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首页 *应求重贴*【马克·波斯特编】鲍德里亚选集

*应求重贴*【马克·波斯特编】鲍德里亚选集.pdf

*应求重贴*【马克·波斯特编】鲍德里亚选集

九月虺
2009-09-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*应求重贴*【马克·波斯特编】鲍德里亚选集pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

AcknowledgmentsPermissionhasbeengrantedforthereprintingortranslationofthefollowingworksofBaudrillard*LeSystèmedesobjets(Paris:Gallimard,),pp*LaSociétédeconsommation(Paris:Gallimard,),pp,ForaCritiqueofthePoliticalEconomyoftheSign,transCharlesLevin(StLouis:TelosPress,,originalpublication,),ppTheMirrorofProduction,transMarkPoster(StLouis:TelosPress,,originalpublication,),pp,*L'Echangesymboliqueetlamort(Paris:Gallimard,),pp,and"SymbolicExchangeandDeath,"transCharlesLevininTheStructuralAllegory,edJohnFekete,TheoryandHistoryofLiterature,vol(Minneapolis:UniversityofMinnesotaPress,),pp*Delaseduction(Paris:EditionsGalilee,),pp,,SimulacraandSimulations,transPaulFoss,PaulPattonandPhilipBeitchman(NewYork:Semiotext(e),,originalpublication,),pp,*LesStratégiesfatales(Paris:BernardGrasset,),pp,"TheMasses:TheImplosionoftheSocialintheMedia,"transMarieMaclean,NewLiteraryHistory,vol,no(Spring),pp*DesignatesnewtranslationfromtheFrench,byJacquesMourrainAcknowledgmentsviiDouglasKellnerkindlyreviewedmyselectionsandmadevaluablesuggestionsHisbook,JeanBaudrillard:FromMarxismtoPostmodernismandBeyond,forthcoming,hasagoodbibliographyofworksbyandonBaudrillardHelenTartar,myeditoratStanford,initiatedthisproject,tookonsomeofthedutiesoftendonebythevolumeeditor,andencouragedmethroughitscompletionNotesontheTranslationWordsthatappearinEnglishinBaudrillard'soriginaltext,apracticethatbecomesincreasinglyprevalentinhiswritings,havebeennotedassuchBaudrillardrarelyprovidesfullcitationsinhisownnotesTheeditorandtranslatorshaveattemptedtocompletethecitation,butinsomecasesthishasprovenimpossibleAttimesBaudrillardcitesFrenchtranslationsofEnglishorAmericanworkswhichareunavailableintheUnitedStatesAtothertimesBaudrillard'squotationshavenotbeenlocatedanywhereinthetexthecitesTransindicatesatranslator'sadditiontothenotesIntroductionMarkPosterBaudrillardhasdevelopedatheorytomakeintelligibleoneofthefascinatingandperplexingaspectsofadvancedindustrialsociety:theproliferationofcommunicationsthroughthemediaThisnewlanguagepracticediffersfrombothfacetofacesymbolicexchangeandprintThenewmediaemploythemontageprincipleoffilm(unlikeprint)andtimespacedistancing(unlikefacetofaceconversation)tostructureauniquelinguisticrealityBaudrillardtheorizesfromthevantagepointofthenewmediatoarguethatanewculturehasemerged,onethatisimpervioustotheoldformsofresistanceandimpenetrablebytheoriesrootedintraditionalmetaphysicalassumptionsCultureisnowdominatedbysimulations,Baudrillardcontends,objectsanddiscoursesthathavenofirmorigin,noreferent,nogroundorfoundationInthissense,whatWalterBenjaminwroteabout"theageofmechanicalreproduction,"BaudrillardappliestoallreachesofeverydaylifeBaudrillardbeganhiswritingwithTheSystemofObjects()andConsumerSociety()asanefforttoextendtheMarxistcritiqueofcapitalismtoareasthatwerebeyondthescopeofthetheoryofthemodeofproductionHegraduallyabandonedMarxism,aprocessthatistracedinthepagesofthisvolume,developinghispositionalonglinesthathaveaffinitieswithpoststructuralistslikeFoucaultandDerridaBaudrillardfoundthattheproductivistmetaphorinMarxismwasinappropriateforcomprehendingthestatusofcommoditiesinthepostwareraOnlyasemiologicalmodel,heargues,candecipherthemeaningstructureofthemoderncommodityButthecommodityembodiesacommunicationalstructurethatisadeparturefromthetraditionalunderstandingofthesignInacommoditytherelationofword,imageormeaningandreferentisbrokenandrestructuredsothatitsforceisdirected,nottothereferentofusevalueorutility,buttodesireLikethepoststructuralists,BaudrillardrejectstraditionalassumpIntroductiontionsaboutreferentialityAsLyotardputit,themetanarrativesofthepasthavecollapsed,creatinganewtheoreticalsituationinwhichtheconceptcannolongerpretendtocontrolorgraspitsobjectInBaudrillard'sterms,"hyperreality"isthenewlinguisticconditionofsociety,renderingimpotenttheoriesthatstillrelyonmaterialistreductionismorrationalistreferentialityIntheserespects,Baudrillard'sworkisimportanttothereconstitutionofcriticaltheory,and,moregenerally,appealstothosewhowouldattempttograspthestrangemixtureoffantasyanddesirethatisuniquetolatetwentiethcenturycultureTheselectionsinthisvolumerepresentacrosssectionofBaudrillard'swritingsfromtoandaredrawnmostlyfromhismajorbooksAbouthalfhavepreviouslybeentranslatedbutarereprintedherebecausetheyareoutofprintorinaccessibleMyintentionisthatthisvolumewillmakeBaudrillard'swritingsavailabletononFrenchreadersandthusstimulatethecriticalreceptionofhisworkSinceBaudrillard'spositionshiftedinthecourseofhiscareer,theselectionsarepresentedinchronologicalorderThefollowingbriefintroductiontothetrajectoryofhisthought,withindicationsofhisrelationtoothercurrentsofFrenchandGermanintellectualmovements,mightassistthereaderunfamiliarwiththisoftendifficultmaterialInTheSystemofObjects()BaudrillardinitiatedacomprehensiverethinkingofthethesisofconsumersocietyfromaneoMarxistperspective,onethatreliedonbothFreudianandSaussureanthemesHeexploresthepossibilitythatconsumptionhasbecomethechiefbasisofthesocialorderandofitsinternalclassificationsHearguesthatconsumerobjectsconstituteaclassificationsystemthatcodesbehaviorandgroupsAssuch,consumerobjectsmustbeanalysedbyuseoflinguisticcategoriesratherthanthoseofMarxianorliberaleconomics,Freudianorbehavioristpsychology,anthropologicalorsociologicaltheoriesofneedsConsumerobjectshavetheireffectinstructuringbehaviorthroughalinguisticsignfunctionAdvertisingcodesproductsthroughsymbolsthatdifferentiatethemfromotherproducts,therebyfittingtheobjectintoaseriesTheobjecthasitseffectwhenitisconsumedbytransferringits"meaning"totheindividualconsumerApotentiallyinfiniteplayofsignsisthusinstitutedwhichorderssocietywhileprovidingtheindividualwithanillusorysenseoffreedomandselfdeterminationTheSystemofObjectswentbeyondearlierdiscussionsofconsumersocietybysystematicallyimposinglinguisticcategoriestorevealtheforceofthecodeInConsumerSociety()BaudrillardprovidednumerousIntroductionconcreteexamplesofconsumerobjectsasacodeHealsoundertookacritiqueofdiscussionsofconsumersocietyinthefieldsofeconomicsandsociologyThesedisciplineswereunabletocapturethenoveltyofconsumerismbecauseeconomicswasburdenedbyadoctrineofhomoeconomicus,thefreeindividualactinginthemarketplace,andsociologywashamperedbyanotionofindividualtasteandadeterministconceptofsocietyAgainstthesepositionsBaudrillardeffectivelyshowsthatasemiologicalanalysisrevealsthatconsumerobjectsconstituteasystemofsignsthatdifferentiatethepopulationThissystemofsignscannotbecomeintelligibleifeachsignisrelatedtoeachobject,butonlythroughtheplayofdifferencebetweenthesignsInsomeofthemostremarkablepageshehaswritten,heindicateshowconsumerobjectsarelikehystericalsymptomstheyarebestunderstoodnotasaresponsetoaspecificneedorproblembutasanetworkoffloatingsignifiersthatareinexhaustibleintheirabilitytoincitedesireStillaMarxist,Baudrillardgoesontoarguethatthereproductionofthemodeofproductionhasbecomedependentupontheexpansionofconsumption,onthereproductionoftheactofconsumption,thusinauguratinganewepochinthehistoryofcapitalismForaCritiqueofthePoliticalEconomyoftheSign()wasauniqueattempttodeveloparadicaltheoryoflanguageasasupplementtoMarxismThetitleessayisabrilliant"deconstruction"ofstructuralismInSaussure'stheoryofthesign,thesignifierorwordisdistinguishedfromboththesignifiedormentalimageandthereferentSaussurethenmarvelsatthearbitrarinessoftherelationbetweensignifierandsignifiedandshowshowonevalueofthesignisconstitutedbystructuralrelationswithothersignsBaudrillardreversesthisstrategy:Saussure'sproblemonlyarisesbecausehehasseparatedtheelementsofthesigninthefirstplace,usingthesignifiedandthereferentas"alibis"Politicaleconomyhasasimilarstrategy:itseparatesthecommodityintoexchangevalue(price)andusevalueonlythentohaveusevalueasthealibiforexchangevalueJustasMarxexposedthestrategybehindthetheoryofthecommodityinpoliticaleconomy,BaudrillarddoesthesameforthetheoryofthesignbyunderminingtheformalismofthetheoryofthesignHehasthuspreparedthewayforahistoricalanalysisofthesignasthemodeofsignificationwithincapitalism,ataskaccomplishedinTheMirrorofProductionForaCritiquegoesfartherthanHenriLefebvre,Barthes,theTelQuelgrouporBakhtininopeningthepathtoasocialcritiqueoflanguagebecauseithistoricizesboththestructuralandthesocialaspectsofthesignTheMirrorofProduction()marksBaudrillard'spartingofIntroductionthewayswithMarxismHenceforththecritiqueofthepoliticaleconomyofthesignispresentednotasasupplementtothecritiqueofpoliticaleconomy,butasitssuccessor,asthenewbasisforcriticalsocialtheoryThebookwaswrittenwithaforceandsystematicnessthatwasnotequalledagainbyBaudrillardEachofMarx'smajorpositions(theconceptoflabor,thedialectic,thetheoryofthemodeofproduction,thecritiqueofcapital)areinturnrevealedasmirrorimagesofcapitalistsocietyMarxismemergesinBaudrillard'spagesnotasaradicalcritiqueofcapitalismbutasitshighestformofjustificationorideologyForexample,theanthropologyofcapitalismishomoeconomicustheanthropologyofMarxismismanasselfproducerInbothcaseshumanityisequatedwithlaborMarxismdoesnothaveenoughconceptualdistancefrompoliticaleconomy,Baudrillardcontends,toserveasitstheoreticalgravediggerBaudrillarddoesnotrestwithacritiqueofMarxismhegoesontodevelopwhatisperhapsthepinnacleofhisearlywritingsahistoricaltheoryofsignstructuresTheweaknessofSaussure'sstructurallinguisticsandBarthes'semiologywastheirahistoricity,theformalismoftheircategoriesBaudrillardremediesthisdeficiencybyoutliningthestructuralstagesoftheformationofcontemporarylanguageusageHeargues,somewhatnostalgically,thatpreindustrialsocietiesmaintaineda"symbolic"structuretocommunications:signsincludedwordsthatwereattachedtoreferentsandwereutteredinacontextthatheldopentheirpossiblereversalbyothersDuringtheRenaissancelanguagebegantoloseitsreciprocitywhenanabstractcode,analogoustomoney,slowlytransformedthemHencetheeraofthesignemergedBaudrillardnowtheorizescapitalismasareflectionofthischangeattheleveloftheeconomy,asubordinateaspectofthehistoryofmodesofsignificationInthelatetwentiethcentury,signsbecomecompletelyseparatedfromtheirreferents,resultinginastructurethatresemblesthesignal:signifiersactliketrafficlights,emittingmeaningstowhichthereisnolinguisticresponseThecompositeorganizationofsuchsignifiersistermedthecodebyBaudrillard,aconceptwhichheneveradequatelydefinesThecodeoperatesbyextractingsignifiedsfromthesocial,redeployingtheminthemediaas"floatingsignifiers"Televisionadsespeciallybutnotexclusivelyconstituteanewlanguageforminwhichthecodetransmitssignifierstothepopulationwhoaresubjecttothis"terroristic"modeofsignificationSymbolicExchangeandDeath()drawsoutthepessimisticimplicationsofthetheoryofthecode,markingachangeinBaudrillard'spoliticalstanceAsthepoliticsofthesixtiesrecededsodidBaudrillard'sradicalism:fromapositionoffirmleftismheIntroductiongraduallymovedtooneofbleakfatalismInSymbolicExchangeandDeathhesearchesdesperatelyforasourceofradicalismthatchallengestheabsorptivecapacitiesofasystemwithnofixeddeterminations,aworldwhereanythingcanbeanythingelse,whereeverythingisbothequivalenttoandindifferenttoeverythingelse,asociety,inshort,dominatedbythedigitallogicofthecodeBaudrillard'spatheticconclusionisthatonlydeathescapesthecode,onlydeathisanactwithoutanequivalentreturn,anexchangeofvaluesDeathsignifiesthereversibilityofsignsinthegift,atrulysymbolicactthatdefiestheworldofsimulacra,modelsandcodesThebookisflawedbythetotalizingqualityofBaudrillard'swritingStill,itsvalueliesintherefinementsitprovidesofmanyofthethemesofBaudrillard'searlierworksInitBaudrillardgrapples,asnowherebefore,withtheproblemofcharacterizingthestructureofcommunicationinaworlddominatedbythemediaThisimportantissue,toomuchneglectedbycriticaltheory,becomesthemainstayofhiswritingafterAlthoughBaudrillardtreatsthisthemewithhyperboleandvagueformulations,hehasinitiatedalineofthoughtthatisfundamentaltoareconstitutionofcriticaltheoryWhilethisprojectissomewhatakintotherecentworkofHabermas,Baudrillardwrestleswiththecommunicationalstructureofthemedia,whereashisGermancounterpartpursuesthequixoticendofdefiningthe"idealspeechsituation,"atheoreticaltaskthatisgroundedinthemetaphysicsoftheEnlightenmentandisunlikelytoprovefruitfulforacriticaltheoryofcontemporarysocietyInOnSeduction()BaudrillardmakesaturntowardapoststructuralistcritiqueofthehermeneuticsofsuspicionTheoriesthatdenythesurface"appearance"ofthingsinfavorofahiddenstructureoressence,theorieslikeMarxism,psychoanalysisandstructuralism,nowcomeunderattackTheseinterpretivestrategiesallprivilegeformsofrationalityAgainstthemBaudrillardcelebratestheNietzscheancritiqueofthe"truth"andfavorsamodelbasedonwhathecalls"seduction"Seductionplaysonthesurfacetherebychallengingtheoriesthat"gobeyond"themanifesttothelatentThemodelofseductionprefiguresBaudrillard'slaterterm,thehyperreal,withallofitspostmodernistimplicationsAtthecloseofthebook,BaudrillardtentativelysuggeststhatseductionmightbeamodeltoreplacethemodelofproductionInSimulacraandSimulations()Baudrillardextends,somewouldsayhyperbolizes,histheoryofcommoditycultureNolongerdoesthecodetakepriorityoverorevenprecedetheconsumerobjectThedistinctionsbetweenobjectandrepresentation,thingandideaarcnolongervalidIntheirplaceBaudrillardfathomsastrangenewIntroductionworldconstructedoutofmodelsorsimulacrawhichhavenoreferentorgroundinany"reality"excepttheirownAsimulationisdifferentfromafictionorlieinthatitnotonlypresentsanabsenceasapresence,theimaginaryasthereal,italsounderminesanycontrasttothereal,absorbingtherealwithinitselfInsteadofa"real"economyofcommoditiesthatissomehowbypassedbyan"unreal"myriadofadvertisingimages,Baudrillardnowdiscernsonlyahyperreality,aworldofselfreferentialsignsHehasmovedfromtheTVadwhich,however,nevercompletelyerasesthecommodityitsolicits,totheTVnewscastwhichcreatesthenewsifonlytobeabletonarrateit,orthesoapoperawhosedailyeventsarebothreferentandrealityformanyviewersIfBaudrillard'sargumentofhyperrealityhasamodicumofvalidity,thepositionoftheNewCriticsanddeconstructionistsmustbetakenseriouslyTheselfreferentialityoflanguage,whichtheypromoteagainstmaterialists,phenomenologists,realistsandhistoricistsasthekeytotextualanalysis,nowinBaudrillard'shandsbecomesthefirstprincipleofsocialexistenceintheeraofhightechcapitalismCriticaltheoryfacestheformidabletaskofunveilingstructuresofdominationwhennooneisdominating,nothingisbeingdominatedandnogroundexistsforaprincipleofliberationfromdominationIfAuschwitzisthesignoftotaltyrannyastheproductionofdeath,theworldof"hyperreality"bypassesthedistinctionbetweendeathandlifeThepessimisticimplicationsofSimulacraandSimulationsarebroughthomeinFatalStrategiesHereBaudrillardattemptstothinkthesocialworldfromthepointofviewoftheobject,aseemingoxymoronLikethepoststructuralists,BaudrillardassumesthattheeraoftherepresentationalsubjectispastOnecannolongercomprehendtheworldasiftheKantiancategoriesoftime,space,causality,etcarenecessary,universalpathstotruthBaudrillardtakesthistoimplythatthesubjectnolongerprovidesavantagepointonrealityTheprivilegedpositionhasshiftedtotheobject,specificallytothehyperrealobject,thesimulatedobjectInplaceofalogicofthesubject,Baudrillardproposesalogicoftheobject,andthisishis"fatalstrategy"Asthereaderwilldiscover,theworldunveiledbyBaudrillard,theworldfromwithintheobject,looksremarkablyliketheworldasseenfromthepositionofpostmodernistsBaudrillardisnotdisputingthetrivialissuethatreasonisoperativeinsomeactions,thatifIwanttoarriveatthenextblock,forexample,IcanassumeaNewtonianuniverse(commonsense),planacourseofaction(towalkstraightforxmeters),carryouttheIntroductionaction,andfinallyfulfillmygoalbyarrivingatthepointinquestionWhatisindoubtisthatthissortofthinkingenablesahistoricallyinformedgraspofthepresentingeneralAccordingtoBaudrillard,itdoesnotTheconcurrentspreadofthehyperrealthroughthemediaandthecollapseofliberalandMarxistpoliticsasmasternarratives,deprivestherationalsubjectofitsprivilegedaccesstotruthInanimportantsenseindividualsarenolongercitizens,eagertomaximizetheircivilrightsnorproletarians,anticipatingtheonsetofcommunismTheyareratherconsumers,andhencethepreyofobjectsasdefinedbythecodeInthissense,onlythe"fatalstrategy"ofthepointofviewoftheobjectprovidesanyunderstandingofthepresentsituationIntherecentessay"Themasses:theimplosionofthesocialinthemedia,"Baudrillardrecapitulatesthethemeofhisworkinthes:themediagenerateaworldofsimulationswhichisimmunetorationalistcritique,whetherMarxistorliberalThemediapresentanexcessofinformationandtheydosoinamannerthatprecludesresponsebytherecipientThissimulatedrealityhasnoreferent,noground,nosourceItoperatesoutsidethelogicofrepresentationButthemasseshavefoundawayofsubvertingit:thestrategyofsilenceorpassivityBaudrillardthinksthatbyabsorbingthesimulationsof

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*应求重贴*【马克·波斯特编】鲍德里亚选集

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