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首页 新版古希腊语解说

新版古希腊语解说

新版古希腊语解说

songsong
2009-10-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《新版古希腊语解说pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

CAELUSCHNIGSecondEditionRevisedbyCAELuschnigandDeborahMitchellANINTRODUCTIONTOANCIENTGREEKALiteraryApproachANINTRODUCTIONTOANCIENTGREEKALiteraryApproachSecondEditionCAELuschnigANINTRODUCTIONTOANCIENTGREEKALiteraryApproachSecondEditionRevisedbyCAELuschnigDeborahMitchellHackettPublishingCompany,IncIndianapolisCambridgeCopyright©byHackettPublishingCompany,IncAllrightsreservedForfurtherinformation,pleaseaddressHackettPublishingCompany,IncPOBoxIndianapolis,IndianawwwhackettpublishingcomCoverdesignbyLJLuschnigandDeborahMitchellInteriordesignbyElizabethLWilsonandDeborahMitchellCompositionbyAgnew’s,IncPrintedatHamiltonPrintingCompanyTheGreekfontsusedtocreatethisworkareavailablefromwwwlinguistsoftwarecomlgkuhtm,LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataLuschnig,CAEIntroductiontoancientGreek:aliteraryapproachCAELuschnigndedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(pbk)ISBN(cloth)GreeklanguageGrammarGreeklanguageReadersITitlePALdceISBN(ebook)CONTENTSvPrefaceixAbbreviationsandReferenceWorksxiiiIntroductionAlphabetandSoundsofGreekGrammaticalOutlineLessonIPresentIndicativeActiveandMiddlePassiveof‑ωVerbs:TheFirstPrincipalPartNounsoftheFirst(‑η)andSecond(‑ο)DeclensionsArticleLessonIIImperfectActiveandMiddlePassiveεἰμίAdjectives:‑ος,‑η,‑ονand‑ος,‑ονTypesLessonIIIFutureActiveandMiddle:TheSecondPrincipalPartFirstDeclensionNounsLessonIVAoristActiveandMiddle:TheThirdPrincipalPartIndirectStatementLessonVThirdDeclensionNounsLessonVIThirdDeclensionAdjectivesThirdFirstDeclensionAdjectivesIrregularAdjectivesSyntaxLessonVIIParticiples:Present,Future,AoristActiveandMiddleMiddlePassiveLessonVIIIPronouns:Interrogative,Indefinite,RelativeIndefinite,ReciprocalPerfectActive:TheFourthPrincipalPartLessonIXPronouns:PersonalandReflexivePossessiveAdjectivesPerfectMiddlePassive:TheFifthPrincipalPartLessonXComparisonofAdjectives,AdverbsAoristandFuturePassive:TheSixthPrincipalPartLessonXIContractVerbsLessonXIIΜΙVerbsLessonXIIISubjunctiveOptativeviContentsSequenceofMoodsandDependentClausesLessonXIVImperativeVocativeVerbalsinτέοςandτέονAppendixI:ParadigmsAppendixII:SyntaxGreek–EnglishVocabularyEnglish–GreekVocabularyAuthorsoftheReadingsListofSourcesfortheReadingsIndexContentsviiPREFACEixLearningGreekislifelongeducationWhentheopportunitytoworkonasecondeditionofIntroductiontoAncientGreekwaspresentedtomebyfriendsandstrangersfromCaliforniatoPennsylvania,Ihadalreadyretiredfromclassroomteachingafterthirtyeightyearsattheblackboard(whichmorphedintotheoverheadprojectorandfinallytheElmo)IhadnoideahowmuchIwouldlearnfromthisundertaking,aboutGreek,aboutmyselfandmywriting,aboutapproachestoteaching,andaboutchangesintheworldsinceIworkedonthefirstedition,beginninginMycolleaguesandIhavemadehundredsofchangesforthenewedition:correctionsoferrorsorinfelicitiesimprovementsinclarity,consistency,andpedagogyadditionsofgenderinclusivematerialandhelpfulhintstolearnersandteachersThechangesarebasedondecadesofteachingbeginningGreekandlearningfromstudentswhatworksforthemTheBook’sApproachIhaveassumedthatstudentswhostudyGreekattheuniversitylevelreallywanttolearnGreek,andlearnGreeksothattheywillbeabletoreadGreekorsomeparticularthing(s)inGreek,notinordertoreciteparadigmafterparadigminendlessandmeaninglesssuccessionYettheparadigmsmuststillbelearnedWhenIbeganwritingthisbook,thebeginningGreektextbookstheninusetendedtogivestudentslittlemorethanthebarebonesofGreek,andnotinaveryinterestingwayThechoiceofXenophon’sAnabasis(andthatXenophonadaptedsothatitwasbarelyrecognizable)struckmeasanunfortunatepickforthemainoronlyreadingReadingsfromGreekauthorschosentointroducestudentstoGreekliteratureshouldbeintellectuallystimulating:theyshouldmakethestudentswanttoreadGreekThereadingsinthisbookwerechosenbecausetheyillustrategrammaticalpointsbutmanywereselectedinthehopethattheywouldbeinterestingtothestudents,encouragingthemtolearnthenewparadigms,andexpandingtheirconsciousnessofGreek,sothattheywouldreadmoreThereadingsaretakenfromavarietyofsourcesrepresentingdifferenterasanddifferentphilosophies,someofwhichmoststudentswillnothaveheardofbeforereadingthemLanguages,LivingandDeadTocallGreekadeadlanguageistotakeanarrowminded,exclusivelypragmaticviewoftimeandoflifeanddeath(atleastofthelifeanddeathoflanguages)Alanguageisonlydeadwhenithaspassedfromhumanmemory,leavingnoliteratureandnolivingdescendantsPerhapswecouldsaythatHittiteandTocharianaredeadlanguages,becausetheirliteraturesarescantyandtheyareknownbyfew,thougheventheyliveforardentIndoEuropeanphilologists,aftertheirfashionThelifeofalanguageisarelativethingTocallGreekadeadlanguageistoadmitthatoneknowsnoGreekandtoimaginethatitcannotbeknownand,indeed,isnotworthknowingGreekisalivinglanguagenotonlybecauseitneverdiedbutcontinuestodevelopandchangeandcanstillbeheardinitsheir,ModernGreek,butalsobecauseithasleftusaliteraturethatispartofourcommonheritageandthatcontinuestoinfluencethewaywethink,speak,andwriteATraditionalApproachOntheotherhandtheAtticGreekspokeninfifthcenturyAthensisnolongerspokeninthesamewayThereisnowherewecanhearitandnoonewithwhomwecanspeakitForthisreasonIhavetakenthetraditional,rationalapproachtoteachingGreek,ratherthana“naturalmethod”ThestudyofGreekhaslongbeenabookishpursuit,andrightlysoForthislanguagewehaveonlythebooks(andotherwritings)oftheancientGreekstostudyWehaveonlypartofalanguage,thepartthatcanbewrittendownIhavethereforetriedtopresenttheformsinareasonableorderandhopestudentslearnthemthroughuse,repetition,andreviewIhavealsointendedtotreatthestudentsasintelligent,rationalhumanbeings,whowillonedaybebetterthantheirteachersFortheSecondEditionIusedAnIntroductiontoAncientGreek:ALiteraryApproachfornearlythirtyyearstohelpundergraduateslearnGreek,mostlyattheUniversityofIdaho,where,asitmaysurprisetheworldtolearntherehasbeenformanyyearsadedicatedbandofclassicalstudiesstudentsThebookhadasmallandloyalfollowingoutside,butalthoughatfirstithaditsenthusiastsitnevergainedwidecirculationUntilIheardfromRichardHamilton,ProfessorofGreekatBrynMawr,andDeborahMitchell,computerprogrammer,bookdesigner,andfaithfulguidetoInternetlanguagelearners,earlyin,eachindependentlyoftheother,IthoughtmybookwasdestinedtolanguishinobscurityThatsameyearIheardfromseveralotherinterestedteachersandlearnersIwasamazedattheinterestandjumpedatthechance,firstpresentedbyProfessorHamilton,torevisethebookforthepublicationofasecond,moreaesthetic,moregenderinclusive,morestreamlined,andlessflawedstcenturyeditionThebookwastestedinabetaversionatBrynMawr,HaverfordCollege,andStJohn’sCollege,SantaFe,in–ManysuggestionsandcorrectionsfrombothstudentsandteachershavebeenincorporatedOneaspectwhichIhavekeptfromtheoldeditionisthepreviewofcomingattractions,introducingnewmaterialfromthenextlessoninreadingswithexplanatoryglossesandnotesInthiswaythenewmaterialwillbealittlelessstrange,sincethestudentswillalreadyhaveseenitxPrefaceAcknowledgmentsForthisopportunity,IwouldliketothankRichardHamiltonandDeborahMitchellforstayingwiththeprojecttheyhelpedinitiate,fortheircontinuedenthusiasmandencouragement,andaboveallfortheHerculeanlaborthathasgoneintodesigning,formatting,andeditingtheneweditionIwouldalsoliketothankProfessorHamilton’sgraduatestudent,DennisMcHenry,towhomIoweahugedebtofthanksforenteringandformattingthetext,andhistwoteachingassistants,AndrewBeerandSeanMullin,whoworkedwiththenewversionThanks,too,toteacherswhohaveusedthebook,KarelisaHartigan,DeborahRoberts,SherryMartin,BrucePerry,andothersinthepast,whokindlycontributedsuggestionsfortheneweditionThankstostudents,myownandothers,whohavebeen,knowinglyornot,contributorstothisprojectamongthemmostrecently,RobertHaas,TracyCogsdill,BillyO’Dell,IvanPeterson,TravisPuller,andAaronMayhughThankyou,especially,betatesters,bothstudentsandteachers,fortakingsuchjoyinfindingandcorrectingerrataFinallyIwouldliketothankonceagainallthefriendsnamedinthefirstpublishedbookandespeciallyHarryFultonwhotypedandformattedthemanuscriptthatremainedinuseforthreedecadesOnlynowdoIfullyappreciatewhatanenormoustaskitwasandhowwellheperformeditWorldWideGreekForonlinehelp,supplements,interactiveforums,usefullinks,andstudyguides,visittheofficialWebsite:http:wwwworldwidegreekcomStudentsandteachersofGreekareinvitedtocontributetotheWebsitebysendingsubmissionstoadminworldwidegreekcomorbywritingtoCeceliaLuschnigatcluschnigmoscowcom,andtodiscussanythingrelatedtoGreekintheForumonWorldWideGreekWearehopingtopublishsyllabi,suggestionsforclassroomuse,andanecdotesaboutteachingandlearningGreekWeareespeciallyinterestedinadditionalunadaptedreadingsfromGreekauthorswithnotesandglossesgearedtothedifferentlessonsandvocabulariesfortextsforelementaryandintermediatestudentsThisbookisdedicatedtolearnersofGreekeverywherePrefacexiABBREVIATIONSANDREFERENCEWORKSxiii<isderivedfrom>produces*importantReadingVocabulary(LessonIXforward)usedwith(ofcases,constructions)I,II,III,etcrefertolessonnumbersorstfirstpersonorndsecondpersonorrdthirdpersonAoraccaccusativeabsabsoluteactactiveadjadjectiveadvadverbaoraoristaorfirstaoristaorsecondaoristartarticleattribposattributivepositionaugaugmentcomparcomparativeconjconjunctioncpdcompoundDordatdativedecldeclensiondimindiminutiveenclencliticExExerciseforfemfemininefrgfragmentfutfutureGorgengenitiveimperimperativeimpersimpersonalimpfimperfectindindicativeinforinfininfinitiveintensintensiveinterroginterrogativeintransintransitiveirregirregularmormascmasculinemidmiddleModGrModernGreekmidpassormpmiddlepassivennounnorneutneuterNornomnominativenegnegativeobjobjectoppoppositeoptoptativepartorparticorptcplparticiplepasspassivepersperson,personalpfperfectplpluralplpfpluperfectpospositionposspossessivepostpospostpositivepredpredicatepredpospredicatepositionprepprepositionprespresentprincptsorPPprincipalpartspronpronounrelrelativeregregularsgsingularsubjsubjunctivesuperlsuperlativetranstransitivevbverbxivAbbreviationsandReferenceWorksRecommendedGrammarsandLexiconGG=GoodwinandGulick:WilliamWatsonGoodwin,GreekGrammar,revisedbyCharlesBurtonGulickLSJ=Liddell,Scott,Jones:HenryGeorgeLiddellandRobertScott,AGreek–EnglishLexicon,revisedbyHenryStuartJones(Oxford)Smyth=HerbertWeirSmyth,GreekGrammar,revisedbyGordonMMessingINTRODUCTIONTheGreekAlphabetandtheStructureofGreekInthislessonyouwilllearnthelettersandsoundsofGreek,thediacriticalmarks,theclassificationofletters,thepartsofspeech,andusefuldefinitionsYouwillbeabletoreadwords,recitethealphabetsong,translateselectedsentences,andreadsignsALPHABETANDSOUNDSOFGREEKTheGreekalphabethastwentyfourletters(γράμματα:grammata),givenbelowwiththeirnames,usualtransliterationsintotheRomanalphabet,andarecommendedpronunciationTheAlphabetCharacterNameTransliterationPronunciationΑαἄλφαalphaashort:cuplong:fatherΒββῆταbetabbΓγγάμμαgammag(ng)hardg,ng,goingΔδδέλταdeltaddΕεἒψιλόνepsiloneshorte,betΖζζῆταzetazsd,wisdomdz,adzeΗηἦταetaelongε(cfFrenchfête)ΘθθῆταthetaththΙιἰῶταiotaishort:binlong:beanΚκκάππαkappak,ckΛλλάμβδαlambdallΜμμῦmummΝννῦnunnΞξξῖxixksx:tacks,taxΟοὂμικρόνomicronoshorto:pot(GermanGott)ΠππῖpippΡρῥῶrhor,rhtrilledr(asinItalian)Σσ,ςσίγμαsigmasasinsayΤτταῦtauttΥυὖψιλόνupsilonyFrenchuGermanüΦφφῖphiphphΧχχῖchichkhΨψψῖpsipshipsΩωὦμέγαomegaogoThecapitalsaretheoriginalforms,butthesmalllettersareusedinmodernprintedtextsexceptforpropernounsandthebeginningsofparagraphsPunctuationInGreekprintedtexts,theperiod()andcomma(,)havethesameuseinGreekasinEnglishAraisedperiod(·)isequivalenttobothoursemicolon()andcolon(:)Thesemicolon()isusedinGreekasaquestionmark()AtticGreekInGreekavarietyofbothliteraryandspokendialectspersistedAttic,thedialectusedbytheAthenians,graduallybecamethestandardforproseKoine¯,thecommondialect,developedfromAtticTheexercisesinthisbookarebasedonAtticGreekInthereadings,wordsinotherdialects(Doric,Ionic,Aeolic,Homeric)areexplainedExerciseALearnthenames,sounds,andshapesoftheGreekletters(concentratingonthesmallletters)PronouncethefollowingwordsTransliteratethemintotheRomanalphabetDoyourecognizeanywordsthataresimilartoEnglishwordsForthetimebeing,stressorraisethepitchofthesyllablethathastheaccentmark(΄`῀)Example:πάθος:pathosEnglpathos,path,pathoψυχήμικρόςποταμόςβάρβαροςξένοςθεόςἀγοράζῷονδένδρονλόγοςφίλοςδρᾶμασκηνήἀρχήPronouncethefollowingandwriteEnglishderivativesἀλφάβητοςσυμβίωσιςμητρόπολιςἄνθρωποςβαρβαρισμόςῥινόκερωςτεχνολογίαἀδελφόςζωδιακόςἐτυμολογίαἐπιτομήγυμνάσιονὀρθογραφίαΚύκλωψἀποθέωσιςἰσοσκελήςἘνἀρχῇἦνὁλόγοςInthebeginningwasthewordGospelofJohnIntroductionVowels,Diphthongs,andIotasubscriptVowelsThevowels(φωνήεντα)areα,ε,η,ι,ο,υ,ωOfthese,α,ι,andυareofvariablequantity,thatis,theycanbeeitherlongorshortOftheothers,ε(ἒψιλόνplaine),andο(ὂμικρόνlittleo)arealwaysshortandηandω(ὦμέγαbigo)arealwayslongLongvowelswereoriginallypronouncedforabouttwiceaslongasshortonesVowellengthaffectspronunciation,accent,andthemetersofpoetryDiphthongs(δίφθογγοι)andVowelCombinationsAdiphthongisacombinationofvowelsoundsthatstartsasonevoweland,withinthesamesyllable,changesgraduallytoanothervowelThediphthongsinGreekare:DiphthongTransliterationPronunciationαιai,ae,e(ai)aisle,highīαυau(au)sauerkrautειei,e,i(ei)sleighāευ(alsoηυ)eu(ευ)οιoi,oe,e,i(oi)coin,toyουou,u(ou)soupooυιui(uy)(cfNewYork)(ThecombinationυιinAtticGreekalwaysoccursbeforeanothervowelandispronouncedasυfollowedbythesemivowelythereisnoexactEnglishequivalent)TheLongDiphthongs:IotasubscriptWhenalongvowel(ᾱ,η,orω)combineswithιtoformadiphthong,theιis(inmostmoderntexts)writtenundertheline:thisiscallediotasubscriptorιsubscript,ᾳ,ῃ,ῳThisisnotanancientcustom,butdatesfromtheByzantineAge,whenscholarswereattemptingtostandardizethespellingofancientGreek,althoughthepronunciationhadchangedovertheyearsMostbutnotallmoderntextsfollowtheByzantinepracticeNoteonι‑subscriptIntheClassicalperiod,andinfactuntiltheninthcenturyCE,thecapitalletterswereusedforallformalwritingThesmalllettersaresimplifiedformsoftheseforfasterwriting,andbeganintheninthcenturyCEtobeusedasaformal(orbook)handBeforethistimethelongdiphthongswerewrittenwithiotaonthelinewiththeotherletters:ΑΙ,ΗΙ,ΩΙ,asinΤΗΙΚΩΜΩΙΔΙΑΙ,ΤΗΙΤΡΑΓΩΙΔΙΑΙ(τῇκωμῳδίᾳ,τῇτραγῳδίᾳforthecomedy,forthetragedy),andiotawaspronounced:spellingoriginallyrepresentspronunciation(ie,language),butoftenbecomesstandardized(orfossilized)aspronunciationchangesAlphabetandSoundsofGreekBythesecondcenturyBCEthisiotahadbeenlostfromthepronunciationinAttica,anditgraduallyceasedtobewrittenTheByzantinesputitunderthelinetoshowthatitnolongeraffectedthepronunciationWhenthislittleiotaoccurs,itmustbelearnedaspartofthespellingThus,itisnecessarytodistinguishῃ(adativeending)fromη(anominativeending)Afteracapitalletter,thisιisstillwrittenonthelineinmoderntexts,Αι,Ηι,Ωι(=ᾳ,ῃ,ῳ)BreathingsInGreek,thesymbol῾,thoughnotaletter,representsoneofthesoundsofthelanguage,thehsound(oraspiration)Everywordbeginningwithavowelordiphthongmustbemarkedwitheitherthe῾(roughbreathingforh)orthe᾿(smoothbreathingfortheabsenceofanh):εἰς(eis)intoεἷς(heis)oneὀδός(odos)thresholdὁδός(hodos)roadThebreathingmarkgoesoverthesecondmemberofadiphthong:οὐnotοὗofwhomWordsbeginningwithρandυalwayshavetheroughbreathing:ῥόδονroseὑπέρover(hyper)NoteontheBreathingsThealphabetgivenaboveistheIonicalphabet,whichwastheoneusedbytheIonianGreeksandadoptedbytheAthenians(officiallyinBCE),andgraduallybyalltheGreeksBeforethisuniversalacceptanceoftheIonicalphabet,acitystatemightnotonlyhaveitsowndialect,butsomeevenhadtheirownversionsofthealphabetNowtheIonicalphabetistheoneusedbothforModernGreekand

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