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首页 *新书上架*道德和政治哲学:关键事件、概念.、理论

*新书上架*道德和政治哲学:关键事件、概念.、理论.pdf

*新书上架*道德和政治哲学:关键事件、概念.、理论

九月虺
2009-10-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*道德和政治哲学:关键事件、概念.、理论pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MORALANDPOLITICALPHILOSOPHYKEYISSUES,CONCEPTSANDTHEORIESPaulSmithMoralandPoliticalPhilosophyprexinddiprexinddi::PM::PMThispageintentionallyleftblankMoralandPoliticalPhilosophyKeyIssues,ConceptsandTheoriesPaulSmithprexinddiiiprexinddiii::PM::PM©PaulSmithAllrightsreservedNoreproduction,copyortransmissionofthispublicationmaybemadewithoutwrittenpermissionNoparagraphofthispublicationmaybereproduced,copiedortransmittedsavewithwrittenpermissionorinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,orunderthetermsofanylicencepermittinglimitedcopyingissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgency,TottenhamCourtRoad,LondonWTLPAnypersonwhodoesanyunauthorisedactinrelationtothispublicationmaybeliabletocriminalprosecutionandcivilclaimsfordamagesTheauthorhasassertedhisrighttobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActFirstpublishedinbyPALGRAVEMACMILLANHoundmills,Basingstoke,HampshireRGXSandFifthAvenue,NewYork,NYCompaniesandrepresentativesthroughouttheworldPALGRAVEMACMILLANistheglobalacademicimprintofthePalgraveMacmillandivisionofStMartin’sPress,LLCandofPalgraveMacmillanLtdMacmillan®isaregisteredtrademarkintheUnitedStates,UnitedKingdomandothercountriesPalgraveisaregisteredtrademarkintheEuropeanUnionandothercountriesISBN:––––hardbackISBN:–––hardbackISBN:––––paperbackISBN:–––paperbackThisbookisprintedonpapersuitableforrecyclingandmadefromfullymanagedandsustainedforestsourcesLogging,pulpingandmanufacturingprocessesareexpectedtoconformtotheenvironmentalregulationsofthecountryoforiginAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryAcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyCPIAntonyRowe,ChippenhamandEastbourneprexinddivprexinddiv::PM::PMvContentsPrefaceviiiAcknowledgementsixDrugLawsArgumentsforarighttothefreedomtousedrugsArgumentsagainstarighttothefreedomtousedrugsAutilitarianargumentforprohibitionAutilitarianargumentagainstprohibitionJustificationsofPunishmentRetributivismKant’sretributivismKant’sargumentsforretributivismCriticismsofretributivismTheutilitariantheoryofpunishmentCriticismsoftheutilitariantheoryofpunishmentAttemptstoreconcileretributivistandutilitarianjustificationsofpunishmentCivilDisobedience:IsThereaDutytoObeytheLawDefinitionsandvarietiesofcivildisobedienceIsthereadutytoobeythelawJustificationsofcivildisobedienceGlobalPovertyFactsaboutglobalpovertyandaffluenceIsthereamoraldutytohelpthedistantpoorPeterSinger’sargumentforadutytohelpthedistantpoorGlobalpovertyasinjusticeprexinddvprexinddv::PM::PMviContentsLibertyJohnStuartMillonlibertyContractualismandlibertyWhichfreedomsareespeciallyimportantAnalysinginterpretationsofliberty:howmanyconceptsoflibertyCompetingconceptionsoffreedomFreedomandthestateLibertylimitingPrinciplesHarmtoothersOffenceHarmtoselfHarmlesswrongdoingPublicgoodsSocialjusticeRightsSomedistinctionsamongrightsThebasisofmoralrightsRightsandrightconductRightsanddutiesHumanrightsTheimportanceofmoralrightsCriticismsoftheideaofmoralrightsEqualityandSocialJusticeEqualitySocialjusticeWhichkindsofequalitydoessocialjusticerequireMoralRelativismThefactofmoraldiversityVarietiesofmoralrelativismArgumentsformoralrelativismObjectionstomoralrelativismUtilitarianismBentham’sandMill’sutilitarianismVarietiesofcontemporaryutilitarianismAttractionsofutilitarianismprexinddviprexinddvi::PM::PMviiContentsUtilitarianism,liberty,rights,equalityandsocialjusticeObjectionstoutilitarianismKantianMoralPhilosophyMoraldutiesarecategoricalimperativesTheCategoricalImperativeTheFormulaofUniversalLawTheFormulaofHumanityKantandordinarymoraljudgementsKantonlyingMoralmotivationascrucial,powerful,andinspiringThesufficiencyofmoralmotivation:oughtimpliescanMoralmotivationandfreedomofthewillJohnRawls’sTheoryofJusticeFundamentalideasTheprinciplesofjusticeArgumentsfortheprinciplesofjusticeInstitutionalandpolicyimplicationsoftheprinciplesofjusticeCriticismsofRawls’scontractualargumentNozick’slibertarianrivalto,andcritiqueof,Rawls’stheoryofjusticeCohen’segalitariancritiqueofRawls’stheoryofjusticeConcludingRemarksNotesReferencesIndexprexinddviiprexinddvii::PM::PMviiiPrefaceThisbookiswrittenprimarilyforundergraduatesinphilosophyandcognatesubjects,suchaspoliticsorlawItaimstobeaccessible,clearandconciseConsequently,itavoidstechnicalities,complicationsanddetails(someofwhichsomepeoplewillthinkshouldnothavebeenavoided)AbookofthislengthmustbehighlyselectiveinitstopicsandtheirdiscussionIhaveselectedsomekeyconceptsandtheoriesthatarecentraltomoralandpoliticalphilosophyandsomecontroversialpracticalmoralandpoliticalissuesTheseissuesareselectedtoengagestudentsandtodeveloptheirinterestinthemoralandpoliticalconceptsandtheoriesThetopicofeachchapterhasbeenthesubjectofwholebooksthatoffercomprehensivesurveysHowever,Ihavebeenhighlyselective,aimingtofocusontheessentialsofeachtopicThebookstartswithfourchaptersonpracticalmoralandpoliticalissuesthatareimportant,perenniallytopical,controversialandprovocativeAswellasengagingwithstudents’interests,thesepracticalissuesraiseandillustrategeneralissuesinmoralandpoliticaltheoryArgumentsaboutthepracticalissuesappealtomoralandpoliticalconceptsandprinciples,particularlytoliberty,libertylimitingprinciples,rights,equalityandsocialjusticeTheseareexploredinchapters–Discussionofpracticalmoralandpoliticalissuesandoftheconceptsandprinciplescontinuallyraisesquestionsaboutgeneralmoralandpoliticaltheories,whicharediscussedsystematicallyinchapters–(Thedistinctionsbetweenissues,conceptsandtheoriesarenotclearcutbutporous,astheypermeateeachother)ThechaptersareinterconnectedandarebestreadinsequenceHowever,eachchapteriswrittensothatitcanbereadindependentlyandsotheycanbereadinanyorderThisnecessitatessomerepetition,butisintendedtomakethebookusefultodiversecoursesEachchapterisintendedtobethoughtprovokingandeachconcludeswithquestionsfordiscussion,invitingstudentstothinkcriticallyabouttheissuesraisedandtocontinuethedebateprexinddviiiprexinddviii::PM::PMixAcknowledgementsIamgratefultotwoanonymousreadersfortheirveryhelpfulcomments,oneondraftsofthefirsttwochaptersandoneonthewholedrafttypescriptChapterisbasedon‘Drugs,Morality,andtheLaw’,JournalofAppliedPhilosophy,,()IamgratefultoBlackwellPublishingforpermissiontousethismaterialChapterisbasedon‘JustificationsofPunishment’,Dialogue,()IamgratefultoDrJeremyHall,theeditorofDialogue,forpermissiontousethismaterialprexinddixprexinddix::PM::PMThispageintentionallyleftblankDrugLawsInmanycountries,itisillegaltopossesscertaindrugs,suchascannabis,ecstasy,amphetamine,LSD,cocaineorheroin(Inothercountries,alcoholisillegal)Asaresult,manydrugusersarepunishedSoitisimportanttoknowwhetherlawsthatprohibitthepossessionorsupplyofdrugsarejustifiedAretheyanunjustinfringementofpersonalliberty,orisdruguseimmoralandrightlyillegalDodruglawsreduceorincreasetheharmsassociatedwithdrugsShouldillegaldrugsbelegalizedThejustifiabilityofdruglawsisahighlycontroversialpracticalissuePhilosophycanclarifythepublicdebatebysortingoutthedifferentarguments,analysingthem,thusdisclosingtheirunderlyingprinciples,andcriticallyassessingthemLegalizationofillegaldrugshasbeenadvocatedbysomephilosophersongroundsoflibertyrights,bysomeeconomistswhoadvocatefreemarketsandbysomejournalistsonconsequentialistgroundsofharmminimizationSomeseniorpoliceofficersandjudgeshavesupportedtheideaHowever,governmentsgenerallyrefusetoentertaintheideaThischaptersurveys,sorts,analysesandassessesthevariousargumentsthataredeployedindebateoverdrugprohibitionItconsiders,first,argumentsoverwhetherornotadultshaveamoralrighttothefreedomtousedangerousdrugsand,second,argumentsoverwhetherprohibitionhas,orlegalizationwouldhave,thebetterconsequencesintermsofminimizingdrugrelatedharmforallaffectedArgumentsforarighttothefreedomtousedrugsInliberalsocieties,thereisageneralpresumptionthatadultshavearightto‘liveasseemsgoodtothemselves’,providedthattheydochainddchaindd::PM::PMMoralandPoliticalPhilosophynotviolatetherightsofothers,and,inparticular,thattheyhavearighttodowhattheychoosetotheirownbodiesandminds,includingunhealthyanddangerousthings,iftheyendangeronlythemselvesAdultsareassumedtohavearighttodoriskythingssuchassmoketobaccoorengageindangeroussports(forexample,mountaineering,boxing,motorsports,parachuting,skiing)Ifthelawprohibitedsuchactivities,itwouldbewidelyseenasaviolationofindividualrights,anintolerableinfringementoflibertySoitisclaimedthattherighttotakedangerousdrugs,forpleasureorescapism,isjustanotherapplicationoftherighttodounhealthyordangerousthingstooneselfJohnStuartMill,forexample,arguedthattheonlyjustificationforthelawtocoerceindividualsistopreventharmtoothers,notharmtooneself:‘overhimself,overhisownbodyandmind,theindividualissovereign’TheideaofarighttousedangerousdrugsispronetomisunderstandingItdoesnotincludearighttoharmothers(forexample,bydrivingundertheinfluence)ortooffendothers(forexample,bybeingintoxicatedinpublic)Advocacyofsucharightdoesnotmeanadvocacyofdruguse:advocatesmaybelievethatuseofdangerousdrugsisunwiseorimmature,butholdthatadultshavearighttomakeunwiseorimmaturechoicesAmoralrighttousedrugsdoesnotimplythatdruguseismorallyrightOnecanhavethemoralrighttodosomethingthatismorallywrong(forexample,wasteone’stimeormoney,nevergivetocharity)Itisnotincoherenttosaythatadultshaveamoralrighttousedangerousdrugs,butthatitismorallywrongforthemtodosoTheargumentforarighttothefreedomtousedrugsmightbesummarizedthus:Adultshavearighttoliveasseemsgoodtothemselves,withinthelimitsofothers’rightsDrugusedoesnotinfringeorviolateothers’rightsTherefore,adultshavearighttousedrugsOneresponsetothisargumentistoquestionitsfirstpremiseAlthoughinliberalsocietiestheremaybeawidespreadbeliefinthemoralrighttothelibertytoliveasseemsgoodtooneself–ofchainddchaindd::PM::PMDrugLawswhichdruguseisacontroversialapplication–whatargumentsarethereforitOneargumentisMill’sutilitarianclaimthatlibertymaximizeshappinessLibertyenablesindividuality,whichisaprincipalingredientofhumanhappiness,andhumankindbenefitsfromallowingeachadult‘toliveasseemsgoodtothemselves’Mill’stworeasonsforthislibertyapplytodruguseFreedomallowsindividualstosatisfytheirownwants(providedtheyareinformedaboutthedangers)anditallowsexperimentationinwaysoflivingfromwhicheveryonecanlearnAnotherargumentforthelibertytoliveasseemsgoodtooneself(withinthelimitsofothers’rights)iscontractualist(seechapter,secondsection)ContractualismholdsthatthemostreasonablemoralprinciplesarethosethatrationalandreasonablepeoplewouldagreetoformutualadvantagePeoplereasonablyandinevitablydisagreeoverwhatisagoodwaytoliveDespitethat,reasonablepeoplecouldagreeonMill’sprincipleoflibertytoliveaccordingtoone’sownjudgementofwhatisgood,andtolerationofothers’differentjudgementsanddifferent,harmlesswaysoflivingItwouldbeirrationaltoagreetocompulsiontoliveaccordingtoothers’judgementsortoprohibitionoflivingharmlesslyaccordingtoone’sown,anditwouldbeunreasonabletoexpectotherstodosoForexample,noonecouldrationallyagreetobeingcompelledtoliveaccordingtoreligiousbeliefsthatarenottheirownortotheirownreligionbeingprohibited,butreasonablepeoplewithdifferentreligiousbeliefscouldagreeonprinciplesofreligiouslibertyandtolerationSimilarly,noonecouldrationallyagreetobeingcompelledtoliveaccordingtosexualpreferencesthatarenottheirownortoprohibitionoftheirconsensualsexualpreferences,butreasonablepeoplewithdifferentsexualpreferencescanagreeonaprincipleofsexualfreedomandtolerationamongconsentingadultsSimilarly,peopledisagreeoverwhetheruseofaparticulardrugisgoodorbadBeingforced(byprohibitionorcompulsion)toliveaccordingtoanother’sdrugpreferencesisunacceptable,butreasonablepeoplewithdifferentdrugpreferencescouldagreetoarighttothefreedomtousedrugsAswithsexualpreferences,itcouldbeagreedthatwhatconsentingadultsdoinprivateisnobusinessofthelawchainddchaindd::PM::PMMoralandPoliticalPhilosophyCompetingconceptionsofthepoliticalimplicationsofindividualmoralrightsapplytotherighttousedangerousdrugsThelibertarianviewthatindividualrightsrequirefreemarketsandaminimalstate,appliedtodrugs,impliesfreemarketsindrugswithlittleornolegalregulation(perhapslawsonaminimumageandondrivingundertheinfluence)andnostateprovideddrugseducation,healthcareortreatmentOnthisview,adultshavetherighttotakedangerousdrugsbut,iftheychoosetodoso,mustaccepttheconsequencestheyhavenorighttopublichelpTheliberalview,incontrast,thatindividualrightsrequiregovernmentregulatedmarketsandawelfarestate,appliedtodrugs,impliesgovernmentregulateddrugmarkets,likethoseforalcoholandtobacco(regulatingquality,strength,price,labellingandadvertising)andstateprovisionofeducationaboutdrugsandofhealthcareandtreatmentfordrugusersThegreatvaluethatmostpeopleinliberalsocietiesattachtotheirpersonallibertyperhapsimpliesthepresumptionoflibertysuchthattheburdenofprooffallsonprohibitionists–itisprohibition,notliberty,thatneedstobejustifiedSo,let’sturntotheargumentsagainstamoralrighttousedrugsandthusforlegalprohibitionArgumentsagainstarighttothefreedomtousedrugsManyreasonsaregivenagainsttheideaofarighttousedrugsJoelFeinberg’sanalysisoflibertylimitingprinciples(thesubjectofchapter),thatis,principlesclaimedtojustifylawsthatrestrictindividuals’liberty,enablesthesorting,analysis,clarificationandassessmentoftheargumentsDruguseharmsothers(appealtotheharmprinciple)Everyone(exceptsomeanarchists)acceptsthatitislegitimateforthecriminallawtoprohibitsomeseriousharmtoothersDruguseharmsnotonlytheuserbut,indirectly,otherstooBychainddchaindd::PM::PMDrugLawsharmingtheirownhealthandpersonality,somedrugusersmakethemselveslessgoodfamilymembersorparentsthantheymightotherwisebe,sotheyharmtheirfamiliesSomemakethemselveslessproductiveemployeesthantheymightotherwisebe,soharmtheiremployersandtheeconomySomeimposehealthcarecostson,andsoharm,societygenerallySo,invariousways,somedrugusersindirectlyharmothersandsothelawshouldprohibitdruguseTheargumentmightbesummarizedthus:Thelawshouldprohibitharmingothers(anunqualifiedharmprinciple)Byharmingthemselves,drugusersindirectlyharmothers(family,economy,society)Therefore,thelawshouldprohibitdruguseAtfirstglance,appealtotheharmprinciplemightseemastrongargumentforprohibitionHowever,itsmajorpremiseneedstobequalifiedNotallharmtoothersiswrong(forexample,justifiedpunishment,faircompetition),andnotallwrongfulharmis,oroughttobe,criminalized(forexample,adultery)Asformakingoneselflesshealthy,lessproductiveoralessgoodparentthanonemightotherwisebe,evenifitcouldbeestablishedthattheseactionsaremorallywrong,theyarenotcriminalIfthelawshouldprohibitsuchindirectharmtoothers,thatwouldincludenotonlyillegaldrugusebutalsouseofalcoholandtobaccoandotherunhealthylifestylesanddiets,aswellasdangeroussportsPeopleriskindirectharmtotheirfamilyandothersintheseways,butfewthinksuchindirectharmshouldbeillegalTheharmprinciplemustbequalifiedbyindividuallibertyrightsViolenceisanotherkindofharmthatisinvokedtojustifyprohibitionItisclaimedthatillegaldrugusecausesviolenceHowever,manyillegaldrugs(opiates,cannabis,ecstasy)reduceaggressionCocainemaycauseorincreaseaggression,butthedrugmoststronglylinkedtoviolenceisalcoholSo,ifalinktoviolenceisareasonforprohibition,alcoholshouldbeprohibitedHowever,evenmostdrugprohibitioniststhinkitrightthatadultsshouldbefreetousealcoholandthatonlyaggression,underitsinfluenceorotherwis

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