加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 [当代学术棱镜译丛]社会与文化-稀缺与团结的原则(英文原版)

[当代学术棱镜译丛]社会与文化-稀缺与团结的原则(英文原版).pdf

[当代学术棱镜译丛]社会与文化-稀缺与团结的原则(英文原版)

wzc196002
2009-10-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[当代学术棱镜译丛]社会与文化-稀缺与团结的原则(英文原版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

SOCIETYANDCULTURETheory,CultureSocietyTheory,CultureSocietycatersfortheresurgenceofinterestinculturewithincontemporarysocialscienceandthehumanitiesBuildingontheheritageofclassicalsocialtheory,thebookseriesexamineswaysinwhichthistraditionhasbeenreshapedbyanewgenerationoftheoristsItalsopublishestheoreticallyinformedanalysesofeverydaylife,popularculture,andnewintellectualmovementsEDITOR:MikeFeatherstone,NottinghamTrentUniversitySERIESEDITORIALBOARDRoyBoyne,UniversityofDurhamMikeHepworth,UniversityofAberdeenScottLash,GoldsmithsCollege,UniversityofLondonRolandRobertson,UniversityofAberdeenBryanSTurner,UniversityofCambridgeTHETCSCENTRETheTheory,CultureSocietybookseries,thejournalsTheory,CultureSocietyandBodySociety,andrelatedconference,seminarandpostgraduateprogrammesoperatefromtheTCSCentreatNottinghamTrentUniversityForfurtherdetailsoftheTCSCentre'sactivitiespleasecontact:CentreAdministratorTheTCSCentre,RoomFacultyofHumanitiesNottinghamTrentUniversityCliftonLane,Nottingham,NGNS,UKemail:tcsntuacukweb:http:tcsntuacukRecentvolumesinclude:DevelopmentTheoryDeconstructionsReconstructionsJanNederveenPieterseOccidentalismModernityandSubjectivityCouzeVennSimulationandSocialTheorySeanCubittTheContradictionsofCultureCities:Culture:WomenElizabethWilsonTheTarantianEthicsFredBottingandScottWilsonSOCIETYANDCULTUREPrinciplesofScarcityandSolidarityBryanSTurnerandChrisRojekSAGEPublicationsLondon·ThousandOaks·NewDelhiØBryanSTurnerandChrisRojekFirstpublishedApartfromanyfairdealingforthepurposesofresearchorprivatestudy,orcriticismorreview,aspermittedundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,thispublicationmaybereproduced,storedortransmittedinanyform,orbyanymeans,onlywiththepriorpermissioninwritingofthepublishersor,inthecaseofreprographicreproduction,inaccordancewiththetermsoflicencesissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgencyInquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethosetermsshouldbesenttothepublishersSAGEPublicationsLtdBonhillStreetLondonECAPUSAGEPublicationsIncTellerRoadThousandOaks,CaliforniaSAGEPublicationsIndiaPvtLtd,MBlockMarketGreaterKailash±INewDelhiPublishedinassociationwithTheory,CultureSociety,NottinghamTrentUniversityBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationdataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNISBN(pbk)LibraryofCongresscatalogrecordavailableTypesetbyMayhewTypesetting,Rhayader,PowysPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyAthenaeumPress,GatesheadCONTENTSAcknowledgementsviPrefaceviiDisciplineOrganismsDisorderSolidarityScarcityNormsRightsIntimaciesChoiceSolutionsConclusion:SociologyandCosmopolitanVirtueReferencesAuthorIndexSubjectIndexACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTheideaforthisstudyemergedoverthelast®fteenyears,followingthepublicationofanearlierstudyTheBodyandSocietyMorerecently,thebasicframeworkofthedynamicofsolidarityandscarcitygrewoutofaseriesoflecturesthatweregivenatYorkUniversity,Toronto,CanadaWewanttoacknowledgeanintellectualdebttoJohnO'NeillandEginIsinatYorkUniversityThecritiqueofdecorativesociologyemergedduringthedevelopmentofthisvolumeandaversionoftheargumentwaspublishedbySociologicalReview()ChapteronthedisciplineofsociologywasinitiallygivenasalectureattheUniversityofLiverpoolandwearegratefultoGerardDelantyforhiscriticalcommentsontheoriginalformulationChapterontheorganicanalogywasoriginallygivenattheUniversityofAberdeentocelebrate®vehundredyearsofitshistoryMikeHepworthhelpedtoorganizetheseminarandassistedthedevelopmentoftheargumentThechapteronrightsevolvedoutofacomparisonofHeidegger,LyotardandRortyfromThePoliticsofJeanFrancËoisLyotardChapteronintimacyemergedfromresearchconductedwithAnneRiggs,DeakinUniversityAustraliainthemiddleofthesAspectsoftheargumentaboutageingandintimacyhavebeenpublishedpreviouslyTheargumentaboutcosmopolitanvirtuewasdevelopedataconferenceorganizedbyEnginIsinatYorkUniversityonthecityandcitizenshipThechapterson`Disorder',`Choice'and`Solutions'bene®tedfromtheTCSseminarprogrammeatNottinghamTrentUniversityWewishtoacknowledgethecontributionsofRogerBromley,StephenChan,MikeFeatherstone,SandraHarris,JoostVanLoonandJohnTomlinsonInparticular,RogerBromley'sworkonthepoliticsof`newbelonging'andJohnTomlinson'sstudyof`globalizationandculture'werehelpfulWealsowishtoacknowledgetheseminarprogrammeheldatCharlesUniversity,PragueinApril,whichhelpedtoclarifymanyaspectsoftheargumenton`Solutions'TheconclusionofouraccountdependsonaviewoftheroleofreligionandcitizenshipinmodernityAspectsoftheseargumentswillappearas`TheErosionofCitizenship'intheBritishJournalofSociologyandas`CosmopolitanVirtue:ReligioninaGlobalAge'intheEuropeanJournalofSocialTheoryAversionofChapterappearedas`Scarcityofmeansandsolidarityofvalues'in``OsterreichischeZeitschriftfuÈrSoziologie'',volume,pp±AversionofChapterappearedinAKCarlstrom,LGerholmandIRamberg(eds)()EmbodyingCultureTumba,Sweden:TheMulticulturalCentrepp±BryanSTurner,UniversityofCambridgeChrisRojek,NottinghamTrentUniversityPREFACEOurstudyisanattempttorebuildcontemporarysociologyaroundtheclassicalthemeofsocialaction,butactionunderstoodfromtheperspectiveofembodimentOuraimistorejuvenatethesociologicalimaginationfromatheoreticalstandpointthattakesthehumanbodyseriously,andthatdrawsouttheconnectionsbetweenenvironmentalpoliticsandthevulnerabilityofhumanembodimentThisaccountofsociologyintermsofthevulnerabilityofthesocialactorprovidesasociologicalperspectiveon`thehumancondition'Inordertorestorewhatwetaketobethecentralissuesofsociologicaltheory,itisnecessarytoadoptacriticalattitudetowardsmanycontemporarytrendsinsociologyAlthoughwebelievethatsociologyhastoincludethestudyoftheculturaldimensionsofsociallife,asadisciplinesociologyhas,throughthesocalledculturalturn,beendevolvedanddissolvedintoaseriesofrelated®elds±culturalstudies,women'sstudies,urbanstudiesandmediastudiesWeintendtoshowthatthepedagogicmeritsofmultidisciplinarityveryneatlysatisfythemanagerialneedsofthecommerciallydrivenhighereducationsystemratherthanadeepercommitmenttoscholarshipOurcriticalstanceisdirectedagainstacontemporarytendencythatwecall`decorativesociology',namelyasociologythatisobsessedwiththeimmediacyofcommercialandpopularcultures,hasnosenseofhistoricaldepth,doesnotengageincomparativeresearch,andhaslittlepoliticalrelevanceOurargumentisthatsocialanalysisfromthestandpointofhumanembodimentprovidesafoundationfromwhichsociologycanregainitsoriginalconcernswitheconomics,politicsandethicsWeneedasociologicalviewpointthatcanfacilitateunderstandingoflargescalehistoricalprocessesthathaveshapedmodernsocieties±war,industrialization,reproduction,thenationstate,technologyandsecularizationSociologyhasatitsbestsoughttocomprehendsocialchangeandprovidesolutionstoitsnegativeconsequencesDecorativesociologyhasdetachedsociologicaltheoryfrombothethicsandpolitics,andthusouragendaistoprovideageneralsociologyofmodernsocietiesthatisdrivensimultaneouslybyarespectforclassicalsociologyandanintellectualconcernthatitmustforeveraddresscontemporaryissueswithcriticalresponsivenessandopennesstonewideasThisstudyprovidesbothanoverviewofthekeyissuesofclassicalsociologyandacatholicengagementwithcontemporarydevelopments(suchaspostmodernism,re¯exivesociology,risksocietyandglobalizationtheory)WeengagewithMarx,Weber,DurkheimandSimmel,butalsoevaluatethecontributionsofBourdieu,Elias,GiddensandCastellsAlthoughthislistisobviouslyalistofmen,ourinterestinembodimenthasdrawnuponfeministanalysisoftheethnicsofembodiment,careandvoiceWedrawmuchofourinspirationfromMaryDouglas,JulietMitchel,RosiBraidotti,CarolGilligan,LuceIrigarayandvariousfeministphilosophiesofthebodyOurapproachtoembodimentdoeshoweverdivergeimportantlyfrommuchfeministepistemologyofdeconstructionWhereasfeministtheoryhasbeenconcernedtoproblematizethebodybyanexaminationofitsrepresentationalpolitics,wearemoreconcernedwiththephenomenologyofembodimentthathasitsrootsinFeuerbach,Marx,HeideggerandLukaÂcs,namelywithanapproachthatattemptstograspthealienationofhumanembodimentinsocialinstitutions±thefamily,religion,law,labourandwar±andthepossibilitiesforfreedomandjusticeOuraccountopenswithclassicalsocialscienceWestartwiththeview,centraltoMaxWeber'ssociology,thatthesocialsciencesareprimarilysciencesofsocialactionandinteractionActionandinteractionarethebasicstuffofthedisciplineofsociology,thatistheendlessactionsofhumanbeingsinsatisfyingtheirneeds,creatingsocialrelationsandinstitutions,buildingmeaningfulsystemsofcultureandinterpretation,andestablishingcommunallifeformsThisstuffofsocialinteraction,exchangeandreciprocitywecall`sociallife'Inshort,sociologyisasciencethatbeginswiththesocialrelationshipsofeverydaylifeandtheconditionsthatshapeitTheoriginsofnineteenthcenturysociologycanbefoundinacontinuouscriticismoftheindividualisticandrationalistassumptionsofeconomicsOurcontentionisthatTalcottParsons'sTheStructureofSocialAction()closedtheclassicalperiodofsociologyandopenedthecontemporarydebateaboutactionandstructure,sentimentsandactions,valuesandmeaningParsoniansociologywasacritiqueofmarginalisteconomics,becauseitarguedthatrationalactorsinpursuitoftheirendswould,inacontextofscarcity,employfraudandforcetosatisfytheirneeds,otherthingsbeingequalSuchatheoryofrationalactioncannotproduceaconvincingtheoryofsociety,becauseitcannotexplainsocialorderHowdocooperationandsolidarityexistifeconomicrationalismistheonlyorprincipalguidetoactionConventionaleconomicsarti®ciallysolvedtheproblembyinventingexplanationsthatcouldbederivedfromtheirbasicrationalistassumptions±suchasthehiddenhandofhistoryorsentimentParsonssolvedtheproblemoforderbyarguingthathumanbeingscanengageineconomicactivitywithoutdestroyingsociety,iftheysharecommonvaluesandnormsThesolutionofeconomicandsocialorderwastobefoundincultureandinstitutions,notinthepsychologyofEconomicManSocialactorsaresocializedintoacommonsystemofvalueswhentheirsocialactionsarepsychologicallyrewardedOurstudyofsocietyandculturecanbeunderstoodasanattempttounderstandthestructureofsocialactionfromtheperspectiveofapostCartesianviewofhumanembodimentandactionSOCIETYANDCULTUREviiiParsonsdevelopedaninterdisciplinarymodelofthesocialscienceswithinwhicheconomicsisascienceofscarcityItisessentiallyastudyoftherationalapplicationofefforttothesatisfactionofwantsinanenvironmentofcompetitivescarcitySociologybycontrastinvolvestheanalysisoftheconditionsofsocialsolidaritythroughsharedrituals,commonvaluesandconsensualnormsForsociology,religion(especiallyreligiousritualsandceremonies)hasbeenthefundamentalsocialcementofsocialexistencePsychologyisthestudyofthemotivesanddrivesthatunderpincommitmenttosocietyandmotivationtoactFinally,politicsisadisciplinethatstudiesthecoerciveelementintheallocationofgoalsIntheworkofthematureParsons,societyisacomplexdynamicbetweentworequirements:allocationofscarceresources(politicsandeconomics)andtheintegrationofsociety(sociologyandpsychology)ThesocialsciencedisciplinesexistinanintellectualdivisionoflabourwithinwhichtheyconsiderdifferentelementsofsocialactionInthissense,Parsons'sinterestinsocialsystemswasalwaysaninterestinactionsystemsOurstudytakesthedynamiccontradictionsbetweensolidarityandscarcityasthedrivingforceofsocialorganizationHumanbeingsareexposedtoproblemsofscarcity(ofresources),butthesocialrootsofscarcityaremoreprofoundCriticaltheorists,likeHerbertMarcuse,providedapowerfulanalysisofhowcapitalismcreatesarti®cialwantsandstimulatesneedsthroughadvertisingandothermeansofsalespromotionAlthougheconomicshastraditionallyassumedthatscarcityisafunctionofnaturalshortages,thesociologicaltraditionclaimsthatscarcityisafunctionofsocialclosurewherebypowerfulsocialgroupsattempttoestablishmonopoliesWetreatsocialstrati®cation,primarilysocialclass,astheessentialelementofscarcityInthissense,weliveinastateofsocialcompetitionthatwas®rstfullystatedbyThomasHobbes,accordingtowhomrationalmenincon¯ictoverscarceresourcesformasocialcontractinordertoavoidtheviolenceofthestateofnatureWeusetheword`men'heredeliberatelysinceclassicalpoliticsandeconomicslargelyassumedthatthepublicdomainofexchangeandpowerwasoccupiedbymenInthepsychoanalyticversionofHobbes,men®ghtoverwomenasascarceresourceinthecompetencestruggletoreproduceandensuretheircontinuitySociologists,generallyspeaking,havebeencriticalofsocialcontracttheoryParsons,drawinguponDurkheim,arguedthatsocialcontractswouldnotbebindingwithoutthepriorexistenceofsharedvaluesandbeliefs,andthereforethesocialcontractthatcreatesthestatetoenforcecivilizedsocietyhasinfacttopresupposetheexistenceofsocietySocialcontracttheorywasthuscircularParsonslaidthefoundationsofcontemporarysociologybydemonstratingthefailuresofutilitarianeconomictheoryandHobbesiantheoriesofthestateParsons'ssociologyhasrightlybeensubjecttopersistentcriticism,muchofwhichwasdrivenbytheviewmadepopularbyCWrightMillsthatParsons'ssociologywasabstractandconservativeBycontrast,weseetheweaknessofParsons'ssociologytolieinhistreatmentofactiontheoryParsons'ssocialactoriscapableofPREFACEixaffectiveresponsestosocialsituationsForexample,Parsonsdistinguishedbetweenthecognitiveorientationtothesocialsituationintermsoftheactor'sde®nitionofinterestsandthecatheticorientationthatinvolvedthegrati®cationoftheactorNevertheless,Parsons'ssocialactorremainedstrangelydisembodiedInfactParsonsregardedthehumanbody,atleastinhisearlywork,aspartoftheconditionsofsocialactionOurprincipalcriticismoftheclassicaltraditionofsociologyisitsfailuretocometotermswithembodimentofsocialactors,anditisthiscriticismthatopensthewayintoourstudyofsociologicalunderstandingofthemaindynamicsofmodernsociallifeWedrawheavilyonMartinHeidegger'sfarmorerobustandvibrantaccountofsocialexistenceandembodimentthroughhiscritiqueofmetaphysicsMuchofthisstudyinvolvesanattempttode®neembodimentWepreferthenotionof`embodiment'to`body',becausewewanttosuggestthatthecorporealexistenceofsocialactorsisaprocessthatchangesthroughoutthelifecycleratherthanastaticphenomenon,andsecondlywewanttorecognizethatembodimenttakesplacewithinthesocialworldratherthanin`nature'Wederivethisnotionofembodimentfrommanyclassicalsourcesinphilosophyandsocialtheory±Feuerbach,Marx,Nietzsche,HeideggerandMerleauPontyOuruseofthetermisnotprimarilyrootedinbiologyInfactitiscloselyrelatedtoMarx'sanalysisoflabourandalienationintheParisManuscriptsHumanbeingsinordertoexistmustlabourontheirenvironmentinthecollectivesatisfactionoftheirwantsTheyaresensuousandpracticalagentswho,insatisfyingtheirneeds,constantlytransformtheirenvironmentandtransformthemselvesMarxrejectedmechanisticversionsofmaterialisminThePovertyofPhilosophy()MarxclaimedthathistorywasnothingotherthanthecontinuousandconstanttransformationofhumannatureByclaimingthathumanbeingsareembodied,we,likeMarx,donotwanttoembraceareductionistformofmaterialisminwhichthebiologicalcharacteristicsofhumanbeingsdeterminetheirhistoryWearequitehostiletotheclaimsofcontemporaryversionsofDarwinismandevolutionarypsychologyTheprincipalfeatureofanysocialactiontheoryisthepremisethatsocialrelationshipsrequireindividualswhomakechoicesbetweenalternativecoursesofactionandarethereforere¯exiveabouttheirsocialbeingInWeber'ssociology,intentionalityandselfre¯exivitydistinguishactionfrommerebehaviourSocialactorshaveagencyandinordertoexertthatagencytheyrequireidentityandmemoryConsciousnessofpastactionsisapreconditionofmemorywithoutwhichpurposefulandcoherentactivitywouldbeimpossibleWehavetobeselfre¯exivelyawareofourselvesasindividuatedsocialactorsinordertoengagemeaningfullywithothersasotherindividuatedsocialbeingsSuccessfulembodimentalsogoesalongwithwhatwewillcalltheprocessofenselfment,thatistheprocessbywhichhumanbeingsbecomeselfre¯exive,purposefulandindividuatedsocialagentsSocializationintoselfhood(orenselfment)iscontinuousandcontingentThecapacityformemoryiserodedwiththeSOCIETYANDCULTURExprocessofageing,andmemorieshavetobeconstantlyreconstructedtomatchthevicissitudesofone'spassagethroughtimeWedonotposita®xedorcoherentselfEnselfmentisaprecariousprocess,butagainstpostmodernnotionsof¯exibleselfhood,wearguethatsomeconsistencyacrossthelifecourseisaconditionofeffectiveorsuccessfulsocialactionTheideaofareversibleselfissimplyincompatiblewithsociallifeOurviewofembodimenthasbeenin¯uencedbyHeidegger'sBeingandTime()FromHeidegger,wehavedevelopedasociologicalawarenessoftheembodimentofsocialactorsintheeverydayworldHeideggeremployedthetermDasein(literallyThereBeing)todescribeexistenceFromthisterm,wehavedevelopedtheobviouspointthatembodimenthasalwaystobeembodimentintimebutalsoinaspeci®cplaceSociologistshavebeensomewhatneglectfulofthespeci®cityofplaceintheiranalysisofsocialactionPerhapsonlyErvingGoffmanhadaclearsenseofthesettingofsocialactioninhisnotionsoffronts,stagesandbehindthesceneactivitiesForexample,themanagementofthebackstageiscrucialforGoffman'sdiscussionofthepresentationofself(Goffman,)Wecallthisaspectofsocial

用户评价(2)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/49

[当代学术棱镜译丛]社会与文化-稀缺与团结的原则(英文原版)

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利