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首页 IBM咨询管理工具

IBM咨询管理工具.doc

IBM咨询管理工具

黑夜绅士
2009-10-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《IBM咨询管理工具doc》,可适用于战略管理领域

TherearethreestepstomakinganIBMpresentation:   PlanItoffersadviceonorganizingyourmessage,sharpeningyourfocusonwhatyouwanttosay,andarrangingitinamannerthataudiencescanfollowPrepareItisaresourceforconstructinggraphicsupportmaterialsinFreelanceGraphics(PowerPointisalsosupported)Youwillfindinstructionsonhowtoincludeelementssuchastext,chartsandgraphsinastylethatwillbeconsistenttoallouraudiencesan"IBMlook,"inmuchthesamewaythatouradvertisingandmarketingmaterialshaveadistinctappearancePresentItofferstipsonhowtodeliverwhatyou'vepreparedeffectivelytoanaudiencePresentationsarenotaboutshowingaseriesofslidestheyareaboutyou,communicatingamessage,withvisualelementsinasupportingroleWheretobeginInherbookSecretsofPowerPresentations,MickiHollidaysuggestsansweringthefollowingquestionsasafirststarttoorganizingyourpresentation:WhatdoestheaudienceneedtoknowWhatdoestheaudiencewanttoknowWhatarethepossiblebenefitsofasuccessfulmeetingforthisaudience("What'sinitforme")WhatquestionsmighttheaudiencehaveHere'swhatyoudofirst:StopTakesometimeAsThomasWatsonSrusedtoadvise,famously:ThinkYouareabouttomountanargumentWhatdoyouneedDon'tsuccumbtothetemptationofcollectingeveryapparentlyrelevantitemintoajumbleandthentryingtoreshufflethemintoacoherentorder("Jimhasanicechartonthis,andLisahassomegoodmarketdata,I'llgetthose")That'stheflawedtechniquebehindmanyofthemoreoverblown,leadenpresentationsyou'veeverdozedthroughThat'sworkingbackwardsInstead,startwithnothingandworkforwardAskyourselfthis:WhatismypointEverypresentationisanattempttocommunicatesomethingItmaybeacomplextopic,withlotsofsupportingdata,butfundamentallytherewillalwaysbesomethingsimpleyouwanttosayItmightbe"IBMunderstandsyourbusiness,"or"Thistechnologyisthebestforourrequirements"or"Weneedmoretimetodothisjobright"Figureoutwhatyou'retryingtocommunicate,initssimplest,clearest,mostconciseformWriteitdown,inonesentenceDoesitmakesenseDoesitreallycuttotheheartofwhatyouneedtoconveyIfnot,rewriteitIfyouonlycoulddeliverthisonesentencetoyouraudience,withnochartsoranysupportinginformation,wouldthisbetheoneyou'dchooseComposingthisbasicsentencemighttaketwominutes,oritmighttakeanhourItdoesn'treallymatterwhichJustgetitrightWithoutaclearpointofview,youarenavigatingwithoutdirectionGetitwrong,andyou'llstruggletherestofthewayGetitright,andthepieceswillbeginfallingnaturallyintoplacebehinditBuildyourcaseOK,you'reclearaboutthepointyouneedtoconveyButit'ssafetoassumethatyouraudienceisnotpreparedtoacceptyourmessageonfaithAfterall,ifeveryoneintheroomalreadyknewwhatyouwantedtotellthem,andagreedwithit,therewouldbenopointwhatevertoyourstandingupandtalkingThepurposeofyourtalkistomoveyouraudiencetoyourpointofviewSoyouwillhavetobuildyourcaseYouneedtoorganizeyourargumentMakearoughflowchartoftheinformationyouaregoingtopresentJustsketchitoutonpaperthisisn'tgoingtobeachartyou'llshow,andyou'llprobablyhavetoreviseitafewtimesanywayTheorganizingprinciplebehindthisisapyramid:eachstatementyoumakewillhaveone,ormorelikelyseveral,supportingpiecesofinformationunderitAsyoubuildyourpresentationinthisoutlineform,apyramidwillform,withyourbasicstatementatthetopandeverythingelsearrayedbeneathitDon'tworryyetabouttheorderinwhichyou'llactuallypresenteachitemJustgetthemalldownonpapertolookatThePyramidPrinciplebooklistedinourrecommendedreadinglistisdevotedtothismethodoforganization,andit'sausefulresourceButthebasicideaisreallycommonsense,merelyawayoflayingoutyourinformationsoyoucanarrangeand,lateron,presentitlogicallyLet'stakealookatahypotheticalpresentationandhowyoumightorganizeitsvariouselements,usingthistechniqueFromthetopdownLet'sassumeyourbasicpointis:IBM'ssolutionisyourbestoption,becauseitscombinationofproductsandservicesisintegratedandflexible,andbecauseweunderstandyourbusinesschallengesNow,putyourselfinyouraudience'spositionTheywanttoknowwhytheyshouldbelievethisTheyexpectproofYouhave,let'sassume,fourreasonsFirst,IBMproductsworktogetherSecond,IBMofferstheflexibilityofopensystemsThird,IBMservicestieeverythingtogetherFourth,IBMhasexperienceinthecustomer'sindustryThisistheheartandframeworkofyourpitchLayitoutgraphicallyYounowseethatyou'regoingtoopenbystatingyourmainpoint,andyou'regoingtoproceedthroughyourpresentationbyofferingfactsanddatainthesefourareasDon'tworryyetaboutwhichwillcomefirstTakeeachofyoursupportingargumentsanddothesameagainBuildanotherpyramidundereachofthefourUnder"productsworktogether"youmighthaveinformationabouteachoftheelementsinthesolution:servers,middleware,storageYoumightwanttotalkaboutinterdivisionaleffortsinIBMtointegratetechnologiesacrossourproductlinesItwouldlooksomethinglikethis:FallenPyramidsSomepeoplefindithelpfultouseapyramidonitsside,withthetopicintheleftmostbox,andbuildingthepyramidouttotheright,insteadofbelowitIfyouusethismethod,you'llnoticethatthepyramidmorecloselyresemblesaclassicoutlinestructureUnlikeanoutline,however,therelativeequalityoftheboxesmakeitmucheasiertorestructureandreorderyourpresentationandestablishnewrelationshipstoitemwithoutalteringtheentireorganization,asoftenoccurswhencreatinganoutlineForthisexample,wedon'tneedtobothercreatingallthepyramidsthatbuilddownward,butyouwillwanttodothisforyourentirepresentationOrganizealltheinformationthatyoumightwanttoincludeYouwillthenhaveapyramidthatencompasseseverythingyouneedtoconveyNow,playwithitLookatthebigpictureSeewhat'smostimportantTakeoutthingsthat,whileyoumightthinkthey'reimportant,justwon'tresonatewithorbeunderstoodbyyouraudienceMovethingsaroundAddordelete,butkeeptheorganizingstructureintactOnceyouhaveapyramidthatseemstorepresentyourthemeandthevariouspointsyouneedtogetacross,you'rereadytostartcreatingthematerialsyouwillactuallyshowpeople:bulletpoints,charts,graphsInsteadoforganizingonthefly,you'veorganizedfirstCongratulations:younowhaveaclearpictureliterallyofwhatinformationisrelevanttoyourpresentation,whatpointsitsupports,andwhereitshouldgoUnfortunately,manypeopledon'tbothertobeginwiththisformal,structuredapproachAlthoughyouhaven'tevencreatedyourfirstslide,themostcritical(andoftenbotched)workincreatingyourpresentationiscompleteIfthisallseemstooplodding,toorestrictiveandstructured,don'tworry:itisn'tBythetimeyouhaveapresentationreadytoshow,theunderlyingorganizationwillfadefromview,leavingbehindmerelyaframeworkthathelpsyouraudiencefocusmoreeasilyonyourmessage,andenhancesyourownmasteryofthematerial,sinceyouunderstandthoroughlyhowitallfitstogetherNow,let'stakeyourgraphical,pyramidoutlineandprepareapresentationWheretobeginVisualelementssuchasgraphs,charts,andtextcanenhanceyourabilitytocommunicate,helpingyouraudiencefollowyourmessageandquicklyunderstandvarioustypesofinformationUsedthoughtfully,theycanbevaluabletoolsUsedindiscriminately,orconstructedpoorly,however,theycanactuallydetractfromyourmessageTheycanclutteryourpresentationandconfuseyouraudienceThistemplatewillfacilitatethepreparationofyourpresentationandwillhelptocontinueestablishingyouasoneofthebestexpressionsoftheIBMbrand·ItreflectsIBM'scorporatedesignstyle,whichalsoinfluencesouradvertisingandmarketingmaterialsItisstraightforward,clean,andsimple·It'sflexibleenoughtoaccommodateavarietyofusesSomemayuseitwithlittleornographicelements,whileothersmightneedtoconveyfarmorecomplicateddata·It'ssimpletouseAlthoughcommunicationsspecialistsandgraphicdesignershaveworkedtocreatethistemplate,anyoneinIBMshouldbeabletouseitwithoutanyspecialskillsorsoftwarebeyondwhatisalreadyavailableDon'tautomaticallyassumeyouneedtousepresentationsoftwaretomakeyourpresentation!Someofthemosteffectivesalesjobsaredonejustbyspeakingdirectly,sincerelyandinformativelyaboutthesubject,withouthidingbehindchartsInSayItWithPresentations,notedpresentationdesignerGeneZelaznygivesthreebasictypesofmediayoushouldconsiderifyouneedvisualstohelpconveyyourmessage:Lapvisuals,socalledbecauseeachmemberoftheaudiencereceiveshisorherowncopyofthematerialsatthestartofthemeeting,ifnotbeforeBestforsmallgroups,theirusecanopenupdiscussionandhelpeveryoneparticipateasequalpartnersThedownsideisthattheymayreadaheadandstartaskingquestionsyouwouldprefertodealwithlaterinthediscussionAndyoucanalsomissopportunitiesforeyecontactifeveryoneislookingdownreadingEaselsorwhiteboardsGreatforincreasinginteractivityamongorfewerpeople,sinceyou'rerecordingtheaudience'sideasastheycomeupDownsides:AvoidspendingallyourtimewithyourbacktotheaudienceperhapsdeputizeamemberofthemeetingtohelpwritedownpointssoyoucanconcentrateontheircommentsandreactionstoyouandeachotherOnscreenpresentationsWhilelesspersonablethantheothertwomethods,thisisbyfarthemostpolishedandsuitableforlargeaudiencesSincethisisalsothemediumwiththegreatestpitfalls,thisisthetypeofpresentationwe'llbeworkingoninthissectionTitlescreenByusingastandardtitlechartandfollowingthestyleconsistently,wewilladdaprofessionaltouchnotonlytoourindividualpresentationsbutcollectivelytoallofIBM'sfacetofacecommunicationsThetitleslideisastraightforwardelement,andgenerallyrequiresonlythatyouincludeyourname,IBMorganization,andspeakingtopicintheplacesprovidedHowever,thetemplateallowsforotherelementsthatmightberequired,andit'simportanttofollowtheguidelinesifyouwillbeusingtheseMoretext(ifyoumust)ThetemplatealsoprovidesaformatforlongerblocksoftextYoushoulduseblocksoftextverysparinglyYes,onceinawhiletheremightbealongerpassagethatisrelevant,andvaluableForinstance,youmighthaveaquotefromananalystorcustomerthatisparticularlystriking:Ifyouaregoingtomakeyouraudiencereadsomething,makesureit'sworththeirtimeandeffortMoreimportant,makesureit'sworthyourtime,sinceyoudon'thavemuchavailableandyou'vejustturnedsomeofitintoasmallreadingassignmentDon'toverdoitBeforeyoubegin,keepinmindsomekeypoints:·VisualsarenotyourpresentationYouarethepresentationYouraudiencehasnotgatheredforthepurposeofreadingyourFreelance(orPowerPoint)pagestheyhavecometohearyoucommunicateUsevisualstosupportyourmessage·LessismoreAgraphthatshows(forexample)levelsofcustomerspendingoncertaintechnologiescanrevealataglancetrendsinthemarket,butitremainsyourtasktoexplainthatdata'srelevancetoyouraudienceAsingle,wellconstructedgraphic,supportedbyyourthoughtfulexplanation,ismoreeffectivethanaseriesofchartsthattheaudiencemustdecipher·ProjectedvisualshaveseverelimitsTheyareconstrainedbytheresolutionofacomputerscreen,whichisfarlowerthantheprintedpageTheyarelimitedfurtherbybeingprojectedontoascreenthatpeoplemustreadfromadistanceForthisreason,wewanttokeepvisualssimpleandboldMorecomplexgraphicsarebettersuitedforinclusioninprintedmaterialsLet'stakealookatthemainelementsoftheIBMPresentationTemplatethatyoumightneedtoincludeMorepossibilitiesandvariationsareavailableinthepresentationtemplatesthemselvesButunderstandingwhichyouneed,andwhen,isthefirststepBulletpointtextYouraudienceisreadytolistenandtolook,buttheydon'twanttoreadlongpassagesoftextonascreenAndyoudon'twantthemtoo,eitherreadingtakestheirattentionawayfromwhatyouaresayingThemosteffectivewaytousetextiswithshortphrasesthatcanbereadataglancePresentedthisway,textcanremindpeopleofyourkeypoints,orhelpthemfollowtheprogressofyourpresentationHere'sanexampleoftextpoorlyused:Thatisn'tabadlookingpage,anditisn'ttoodifficulttoreadButitcanbeimprovedThiswouldbeevenbetter:ThefirstexampletriestopresentyourmessageThesecondexamplemerelyprovidescuestothemessagesyouarediscussingItengagestheaudience'stimeonlyforamoment,anddemandsthattheylistentowhatyou'resayingasyouexplainthepointsOfcourse,evenwhenyoureduceyourmessagetoabulletpointphrase,youcanstilldefeatyourselfbycrammingtoomanyontoasinglepageThat'swhyyoushouldlimitanypageoftexttonomorethanfiveitems(andevenfiveispushingit)You'llseethatthetemplatereflectsthislimitThislimitoffiveisnotamatterofhowmuchtextwillfitontoapagewhileremainingbothlegibleandvisuallypleasing,althoughtheseareimportantconsiderationsRather,it'saquestionofhowmuchinformationsomeonecaneasilyretainatonetime,especiallywhilelisteningtoyouspeakButwhatifyouhavemorethanthreeorevenfivepointstomakeaboutIBMserversPerhapsyouwanttotalkaboutthetechnologiesthatgiveourserverstheirpriceperformanceedge,andcitesomebenchmarkstudiesasevidenceYouhavemoretosayaboutmanagementcapabilities,tooItsimplywon'tfitintofivelinesNoproblemIfyouexamineyourinformation,youarelikelytofindthatitwillarrangeitselfintogroupsofdetailsthatsupportmoregeneralpoints(Ifyou'dpreparedyourinformationcarefully,accordingtothepyramidstructuredescribedinthe'PlanIt'module,thisshouldalreadybeclear)ThesolutionistocreateanotherpagewhichfocusesingreaterdetailononeofyourtopicsInourcurrentexample,youmightprogresstothis:Hereagain,youaregivingyouraudiencealimited,manageableamountofinformationatanyonetimeIfyouhavebenchmarkdata(inthisexample)thatsimplydemandsagraphictreatment,don'tcramitontothispageunlessit'saverysimplegraphicMakeanotherpage,devotedtothatWhenyou'vefinishedwithyourinformationaboutpriceperformance,returntoyourlistandthesecondpointYournextpagemightlistthekeypointsaboutIBMservers'advancedmanagementcapabilities,followedbyonewithmoredetailonLinuxandopenstandardsIfthoseothertopicsdon'thaveasmuchsupportingdetail,youmightsimplyshowyourfirstpageaboutIBMserversagain,perhapswithyournextpointhighlighted:YouwouldthenproceedtodiscusstheadvancedmanagementfeaturesYouraudiencehasaclearandquickvisualcuethatyou'removingontothesecondpoint,alongwithareminderthatathirdonewillfollowIt'sperfectlyokaytorepeatpagesinthismannerRepeatingpagescanhelpyouraudiencefollowthepresentation,withoutrequiringalotoftheirattentiontodosoWhileit'struethat"lessismore"onanysinglepage(andevenforvisualsingeneral)solongasyourpagesarebriefanddirect,repeatingpagesinordertohighlighttheprogressofyourpresentationisaneffectiveuseofsupportingvisualsInthisinstance,morecanbemoreJustdon'tgetcarriedaway:youdon'tneedalineonthescreentosummarizeeverysinglethingyou'regoingtosay(Ifyouarepreparingaprintedversionofyourpitchtodistributetoyouraudience,youwillprobablyincludeapageonlyonce,andremoveanyhighlightedandrepeatedpages)ChartsgraphsChartwareIfyourpresentationsrequiregreateruseofawidervarietyofcharts,youcanfindamoredetailedexplorationofthetopicinSayitWithCharts,byGeneZelazny,oneofthebooksinourrecommendedreadinglistForanevendeeperexaminationofvisualcommunication,EnvisioningInformationbyEdwardTufteisexcellent,thoughnotasdirectlyrelevanttobusinesspresentationsChartsandgraphscanbeveryeffectivetoolsTheycanalsobeannoyinglyclumsy,obscuringtheveryinformationthey'reintendedtocommunicateLikeothertools,theymustbeusedwhenthetaskrequiresthem,andwithcareOurtemplatecallsforchartsstrippedcleanofextraneousclutter,freefromsuchvisualgimmickryasthreedimensionaleffects,andrestrainedintheiruseofcolorIfyourinformationisrelevanttoyouraudience,itshouldn'tbeobscuredbythissortofdistractionIfyourinformationisn'trelevant,itshouldn'tbeonthescreenatallThisintroductiontothesimplest,mostcommonandeffectivetypesofchartsusedinpresentationsshouldhelpyoudevelopthebasicskillsyouneedtodecidewhentouseagraph,howtoselectthetypemostappropriatetoyourdata,andhowtocreateitusingthesoftwareyoualreadyhaveavailable,inastylethatwillblendharmoniouslyintotheIBMtemplateBeforeyouevenbegincreatingcharts,thereareafewpointstokeepinmind·ChartsmustbereadTheydon'tconveyinformation,butratherpresentitinavisualwaythatmakesunderstandingiteasyStill,youraudienceisgoingtohavetoextractthemessageofachartbylookingatit,by"reading"it,possiblywithyourassistanceinpointingoutitskeyaspectsThesimplerachartis,themoreclearanddirectitsmessagewillbeComplexchartsofsimpleinformationarefailuresSimplechartsofcomplexinformationareachievements·Whendatademandscomplexcharts,theyarenearlyalwaysbetterpresentedonaprintedhandoutWewillworkaroundtheselimitsasbestwecan,butyoumustbeawareofthemandstriveforsimplicity·Inthehandsofskilledpeopletrainedinpresentinginformationvisually,therearesoftwaretoolscapableoftransformingcomplexdataintoelegantandeffectivechartsButtheseoftenrequirespecializedskillsYou'llfindallsortsofexamplesofchartsandgraphsinthe"Infographics"presentationtemplatesOnceyou'vegotyourpresentationprepared,however,you'rereadyto"PresentIt"whichjusthappenstobethesubjectofthethirdandfinalsectionoftheIBMPresentationMethodologyThetemplateTheIBMPresentationTemplate(someonereadingthishasalreadymentallyshorteneditto"theIPT,"nodoubt)givesyouafewbasicoptionstochoosefromInsideofthebluebands(the"letterbox"area),youcaneitheruseablackbackgroundwithwhitetextorawhitebackgroundwithblacktextYoucanhavebackgroundimageryonthetitleslideinsidetheletterboxorinthebluebandsAfewthingsyoushouldn'tchangehowever:·Thecoloro

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  • 小珠珠 可惜是E文,不是太明白

    2010-10-30 06:30:48

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