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首页 美联社写作风格指南 AP Stylebook

美联社写作风格指南 AP Stylebook.pdf

美联社写作风格指南 AP Stylebook

猪小猪2004
2009-10-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《美联社写作风格指南 AP Stylebookpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

StylebookandBriefingonMediaLawwithInternetGuideandGlossaryAssociatedPressClickheretosearchTheAssociatedPressretainsallright,titleandinterestinandtotheAPmaterialthatfollows,includingcopyrightThismaterialmaynotberesold,sublicensed,ordistributedwithoutwrittenpermissionTheAPStylebookcannotbemadeavailableinanyprintedformtoanyotherperson,thirdpartyoraffiliate,orusedforCDROMpublishing,faxondemand,audiotext,email,oranyotherelectronicdeliveryserviceorforanyotherpurposethanthepostingoftheAPStylebookonyourinternalcomputersystem,withoutAP'spriorwrittenapprovalEditorNormGoldsteinPublishedbyTHEASSOCIATEDPRESSRockefellerPlazaNewYork,NY©byTheAssociatedPressAllRightsReservedNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedinanyformorbyanymeanswithoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisher,exceptingbriefquotesusedinconnectionwithreviewswrittenspecificallyforinclusioninamagazineornewspaperLibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:ISBN:Designandcontentmanagementby:,LLCPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaPrintedbyBantaBookGroupCoverdesignbyChristineTashFirstEdition,AugustthEdition,FrontMatter(iii):PMPageiiCONTENTSFOREWORDviBIBLIOGRAPHYviiiSTYLEBOOKKeyAnAtoZlistingofguidestocapitalization,abbreviation,spelling,numeralsandusageInternetguidelinesSportsguidelinesandstyleBusinessguidelinesandstyleAGuidetoPunctuationBRIEFINGONMEDIALAWForewordIntroductionWhatIsLibelLiabilityforRepublicationPrivilegesDefensesSupremeCourtDecisionsRegardingLibelLawSummaryofFirstAmendmentRulesPublicandPrivatePlaintiffsMiscellaneousApplyingtheRulesPointstoRememberProceduresforHandlingKillsandCorrectivesAccesstoPlacesofInformationTheRightofPrivacyCopyrightGuidelinesPHOTOCAPTIONSCaptionCorrections,Additions,EliminationsPhotoKillsandEliminationsNAAIPTCHeaderFieldsSupplementalCategoriesFILINGTHEWIRECodingRequirementsFormatIdentifiersKeywordSlugLineReferenceNumberSectionVersionSectionFILINGPRACTICESPROOFREADERS’MARKSABOUTTHEAPHeadquartersUSBureausAPPUBLICATIONSOrderFormFrontMatter(iiiv):AMPageiiiWHAT’SNEWInthiseditionoftheAPStylebookNewentries:BellLabs,bloodbath,children,dad,DrugEnforcementAdministration,eerie,Finland,inInternetsection(brickandmortar,doubleclick,firewall,LAN,MP,offline,virus,worm),jihad,mom,mujahedeen,mullah,preventive,Rolodex,Taliban,UnitedStatesConferenceofCatholicBishops,USMarshalsService,YellowPagesinSports:added(suffix),holeinone(ingolfentry),motorsports,offseasoninBusiness:CEOChangesandupdates:citizen,subjectcitizensband,coastguard,CommonwealthofIndependentStates,crossfire,datelines(ForeignCities),DarkAges,decimalunits,disabledhandicappedimpaired,euro,domainnames(inInternettermssection),freelance,gypsy,hometown,hotline,Islam,Lloyd'sofLondon,Maoism(changingspellingtoMaoZedong),militaryacademies,minister,names,NobelPrize,Portuguesenames,Quebec,quotationsinthenews,membershipnumbersinseparatereligionentries,UP,spelling,teenage,telephonenumbers,titles,TransWorldAirlinesCorrectivesandClarifications(inBriefingonMediaLaw),PhotoCaptions,FilingtheWire(categorycodes),FilingPractices,AbouttheAPDeletes:director,host,housingunit,NationalConferenceofCatholicBishopsFrontMatter(iiiv):AMPagevFOREWORDIntheForewordtothefirsteditionoftheAPStylebookinitscurrentformat,IcautiouslypredictedthatitmightbecomealastingworkSeveraldecadesandnearlymillioncopieslater,itseemssafetosaythatithasTheStylebookhasnotonlyfounditswayintonewsroomsaroundtheworldbuthasalsobecomeafixtureinjournalismclasses,publicrelationsagencies,newsletterproductionhouses,andwhereverelsepeoplewriteaboutdailyevents,publicaffairsandothermattersofpublicinterestAsaguidetousage,andasareferencebookfortermsandtopicscommonlyencounteredinnewswriting,theStylebookisnowanacknowledgedandvaluedstandard,oneofthemostwidelyconsultedworksofitskindManynewsroomshaveadopteditsrecommendationsastheirown,supplementingthemwithtermsuniquetotheirowncommunitiesormodifyingsomeStylebookentriesthataresupersededbypreferredlocalusageornomenclatureThat’sexactlyhowtheStylebookismeanttobeused,andwe’vemadeiteveneasierwithavarietyofdigitalformatsforindividualdesktopuseorforaccessacrossalocalnetworkPartoftheStylebook’smissionistosortoutrightfromwrongInothercases,itspurposeistoprescribechoicesthatwillmakeiteasierforwriterandreadertomeetAndinitsexpandedform,italsoinstructsonmedialawBehinditallisasimplebeliefinaccuracy,clarityandconsistencyYoucouldcallthisbookawriter’sbestfriendOrperhapsareader’sSpeakingoffriends,wecontinuetobegratefultowritersandeditorsthroughoutAPanditsmembernewspapersandtoscoresofotherindividualsandorganizationswhosesuggestionsandinformationmadethefirstStylebookpossibleandhavehelpedkeepsubsequenteditionscurrentLOUISDBOCCARDIPresidentandChiefExecutiveOfficerFrontMatter(vivii):AMPageviiBIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHYFrontMatterBib(viiix):AMPageviiiBIBLIOGRAPHYixBIBLIOGRAPHYFollowingarereferencebooksusedinthepreparationofTheAssociatedPressStylebookTheyaretheacceptedreferencesourcesformaterialnotcoveredbytheStylebookFirstreferenceforspelling,style,usageandforeigngeographicnames:Webster’sNewWorldCollegeDictionary,FourthEdition,HungryMinds,Inc,NewYork,NYSecondreferenceforspelling,styleandusage:Webster’sThirdNewInternationalDictionary,MerriamWebster,Springfield,MassSecondreferenceforforeigngeographicnames:NationalGeographicAtlasoftheWorld,NationalGeographicSociety,Washington,DCFirstreferenceforplacenamesinthestates:NationalDigitZIPCodeandPostOfficeDirectoryUSPostalService,Washington,DCForaircraftnames:Jane’sAlltheWorld’sAircraftJane’sYearbooks,London,andFranklinWattsInc,NewYorkFormilitaryships:Jane’sFightingShipsJane’sYearbooks,London,andFranklinWattsInc,NewYorkFornonmilitaryships:Lloyd’sRegisterofShippingLloyd’sRegisterofShippingTrustCorpLtd,LondonForrailroads:OfficialRailwayGuideFreightService,andOfficialRailwayGuidePassengerService,TravelEditionOfficialRailwayGuide,NewYorkForfederalgovernmentquestions:OfficialCongressionalDirectoryUSGovernmentPrintingOffice,WashingtonForforeigngovernmentquestions:PoliticalHandbookoftheWorldMcGrawHillBookCo,NewYorkFortheformalnameofabusiness:StandardPoor’sRegisterofCorporations,DirectorsandExecutivesStandardPoor’sCorp,NewYorkFrontMatterBib(viiix):AMPageixxBIBLIOGRAPHYForreligionquestions:HandbookofDenominationsintheUnitedStatesAbingdonPress,Nashville,Tenn,andNewYorkWorldChristianEncylopediaSecondEditionOxfordUniversityPress,NewYork,NYYearbookofAmericanandCanadianChurchesAbingdonPress,Nashville,Tenn,andNewYork,fortheNationalCouncilofChurchesofChristintheUSA,NewYorkOtherreferencesconsultedinthepreparationoftheAPStylebook:Bernstein,TheodoreMTheCarefulWriter:AModernGuidetoEnglishUsageAtheneum,Bernstein,TheodoreMMoreLanguageThatNeedsWatchingChannelPress,Bernstein,TheodoreMWatchYourLanguageAtheneum,Cappon,ReneJTheWordTheAssociatedPress,secondedition,Follett,Wilson(editedandcompletedbyJacquesBarzun)ModernAmericanUsageHillWang,Fowler,HWADictionaryofModernEnglishUsageOxfordUniversityPress,TheChicagoManualofStyle,thEditionUniversityofChicagoPress,Morris,WilliamandMorris,MaryHarperDictionaryofContemporaryUsageHarperRow,secondedition,Newton,Harry,Newton’sTelecomDictionary,thEdition,MillerFreeman,Inc,Shaw,HarryDictionaryofProblemWordsExpressionsMcGrawHillBookCo,Skillin,MarjorieEandGay,RobertMWordsIntoTypePrenticeHallInc,Strunk,WilliamJrandWhite,EBTheElementsofStyle,secondeditionTheMacmillanCo,AlsoconsultedwerethestylebooksoftheBostonGlobe,IndianapolisNews,KansasCityStar,LosAngelesTimes,MiamiHerald,MilwaukeeJournalSentinel,Newsday,NewYorkTimes,Wilmington(Del)NewsJournal,andtheUSGovernmentPrintingOfficeFrontMatterBib(viiix):AMPagexairportCapitalizeaspartofapropername:LaGuardiaAirport,NewarkInternationalAirportThefirstnameofanindividualandthewordinternationalmaybedeletedfromaformalairportnamewhiletheremainderiscapitalized:JohnFKennedyInternationalAirport,KennedyInternationalAirport,orKennedyAirportUsewhicheverisappropriateinthecontextDonotmakeupnames,howeverThereisnoBostonAirport,forexampleTheBostonairport(lowercaseairport)wouldbeacceptableifforsomereasonthepropername,LoganInternationalAirport,werenotusedairtightairtrafficcontroller(nohyphen)airwaysThesystemofroutesthatthefederalgovernmenthasestablishedforairplanetrafficSeetheairline,airlinesentryforitsuseincarriers’namesAlabamaAbbrev:AlaSeestatenamesSTYLEBOOKKEYThisupdatedandrevisedversionofTheAssociatedPressStylebookhasbeenorganizedlikeadictionaryNeedtheacronymforagovernmentagencyLookundertheagency’snameShouldyoucapitalizeawordChecktheworditselforthecapitalizationentryWhat’stheformatforbaseballboxesSeebaseballFollowingisakeytotheentries:OtherabbreviationsusedintheStylebook:n:nounformadj:adjectivesv:verbformadv:adverbsEntrywords,inalphabeticalorder,areinboldfaceTheyrepresenttheacceptedwordformsunlessotherwiseindicatedTextexplainsusageExamplesofcorrectandincorrectusageareinitalicsManyentriessimplygivethecorrectspelling,hyphenationandorcapitalizationAbbrevindicatesthecorrectabbreviationofawordRelatedtopicsareinboldfaceFrontMatter():PMPageAAAFormerlytheAmericanAutomobileAssociationOnsecondreference,theautomobileassociationortheassociationisacceptableHeadquartersisinHeathrow,Flaa,anUsethearticleabeforeconsonantsounds:ahistoricevent,aoneyearterm(soundsasifitbeginswithaw),aunitedstand(soundslikeyou)Usethearticleanbeforevowelsounds:anenergycrisis,anhonorableman(thehissilent),anNBArecord(soundslikeitbeginswiththelettere),anscelebrationaTherulesofprefixesapply,butingeneralnohyphenSomeexamples:achromaticatonalAPAcceptableinallreferencesforGreatAtlanticPacificTeaCoIncHeadquartersisinMontvale,NJAARPUseonlytheinitialsit’stheofficialnameoftheAmericanAssociationofRetiredPersonsabbreviationsandacronymsThenotationabbrevisusedinthisbooktoidentifytheabbreviatedformthatmaybeusedforawordinsomecontextsAfewuniversallyrecognizedabbreviationsarerequiredinsomecircumstancesSomeothersareacceptabledependingonthecontextButingeneral,avoidalphabetsoupDonotuseabbreviationsoracronymsthatthereaderwouldnotquicklyrecognizeGuidanceonhowtouseaparticularabbreviationoracronymisprovidedinentriesalphabetizedaccordingtothesequenceoflettersinthewordorphraseAnacronymisawordformedfromthefirstletterorlettersofaseriesofwords:laser(lightamplificatonbystimulatedemissionofradiation)Somegeneralprinciples:BEFOREANAME:Abbreviatethefollowingtitleswhenusedbeforeafullnameoutsidedirectquotations:Dr,Gov,LtGov,Mr,Mrs,Rep,theRev,SenandcertainmilitarydesignationslistedinthemilitarytitlesentrySpelloutallexceptDr,Mr,MrsandMswhentheyareusedbeforeanameindirectquotationsForguidelinesonhowtousetitles,seecourtesytitleslegislativetitlesmilitarytitlesreligioustitlesandtheentriesforthemostcommonlyusedtitlesAFTERANAME:Abbreviatejuniororseniorafteranindividual’snameAbbreviatecompany,corporation,incorporatedandlimitedALetterA():PMPagewhenusedafterthenameofacorporateentitySeeentriesunderthesewordsandcompanynamesInsomecases,anacademicdegreemaybeabbreviatedafteranindividual’snameSeeacademicdegreesWITHDATESORNUMERALS:UsetheabbreviationsAD,BC,am,pm,No,andabbreviatecertainmonthswhenusedwiththedayofthemonthRight:InBCat:aminroomNoonSeptWrong:EarlythisamheaskedfortheNoofyourroomTheabbreviationsarecorrectonlywithfiguresRight:EarlythismorningheaskedforthenumberofyourroomSeemonthsandindividualentriesfortheseothertermsINNUMBEREDADDRESSES:Abbreviateavenue,boulevardandstreetinnumberedaddresses:HelivesonPennsylvaniaAvenueHelivesatPennsylvaniaAveSeeaddressesSTATES:ThenamesofcertainstatesandtheUnitedStatesareabbreviatedwithperiodsinsomecircumstancesSeestatenamesdatelinesandindividualentriesACCEPTABLEBUTNOTREQUIRED:Someorganizationsandgovernmentagenciesarewidelyrecognizedbytheirinitials:CIA,FBI,GOPIftheentryforsuchanorganizationnotesthatanabbreviationisacceptableinallreferencesoronsecondreference,thatdoesnotmeanthatitsuseshouldbeautomaticLetthecontextdetermine,forexample,whethertouseFederalBureauofInvestigationorFBISeesecondreferenceAVOIDAWKWARDCONSTRUCTIONS:Donotfollowanorganization’sfullnamewithanabbreviationoracronyminparenthesesorsetoffbydashesIfanabbreviationoracronymwouldnotbeclearonsecondreferencewithoutthisarrangement,donotuseitNamesnotcommonlybeforethepublicshouldnotbereducedtoacronymssolelytosaveafewwordsSPECIALCASES:ManyabbreviationsaredesirableintabulationsandcertaintypesoftechnicalwritingSeeindividualentriesCAPS,PERIODS:UsecapitallettersandperiodsaccordingtothelistingsinthisbookForwordsnotinthisbook,usethefirstlistedabbreviationinWebster’sNewWorldDictionaryIfanabbreviationnotlistedinthisbookorinthedictionaryachieveswidespreadacceptance,usecapitallettersOmitperiodsunlesstheresultwouldspellanunrelatedwordABCAcceptableinallreferencesforAmericanBroadcastingCos(thepluralispartofthecorporatename)DivisionsareABCNews,ABCRadioandABCTVABCsablebodiedABM,ABMsAcceptableinallreferencesforantiballisticmisLetterA():PMPagesile(s),butthetermshouldbedefinedinthestoryAvoidtheredundantphraseABMmissilesAbombUseatomicbombunlessadirectquotationisinvolvedSeeHiroshimaAborigineCapitalizewhenreferringtoAustralianindigenouspeopleabortionUseantiabortioninsteadofprolifeandabortionrightsinsteadofproabortionorprochoiceAvoidabortionist,whichconnotesapersonwhoperformsclandestineabortionsuseatermsuchasabortiondoctororabortionpractitioneraboveboardabsentmindedabsentwithoutleaveAWOLisacceptableonsecondreferenceacademicdegreesIfmentionofdegreesisnecessarytoestablishsomeone’scredentials,thepreferredformistoavoidanabbreviationanduseinsteadaphrasesuchas:JohnJones,whohasadoctorateinpsychologyUseanapostropheinbachelor’sdegree,amaster’s,etc,butthereisnopossessiveinBachelorofArtsorMasterofScienceUsesuchabbreviationsasBA,MA,LLDandPhDonlywhentheneedtoidentifymanyindividualsbydegreeonfirstreferencewouldmakethepreferredformcumbersomeUsetheseabbreviationsonlyafterafullnameneverafterjustalastnameWhenusedafteraname,anacademicabbreviationissetoffbycommas:DanielMoynihan,PhD,spokeDonotprecedeanamewithacourtesytitleforanacademicdegreeandfollowitwiththeabbreviationforthedegreeinthesamereference:Wrong:DrPamJones,PhDRight:DrPamJones,achemistSeedoctoracademicdepartmentsUselowercaseexceptforwordsthatarepropernounsoradjectives:thedepartmentofhistory,thehistorydepartment,thedepartmentofEnglish,theEnglishdepartment,orwhendepartmentispartoftheofficialandformalname:UniversityofConnecticutDepartmentofMedicineacademictitlesCapitalizeandspelloutformaltitlessuchaschancellor,chairman,etc,whentheyprecedeanameLowercaseelsewhereLowercasemodifierssuchasdepartmentindepartmentChairmanJeromeWiesnerSeedoctorandtitlesacademySeemilitaryacademiesAcademyAwardsPresentedannuallybytheAcademyofMotionPictureArtsandSciencesAlsoknownastheOscars(BothAcademyAwardsandOscarsaretrademarks)Lowercasetheacademyandtheawardswhenevertheystandaloneaccept,exceptAcceptmeanstoreceiveExceptmeanstoexcludeLetterA():PMPageaccommodateaccusedApersonisaccusedof,notwith,acrimeToavoidanysuggestionthatanindividualisbeingjudgedbeforeatrial,donotuseaphrasesuchasaccusedslayerJohnJones,useJohnJones,accusedoftheslayingForguidelinesonrelatedwords,seeallegearrestandindictAceAtrademarkforabrandofelasticbandageacknowledgmentacreEqualto,squarefeetor,squareyardsThemetricequivalentis(twofifths)ofahectareor,squaremetersOnesquaremileisacresToconverttohectares,multiplyby(acresxequalshectares)SeehectareacronymsSeetheabbreviationsandacronymsentryactCapitalizewhenpartofthenameforpendingorimplementedlegislation:theTaftHartleyActactingAlwayslowercase,butcapitalizeanyformaltitlethatmayfollowbeforeaname:actingMayorPeterBarrySeetitlesactnumbersUseArabicfiguresandcapitalizeact:ActAct,SceneBut:thefirstact,thesecondactactor(man)actress(woman)Actors’EquityAssociationHeadquartersisinNewYorkADAcceptableinallreferencesforannoDomini:intheyearoftheLordBecausethefullphrasewouldreadintheyearoftheLord,theabbreviationADgoesbeforethefigurefortheyear:ADDonotwrite:ThefourthcenturyADThefourthcenturyissufficientIfADisnotspecifiedwithayear,theyearispresumedtobeADSeeBCaddressesUsetheabbreviationsAve,Blvd

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美联社写作风格指南 AP Stylebook

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