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首页 *新书上架*阿恩海姆、格式塔和艺术:一种心理学理论

*新书上架*阿恩海姆、格式塔和艺术:一种心理学理论.pdf

*新书上架*阿恩海姆、格式塔和艺术:一种心理学理论

九月虺
2009-10-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*阿恩海姆、格式塔和艺术:一种心理学理论pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

IanVerstegenArnheim,GestaltandArtAPsychologicalTheorySpringerWienNewYorkIanVerstegenTheUniversityofGeorgiaStudiesAbroadProgramCortona,ItalyThisworkissubjecttocopyrightAllrightsarereserved,whetherthewholeorpartofthematerialisconcerned,specificallythoseoftranslation,reprinting,reuseofillustrations,broadcasting,reproductionbyphotocopyingmachinesorsimilarmeans,andstorageindatabanks©SpringerVerlagWien·PrintedinAustriaSpringerWienNewYorkisapartofSpringerScienceBusinessMediaspringeronlinecomProductLiability:ThepublishercangivenoguaranteeforalltheinformationcontainedinthisbookTheuseofregisterednames,trademarks,etcinthispublicationdoesnotimply,evenintheabsenceofaspecificstatement,thatsuchnamesareexemptfromtherelevantprotectivelawsandregulationsandthereforefreeforgeneraluseTypesetting:CamerareadybyauthorPrinting:BörsedruckGesmbH,Wien,ÖsterreichPrintedonacidfreeandchlorinefreebleachedpaperSPIN:LibraryofCongressControlNumber:ISBNSpringerWienNewYorkISBNSpringerWienNewYorkvPREFACEWhenonehearsthewords,the‘psychologyofart,’oneislikelytothinkofthenameofRudolfArnheimBecauseofhisgreatproductivitywehavebeenfortunatetohearthelatestwordsofwisdomfromthisremarkablenonegenarian,almostuptothepresentdayButwhileArnheimthepersonalityisalwaysintriguing,hissystemrisksbeingleftbehindAlthoughArnheimhasremainedinremarkablecontactwithyoungerscholarsaroundtheworld,hisideashaveriskedalienationfromtheirbasicgestaltbasisThisbookisapresentationofthewholeunifiedArnheimthroughthelensofaliving,breathingGestaltpsychologyArnheim’stwocomplementaryworks,ArtandVisualPerception()andThePoweroftheCenter()willsurelyholdtheirowninvisualarttheoryforsometimetocomeButArnheim,himself,neverattemptedtoprovideageneralpsychologyofartNor,itseems,didhepresumeheoughttoInfact,heoncewrotethatthebookbyHansandShulamaithKreitler“maywellclaimtohaveestablishedthepsychologyofartsasadiscipline”(,p)Asmuchasthatmayhavebeentruethen,itismuchlesstruenowArnheimhasbynowwrittenoneverysubjectofthepsychologyofartandageneralapproachmaybesaidtoexist,ifnotinoneplaceThisworkisanattempttobringintoasinglecoherentstatementthistheoryIbegantodiscerninArnheim’saunifiedapproachcenteredontheideaofperceptualdynamicsThePoweroftheCenter()raisednewproblemsoftheoreticalexposition,andsuggestedthatitscompositionalschemewasthekeytothisunifiedapproachIndeed,inTheDynamicsofArchitecturalForm()Arnheimsuggestedthat“Ihavecomeincreasinglytobelievethatthedynamicsofshape,color,andmovementisthedecisive,althoughtheleastexplored,factorofsensoryexpession”(p)this,onlythreeyearsbeforethebookoncompositionThissuggestedacentralmodelbasedon‘thedynamicsofarchitecture,’‘shape,’etcItgavemethesuspicionthatArtandVisualPerception()couldthenbeabstractedintosuchaformThiswouldthenfreethepresentationofgeneralprinciples(thechapters‘Dynamics’and‘Expression’)anddevelopmentalaspects(thechapter‘Growth),whichcouldthenhavetheirownseparatepresentationIbegandescribingmyschemetoArnheimandhereactedwithinterest,andsurpriseIt“islikeadambreakinthehydraulicsystemofmywork,whichformostofmypurposesisasystemonlybecauseIlookatitemsofmyworkonepieceataatime,whereasyouarepresentingitasawhole”(Arnheim,b)AsIviaskedabouttheholesthathadappearedwiththeschemeIhadcommittedmyselfto,Arnheimatthesametimewasbusyelucidatingwhathecalledthe‘keystones,’theelementarygroundconcepts,ofhistheorythathadbeenleftunstatedTheresultiswhatIliketobelievetobetwohighlycomplementaryventuresThisbookbeganasthelaborofanoverambitiousyoungster,inspiredbythegentlewordsofaretiredsagelikefigureinAnnArbor,MichiganIamverygratefultoProfArnheimforthegenerosityheshowedmethen,andovertheensuingyears,providingmewithapricelessexperienceofmentoringIbroughtanearlydraftofthebooktomaturityundertheencouragmentofTizianoAgostini,HowardGruber,KendallWaltonandWolfgangWildgen,aswellasAlanGilchristandJohnCeraso,theonlytwoteachersofpsychologyIhaveeverhadAgoodpushtogetrestartedwasgivenbyLuciaPizzoRusso,JosephGlicksohn,MichaelKubovyandWalterEhrensteinIwishtothankthemallbutespeciallyTizianoAgostiniandWolfgangWildgenfortheirsteadfastsupportovermanyyearsTomybelovedwifeLouise,whohascheerfullycometoacceptthepresenceofArnheiminourlives,IdedicatethisbookwiththanksCortona,ItalyIanVerstegenviiTABLEOFCONTENTSIntroductionWhyArnheimWhyGestaltChapterArnheimandDifferentApproachestothePsychologyofArtChapterExpression,SymbolismandVisualThinkingChapterTheSenses,PerceptualObjectsandtheirDynamicsChapterTheNotoriousGestaltBrainModelChapterTheDynamicsofPictorial,SculpturalandArchitecturalFormChapterTheDynamicsofPantomimicFormChapterTheDynamicsofMusicalFormChapterTheDynamicsofPoeticFormChapterArtinComparativePerspective:Children,Adults,CulturesChapterTheDynamicsofMicrogeneticArtisticDevelopmentChapterIndividualArtisticDevelopmentChapterTheDynamicsofDifferentialandPsychopathologicalArtisticFormChapterTheDynamicsofCulturalPerceptualFormChapterObjectivePercepts,ObjectiveValuesAppendixTheLifeofaPsychologistofArtINTRODUCTIONWHYARNHEIMWHYGESTALTAsweaddressArnheimandhiswritingstoday,wearefacedwiththeproblemoftheexpositionofhistheories,whichhasneverbeenattempted,andtheotherproblemoftheirdefense,whichisreallynotpossiblewithoutsomesenseoftheformerproblemTheverystructureofthisbookisanimplicitorderingofArnheim'sthoughtItattemptstoorderthisthought,however,intermsofbasicpsychologyThatis,itseekstoworkitswaydown,evermorespecifically,fromproblemsofgeneralpsychology,theproblemofexpressioncentraltoperceptionofworksofart,toindividualsensemodalitiesthatexplainthemItisimpossible,however,torestcontentwithamereexpositionofArnheim'spositionsWeareinevitablyledtocompleteourunderstandingofhistheorieswiththeGestaltpsychologyofhisteachersMaxWertheimerandWolfgangKöhlerButoncethishasbegunwehavetotakeaccountoftheGestaltpsychologycontemporarytoArnheimandultimatelythatdevelopingupuntilyesterdayIfinditimpossibletodiscussArnheim'sviewsofperceptionwithoutthinkingofcontemporarydevelopmentsinperception,especiallyasproposedbyEuropeanscientistsworkinginthegestalttraditionThisisnotonlytruebecauseonefamiliarwiththeworknaturallyseestherelationshipbutalsobecausemanydismissArnheimsimplybecausetheyregardGestaltpsychologytobewrong,outdatedorirrelevantIwillamplyshow,inthefollowingchapters,bothArnheim'ssyntheticpositionandthewaysitisbolsteredandamplifiedincontemporarygestaltstyletheoryForthetimebeing,however,itisworthwhiletosketchtheattractionofthegestaltidealinthefirstplace,onetowhichArnheimcontributed,buttowhichhewasalsoattractedItistemptingtoascribethegestaltpositionofan‘analyticholism’orelsean‘organicmaterialism’toauniqueintersectionofideasfermentingintheWeimarRepublicinGermanywithRomanticideasreachingbacktoGoetheandbeyondtoSpinozaWritingofhisteacher,MaxWertheimer,Arnheim()wrotehow“SpinozisticwasthenotionthatorderandwisdomarenotimposeduponnaturebutareinherentinnatureitselfofgreatinterestalsowasSpinoza'sideathatmentalandphysicalexistenceareaspectsofoneandthesamerealityandthereforereflectionsofeachother”(p)ButthemostexcitingthingtoArnheimwasthecontemporarypromiseinthesciencesofhisdayAccordingtoGestaltthinking,theworldandthehumanmindbothshareprinciplesoforderingItisnotamatterofimposingorderonnatureorescapinginourmindsanirrationalouterworld,rather,thewaysourmindsworkispreciselyduetotheprinciplesthatordernatureThisthinkingisevidentintheworkon‘physicalgestalts’byArnheim'sotherteacherWolfgangKöhler(Arnheim,)Morespecifically,Gestaltistsholdtoavarietyofdoctrinesthatareappealing,andforwhichtheyhaveconsistentlyfoundexperimentalsupportThereisobviouslythefamousgestaltappraochtoperception,aboutwhichmuchmorewillbesaidTheincorrectepithet‘thewholeismorethanthesumofitsparts’hasbeenappliedtothisthinkingbuttherealdoctrineisthatweperceivetheworldasordered,clearcutandmeaningfulThishaswiderangingramificationsforGestaltistswhohaveusedideasofperceptualorganizationwellbeyondperceptionMuchmorethanmereperception,animageofhumanityattachestoorderedperceptionWeperceivethebountyaffordedbysomethingsandthelackmissinginothersTheneedfeltbyahelplesschildisacommandtohelpEveninthosefamouscaseswhichArnheim'scolleagueSolomonAsch()investigated,inwhichagroupgangsuponanindividualandtellsthemthatanobviouslylongerlineisactuallyshorter,thatpersonreactsrationally,tryinghardtoreconciletheirbasictrustininterpersonalcommunicationwiththefactsbeforetheireyesUnfortunately,assomanygestaltdoctrines,thishasbeeninterpretedbeyongrecognitionasevidencethatgrouppressurecanmakeusdopracticallyanything(Friend,RaffertyBramel,)ThereisastrongtendencyinGestaltpsychologytoholdbackattheseemingirrationalityoffindings,whethertheybeinFreudianrationalization,conformitystudiesorinvestigationsoftheeffectsofneedsanddesiresonperception,andthinkthroughtheepistemologicalconsequencesofthe‘naiverelativism’seeminglyevidentintheresultsItistooeasytoinvokeanirrationalistmodelofhumanmotivationuntilweconsiderwhattheconsequencesofourownstatusasscientists,subjecttothesamefoiblesWhenweignoretheseconsequenceswecommitwhatthephilosopherMauriceMandelbaum,inanappreciationofArnheim’steacherWolfgangKöhler,called‘theselfexceptingfallacy’(Mandelbaum,Verstegen,b)Infact,wesoondiscoverthatsuchirrationalismisnotasrampantaswethinkanditismuchmoreinterestingandrepresentativeoftherealworldtoconsiderthebalanceofobjectiveinputandpersonalmotivationsthatpropelusThereisnostronggestaltmovementtodayinsocialpsychologybutnumerousstudiesthroughoutthefieldshowaconsistencywithgestaltinterestsandgivefurtherimpetustotheimageofhumanitypropoundedbytheGestaltistsThebrilliantworkonaltruismandtheenvironmentasacauseformotivationbyMichaelandLiseWallachaswellasHenriZukierisacaseinpoint(WallachWallach,WallachWallach,Zukier,)TheseworksconfirminalargersensewhatIwishtoconfirmforArnheimandperceptionThegestaltschoolhasanecessaryscientificmessagetoimportthatuniquelysolvesmanyimportantproblemsUnfortunately,asinthecaseofsocialpsychology,theaimsofGestaltpsychologyhavebeenmisunderstoodinperceptionThemostcommonresponseisignoranceThehopefulstartsofthegestaltschoolwerenotquantifiable,itisargued,tomakealastingimpressiononthefield,whichhadtowaitforthecognitiverevolutionAmorepositiveinterpretationhasbeenofferedbyDavidMurray,inhisrecentbook,GestaltPsychologyandtheCognitiveRevolution()Hearguesthatmanyprincipleschampionedbythecognitiverevolution,includingcogntiveschemas,organizationandprototypes,werefirstdiscoveredbygestaltpsychologistsWhileoftentrue,thisinterpretationfailstoaccountforthelackofrecognitionofGestaltismbythepioneersofCognitivePsychologyInfact,thescientismorpositivismofCognitivepsychologysetitapartfromtheaimsofGestaltpsychology,andthisveryqualityhasmoreincommonwiththespiritofBehaviorismthatCognitivismisuniversalyconsideredtohavereplacedMoreskepticalinterpretationsofCognitivismhaveemergedfromtheGestaltcamp(Vicario,Henle,),notleastfromArnheimTheneedforcontrol,predictionandimmediateoperationalizationofcontemporarypsychologyisalientotheaimsofGestaltpsychologyNowisprobablythefirsttimethatanadequatedefenseofGestaltismhasbeenabletoemergeAfterthesometimescurmudgeonlydefensesofGestaltpositionsbyArnheimandothers,anewgenerationwithanewobjectivityhasemergedtohonestlyexaminesomeofthemainpreceptsandassumptionsofpsychologyanditstheoreticalunderpinningsForemosthavebeenantirepresentationalistphilosophersofmindwholooktophenomenologists(especiallyexistential,likeHeideggerandMerleauPonty),fromwhichtheadvantagesofthealliedGestaltviewpointnaturallyemerge(Petitot,Roy,PachoudVarela,)Unfortunately,psychologicalthinkingonarthasbifurcatedintoatechnicalandoftenunenlighteningperceptualism(Solso,Zeki,)andaspeculativeFreudianismPerceptualpsychology’sinabilitytoaddressmeaningsisnowhereclearerthaninitsdiscussionsofvisualartNormally,littlemoreisaccomplishedthanpointingoutpercepualmechanismsorillusionsinactualworksofartThereisanewinterestinlookingatquestionsthewayArnheimproposed,andanewconvictionthatheandGestaltpsychologywereontherighttrackTothisconvictionthisbookisaddressedItsstructureisbasicallydividedintothreeparts:foundationalprinciples,theseprinciplesappliedtothevariousarts,andthenthedevelopmentalaspectofartOffoundationalprinciples,thenextchapterdiscusses“ArnheimandDifferentApproachestothePsychologyofArt”RegardingthedesirabilityofanArnheimianpsychologyofarttobedependentonourdefinitionofpsychology,anattemptismadetofirstdefinethisinreasonableterms,andseewhereArnheimfitsinAfterdiscussingthevirtuesofaperceptualapproachtoart,adistinctionismadebetween‘CognitiveNativism’and‘CognitiveInferentialism,’thetwodominantschoolsofperceptualresearchtodayIntroducingtheGestaltalternative,IfacethequestionofthedegreetowhichwecansaythataGestaltschoolstillsurvivesThen,afteraddressingthetenebilityofitscentralprinciplesofRelationalDeterminationandSimplicity,IsketchtheworkofotherresearcherswhoseGestaltworksontheartscomplementthoseofArheimChaptergoesontoaddressconceptsthatareimportantforallpsychology,butparticularlyimportantforthepsychologyofart,namely,theconceptsof“Expression,SymbolismandVisualThinking”Beginningwiththeideaofemotionasafunctionalrelationshipbetweensubjectandobject,wefirstmustgrantaphenomenalrealitytoexpressionThen,apsychologyofstructuralsimilarity(isomorphism)underlyingexpression,metaphorandsymbolismispossibleMetaphorarisesbecauseofdifferencesinjuxtaposedlevelsofabstractionandsymbolismTheabilitiestorecognizethecommonalityofgeneraisabstractionThegestaltdoctineofsingularity(prägnanz)accountsforabstractedsaliencesinperceptionOntheotherhand,whenthesesingularitiesareinsteadsensiblycomparedandmanipulated,ontheirwaytoaneworder,productive–orasArnheim()callsit,visual–thinkingoccursChapter,“TheSenses,PerceptualObjectsandtheirDynamics,”addressesthefundamentaldifferencesbetweenseeingandhearingasafoundationfortheartsexpressedinthosemodalitiesNevertheless,inspiteofdifferences,generalgestaltprinciplesoforganization–Wertheimer’sfamouslaws–canbeappliedgenerallyArnheiminThePoweroftheCenterhasproposedasimplesystemofperceptualcentersgeneratingdynamicsbetweenthem,andboundedbyvariousformats,asurprisinglypowerfulsystemArnheim’stheoryofcomposition,then,becomesamorespecializedaccountofperceptualdynamicsThisisthebasisfortherestofthebookFirst,however,Chapteraddressesthe“NotoriousGestaltBrainModel,”themodelproposedbyWolfgangKöhlerthathasbeenuniversallydismissedandwithittheentireGestaltschoolWhilecriticizingtheparticularwayinwhichitwaspresented,theoverallspiritisdefendedandmuchconfirmationforitisfoundincurrentworkonbrianmodelinganddynamicsIconcludethatsuchanapproachcannotbedoneawaywith,foritsmonisticspiritdrivesthethingsthatismostattracticeaboutGestaltism,itsmonisticnaturalismChapter,“TheDynamicsofPictorial,SculpturalandArchitecturalForm,”beginsthesecondpartofthebook,thediscussionofindividualmediaThesearenotconcretemedia,like‘painting’or‘castbronzesculpture,’butabstractedmodalitiesof()envisagement,sculpture,architectureandmoreThischapterincludesthethreevisualmodalitiesPicturescontainshapes,whichareperceptualcentersThesedevelopmeaningwithintheconfinesoftheformat,theframe,pageorwhateverTheobjectcanbeanobjectinitsownrightwhentheformatbecomestheenvironmentarounditSculpturesarecenterscontainingsubcentersbuttheformatisinsteadthevirtualaxiscreatedbytheverticalBuldings,finally,arecomplicatedbythefactthatthey(andtheirsubcenters)areinhabited,creatingaconstantinteractionbetweeninsideandoutside,planandflow,elevationandoutsideaspectThebuildingitself,asacenter,theninteractswiththelandscapeorurbanfabricChapter,“TheDynamicsofPantomimicForm,”discussesthepsychologicalprinciplesunderlyingvisualaction‘Pantomimic’isintendedtocapturebothreal(‘absolute’)movement,inwhichasinglebodyisobservedincontinuousspace,and‘edited’movement,madepossiblebythetechnologyoffilm,videoandanimationOfabsolutemovement,wehavedanceandacting,andbothinteractwiththeformatofthestageSimilarly,editedactionhastheframeofthefilmtoworkwithChapter,“TheDynamicsofMusicalForm,”appliesArnheim’sideastomusicTonesarecentersthatderivemeaningfromthekindofscaletheyinteractwithInthewesterndiatonicscalethemajorandminormodesofthescalearetheclearestmeanstoworkwithThearbitrarytonicchosenthenchainsthetonestotherecurrentorderingofthescaleThetonemovesupthisscaleanddownit,asacomingtowardandamovingawayfrom,withattachednotionsofstrivingandrestHarmony,instead,isa‘verticalstructure’thatsimilarlymoveswiththecompositionTogetherwiththemeter,phrasedynamicsaredeveloped,andlargercompositionalorderingsChapter,“TheDynamicsofPoeticFo

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