnessthedevelopmentofthenovelreflectsmodificationsinman'swayofdefininghimselfinrelationtoallcategoriesofexistence'IfLukacsisdealingwiththe'structuresofconsciousness'and'allcategoriesofexistence',thenhisconcernsextendfarbeyondthoseofthesociologyofliteratureorliteraryhistoryasordinarilyunderstoodHisconcernsarethoseofphilosophybuttraditionallyphilosophyhasconcerneditselfwiththeanalysisofthingslikeknowledge,action,consciousness,justice,meaning,andartorbeautyingeneral,andnotwithsomundaneaphenomenonasthenovelThenovelappearstoosmallavessel,tooempiricalandspecificanitemtobethefocusofsuchlargeconcernsNowacommonlyacceptedreadingofMarxhashimwishingtoreplacephilosophicalspeculationaboutthenatureofrealitywith(empirical)historicalandsociologicalanalysisButifsuchareplacementorcompletionmeansanything,itmustmeanthatMarxisttheoryinheritsthetaskofattemptingtocomprehendIntroductionxvthephenomenawhichhadpreviouslybeentheprerogativeofphilosophyMoresimply,ifMarxisttheorytooisconcernedwithchangesinthestructuresofhumanconsciousnessandallthecategoriesofexistence,thenitcannotberestrictedlyclassifiedasasociologicaltheory,orasaneconomictheory,orasanexampleofpoliticaleconomyTheverygeneralityofMarxisttheoryforcesitoutofthedomainoftheempiricalsciencesofsocietyandtowardsphilosophyPartofLukacs'sgoalinHCCistocriticiseMarxism'scomprehensionofitselfasanempiricalscienceofsociety,andtogivetoMarxisttheoryaphilosophicaldimensionTheprovidingofMarxismwiththiskindofphilosophicaldimensionis,Ithink,whatdefinestheprogrammeofHegelianMarxismInChapterILukacs'sconceptionofphilosophy,hisconceptionofhistoricalphilosophicalanalysis,isdelineatedthroughthereconstructionoftheargumentofthecentralessayinHCCMygoalinthisreconstructionisnottoevaluatethenumerousandcomplexthesesLukacsputsforwardtherethattaskwouldrequireabookofitsownRather,IwanttoreconstructthestructureofLukacs'sargument,foritisthatwhichbestrevealshisunderstandingoftherelationshipbetweenMarxisttheoryandphilosophy,hisphilosophicalcomprehensionofthemeaningofMarxisttheoryIshallarguethatLukacs'scritiqueofrepresentationalsocialtheory,''ncludingMarxistsocialtheorysoconstrued,andhiscritique

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*新书上架*【伯恩斯坦】小说的哲学:卢卡奇与马克思主义的形式辩证法

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