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首页 *应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】致命的幻觉

*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】致命的幻觉.pdf

*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】致命的幻觉

九月虺
2009-09-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】致命的幻觉pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ColumbiaUniversityPressPublishersSinceNewYorkChichester,WestSussexCopyright©ColumbiaUniversityPressAllrightsreservedLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBaudrillard,JeanThevitalillusionJeanBaudrillardeditedbyJuliaWitwerpcm(WellekLibrarylectures)Includesindexisbn–––RealityVirtualrealityCloningIWitwer,JuliaIITitleIIIWellekLibrarylecturesattheUniversityofCaliforniaIrvingBDBdc–CaseboundeditionsofColumbiaUniversityPressbooksareprintedonpermanentanddurableacidfreepaperPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaDesignedbyAudreySmithcThispageintentionallyleftblankcontentsTheFinalSolution:CloningBeyondtheHumanandInhumanTheMillennium,orTheSuspenseoftheYearTheMurderoftheRealNotesIndexTheVitalIllusionThispageintentionallyleftblank�TheFinalSolution:CloningBeyondtheHumanandInhumanThispageintentionallyleftblankThequestionconcerningcloningisthequestionofimmortalityWeallwantimmortalityItisourultimatefantasy,afantasythatisalsoatworkinallofourmodernsciencesandtechnologiesatwork,forexample,inthedeepfreezeofcryonicsuspensionandincloninginallitsmanifestationsThemostnotoriousexampleofcryonicsuspensionisnaturallyWaltDisney,buthe,atleast,beingdestinedforresurrection,issaidtohavebeenfrozenwhole,inhis“integrity”TherearemoreanomaloussituationstodayNowadays,inPhoenix,Arizona(thepredestinedsiteforResurrection),onlytheheadsarefrozen,becauseit’sfromthecellsofthebrainregardedasthenucleusofindividualbeingthatresearchershopetoreconstitutethedeceasedintheirbodilywholeness(Onecan’thelpbutwonderwhytheydon’t,inthatcase,simplypreserveasinglecelloraDNAmolecule)Tocomplementtheseheadswithoutbodies:OntheothersideoftheAtlanticOcean,headlessfrogsandmicearebeingclonedinprivatelaboratories,inpreparationforthecloningofheadlesshumanbodiesthatwillserveasreservoirsfororgandonationWhybodieswithoutheadsAstheheadisconsideredthesiteofconsciousness,itisthoughtthatbodieswithheadswouldposeethicalandpsychologicalproblemsBettersimplytomanufactureacephaliccreatureswhoseorganscouldbefreelyharvested,becausesuchcreatureswouldnotcompetewithorinvoketoocloselytheoriginalhumanbeingsThese,then,aretheexperimentalandartificialformsofcloningnotincludingDolly,ofcourse,andtherestofherkindButspontaneouscloning,andinfactspontaneousimmortality,canalsobefoundinnature,attheheartofourcellsOrdinarily,acellisdestinedtodivideacertainnumberoftimesandthentodieIf,inthecourseofitsdivision,somethinghappenstoperturbthisprocessforexample,analterationinthegenethatpreventstumorsorinthemechanismsgoverningcellularapoptosisthenthecellbecomescancerthefinalsolutionousItforgetstodieitforgetshowtodieItgoesontocloneitselfagainandagain,makingthousandsofidenticalcopiesofitself,thusformingatumorNormallythesubjectdiesasaresult,andthecancerouscellsdiewithhimorherButinthecaseofHenriettaLacks,thetumorcellssampledfromherbodywereculturedinalaboratoryandwillcontinuetoproliferateendlesslyTheyconstitutesoremarkableandvirulentaspecimenthattheyhavebeencirculatedthroughouttheworldandevensentintospace,onboardtheUSsatelliteDiscovererSoitisthatthedisseminatedbodyofHenriettaLacks,clonedatthemolecularlevel,makesitsimmortalrounds�Thereissomethingoccultedinsideus:ourdeathButsomethingelseishiddenthere,lyinginwaitforuswithineachofourcells:theforgettingofdeathInourcellsourimmortalityliesinwaitforusIt’scommontospeakofthestruggleoflifeagainstdeath,butthereisaninverseperilAndwemuststruggleagainstthepossibilitythatwewillnotdieAttheslightesthesitationinthefightfordeathafightfordivision,thefinalsolutionforsex,foralterity,andsofordeathlivingbeingsbecomeonceagainindivisible,identicaltooneanotherandimmortalContrarytoeverythingthatseemsobviousand“natural,”nature’sfirstcreatureswereimmortalItwasonlybyobtainingthepowertodie,bydintofconstantstruggle,thatwebecamethelivingbeingswearetodayBlindlywedreamofovercomingdeaththroughimmortality,whenallthetimeimmortalityisthemosthorrificofpossiblefatesEncodedintheearliestlifeofourcells,thisfateisnowreappearingonourhorizons,sotospeak,withtheadventofcloning(Thedeathdrive,accordingtoFreud,ispreciselythisnostalgiaforastatebeforetheappearanceofindividualityandsexualdifferentiation,astateinwhichwelivedbeforewebecamemortalanddistinctfromoneanotherAbsolutedeathisnottheendoftheindividualhumanbeingrather,itisaregressiontowardastateofminimaldifferentiationamonglivingbeings,ofapurerepetitionofidenticalbeings)TheevolutionofthebiosphereiswhatdrivesimmortalbeingstobecomemortalonesTheymove,littlebylittle,thefinalsolutionfromtheabsolutecontinuityfoundinthesubdivisionofthesameinbacteriatowardthepossibilityofbirthanddeathNext,theeggbecomesfertilizedbyaspermandspecializedsexcellsmaketheirappearanceTheresultingentityisnolongeracopyofeitheroneofthepairthatengendereditrather,itisanewandsingularcombinationThereisashiftfrompureandsimplereproductiontoprocreation:thefirsttwowilldieforthefirsttime,andthethirdforthefirsttimewillbebornWereachthestageofbeingsthataresexed,differentiated,andmortalTheearlierorderofthevirusofimmortalbeingsisperpetuated,buthenceforwardthisworldofdeathlessthingsiscontainedinsidetheworldofthemortalsInevolutionaryterms,thevictorygoestobeingsthataremortalanddistinctfromoneanother:thevictorygoestousButthegameisn’toveryet,andreversionisalwayspossibleItcanbefoundnotonlyintheviralrevoltofourcellsbutalsointheenormousenterprisewelivingbeingsourselvesundertaketoday:aprojecttoreconstructahomogeneousanduniformlyconsistentuniverseanartificialcontinuumthistimethatunfoldswithinatechnologicalandthefinalsolutionmechanicalmedium,extendingoverourvastinformationnetwork,whereweareintheprocessofbuildingaperfectclone,anidenticalcopyofourworld,avirtualartifactthatopensuptheprospectofendlessreproductionWeareintheprocessofreactivatingthispathologicalimmortality,theimmortalityofthecancercell,bothattheindividuallevelandatthelevelofthespeciesasawholeThisistherevengetakenonmortalandsexedbeingsbyimmortalandundifferentiatedlifeformsThisiswhatcouldbecalledthefinalsolutionAfterthegreatrevolutionintheevolutionaryprocesstheadventofsexanddeathwehavethegreatinvolution:itaims,throughcloningandmanyothertechniques,toliberateusfromsexanddeathWhereoncelivingcreaturesstrove,overmillionsofyears,topullthemselvesfreeofthiskindofincestandprimitiveentropy,wearenow,throughscientificadvancesthemselves,intheprocessofrecreatingpreciselytheseconditionsWeareactivelyworkingatthe“disinformation”ofourspeciesthroughtheificationofdifferencesHerewemustposethequestionofthedestinationofthethefinalsolutionscientificprojectWemustconsiderthepossibilitythatthevery“progress”ofscienceinfactdoesnotfollowaline,butacurveatwistedorhairpincurvethatturnsbacktowardtotalinvolutionAndwemustaskifthisfinalsolutiontowardwhichweunconsciouslyworkisnotthesecretdestinationofnature,aswellasofalloureffortsThisthrowsafairlyharshlightoneverythingwestill,today,persistinregardingasapositiveevolution,asastepforward�Thesexualrevolutiontherealone,theonlyoneistheadventofsexualityintheevolutionoflivingthings,ofadualitythatputsanendtoperpetualindivisionandsuccessiveiterationsofthesameInthis,thesexualrevolutionisalsotherevolutionofdeathItistherevolutionofdeath,asopposedtotheinfinitesurvivalofthesameTheinversemovementwearedescribinghereisaninvolutionarymovementofthespecies,aretreatfromtherevolutionofsexanddeath,amassiverevisionistmovementintheevolutionoflivingthingsFromthispointofview,“sexualliberation”isthoroughlythefinalsolutionambivalentThoughsexualliberationseemsatfirsttobeinkeepingwiththesexualrevolutionofwhichitisthefinal,positive,anddefinitivemoment,itseems,uponfurtheranalysis,tohaveambiguousrepercussionsIntheendtheserepercussionsmaybecompletelyopposedtothegoalsofthesexualrevolutionitselfThefirstphaseofsexualliberationinvolvesthedissociationofsexualactivityfromprocreationthroughthepillandothercontraceptivedevicesatransformationwithenormousconsequencesThesecondphase,whichwearebeginningtoenternow,isthedissociationofreproductionfromsexFirst,sexwasliberatedfromreproductiontodayitisreproductionthatisliberatedfromsex,throughasexual,biotechnologicalmodesofreproductionsuchasartificialinseminationorfullbodycloningThisisalsoaliberation,thoughantitheticaltothefirstWe’vebeensexuallyliberated,andnowwewillfindourselvesliberatedfromsexthatis,virtuallyrelievedofthesexualfunctionAmongtheclones(andamonghumanbeingssoonenough),sex,asaresultofthisautomaticmeansofreproduction,becomesextraneous,auselessfunctionThussexualliberation,thethefinalsolutionsocalledcrowningachievementoftheevolutionofsexedformsoflife,marks,initsfinalconsequences,theendofthesexualrevolutionItisthesameambiguitythattroublesscienceThecalculatedbenefitsbothofsexualliberationandofthescientificrevolutionareinextricablyboundupwithwiththeirnegativecountereffectsAnddeathEntwinedasitiswithsex,itmusteventuallysufferthesamefateThereis,ineffect,aliberationfromdeaththatparallelsliberationfromsexAswehavedissociatedreproductionfromsex,sowetrytodissociatelifefromdeathTosaveandpromotelifeandlifeonly,andtorenderdeathanobsoletefunctiononecandowithout,as,inthecaseofartificialreproduction,wecandowithoutsexSodeath,asafatalorsymbolicevent,mustbeerasedDeathmustbeincludedonlyasvirtualreality,asanoptionorchangeablesettinginthelivingbeing’soperatingsystemThisisareprogrammingthatproceedsalongthelinesofthevirtualizationofsex,the“cybersex”thatwaitsforusinthefuture,asasortofontological“attraction”Alltheseuselessfunctionssex,thought,deathwillberedesigned,redesignatedasleisureactivitiesAndhumanbeings,henceforththefinalsolutionuseless,mightthemselvesbepreservedasakindofontological“attraction”ThiscouldbeanotheraspectofwhatHegelhascalledthemovinglifeofwhatisdeadDeath,onceavitalfunction,couldthusbecomealuxury,adiversionInfuturemodesofcivilization,fromwhichdeathwillhavebeeneliminated,clonesofthefuturemaywellpayfortheluxuryofdyingandbecomemortalonceagaininsimulation:cyberdeathAsortofanticipationofcloningcanbefoundinnatureitself,inthephenomenonoftwinsandtwinship(gemellité)Wecanperceiveakindofcloninginthehallucinatoryredoublingofthesame,intheprimitivesymmetrythatmakesthetwotwinsseemtobeliketwohalvesofasingleself,ofthesameindividualandweescapethephantasmonlybywayofabreak,aruptureofthesymmetryButperhapswehaveneverproperlyescapedourdoubleandcloning,then,maysimplyberevivingthishallucinationofthesame,ofthetwinfromwhomwehaveneverquitebeenseparatedAtthesametimewemayseeincloningtheresurgenceofourfascinationwithanarchaicformofincestwiththeoriginaltwin,andthegravepsychoticconsequencesofthefinalsolutionsuchaprimitivefantasy(Cronenberg’sfilmDeadRingersisadramaticillustrationofthis)Mostofthetimethistwinshipremainsobscureandsymbolic,butwheneveritmaterializes,itilluminatesthemysteryofthesymbolicseparation,oftheinvisibledivisionfoundattheheartofeachofus(Indeed,therearesomewhoclaimtohavediscovereditsbiologicaltrace)Fromthisinternaldivisionsurelycomesthesacred,orrathertheaccursedcharacteroftwinshipineverycultureInourculture,however,wealsoseetheothersideofthisaccursednesstheendlessresentmentandremorseassociatedwithindividuationItiseffectivelyonlythroughthisoriginalseparation,this“ontological”cleavagefromthetwin,thattheindividualbeingfirstappearsand,withit,thepossibilityofalterityandofadualrelationAndsoweareindividuated,andproudofitbutsomewhereinside,inanunconsciousstilldeeperthanthepsychologicalunconscious,weneverovercome,weneverfullyacceptthisseparationandthisindividuationIstherenotaterrorofandanostalgiaforthisdouble,and,togofurther,forthewholemultiplicityofsemblablesthefinalsolutionfromwhomwehavedividedourselvesinthecourseofevolutionDowenot,afterall,deeplyregretourindividuationIneffect,wehavehereadoublerepentanceNotonlydowerepentoftheemancipationoftheindividualfromthespeciesbut,moreprofoundlystill,werepentofhavingbecomesexedformsoflife,ofourevolutionfromtheinorganictothelivingworldThatishowitgoesAnygivenliberation,emancipation,orindividuationisalsoexperiencedasanomieandasbetrayal,infactasthesourceofendlessneurosis,aneurosisthatbecomesincreasinglyseriousasonemovesfurtherawayfromthenostalgicpointoforiginLibertyishardtotakeLifeitself,finally,maybehardtotake,asarupturingoftheinorganicchainofmatterInawayitistherevengeofthespecies,therevengeoftheimmortalformsoflifethatwethoughtwehadovercomeIncloningthiscollectivefantasyofareturntoanonindividuatedexistenceandadestinyofundifferentiatedlife,thistemptationtoreturntoanindifferentimmortalityweseetheveryformofarepentanceofthelivingtowardtheunlivingThisrepentancearisesfromthedepthsofapastthefinalsolutiontimewepineforastatethatislonggonebutthatwillbepossibleagainbyvirtueofourtechnologies,becomingeventuallyanobjectofourfascination,ournostalgia,andourdesireThismaywellbethestoryofadeliberateprojecttoputanendtothegeneticgameofdifference,tostopthedivagationsofthelivingAren’tweactuallysickofsex,ofdifference,ofemancipation,ofcultureTheworldofindividualsandsocialrelationsitselfoffersstrikingexamplesofthisexhaustionorresistanceornostalgicattachmenttosomepriorstateofbeingInanycase,wearedealingwithakindofrevisionism,acrucialrevisionofthewholeprocessofevolutionandespeciallythatofthehumanraceaspeciesunabletobraveitsowndiversity,itsowncomplexity,itsownradicaldifference,itsownalterityButperhapswemayseethisasakindofadventure,aheroictest:totaketheartificializationoflivingbeingsasfaraspossibleinordertosee,finally,whatpartofhumannaturesurvivesthegreatordealIfwediscoverthatnoteverythingcanbecloned,simulated,programmed,geneticallyandneurologicallymanaged,thenwhateversurvivesthefinalsolutioncouldtrulybecalled“human”:someinalienableandindestructiblehumanqualitycouldfinallybeidentifiedOfcourse,thereisalwaystherisk,inthisexperimentaladventure,thatnothingwillpassthetestthatthehumanwillbepermanentlyeradicatedSuchwasthelessonofBiosphere,theartificialsynthesisofalltheplanet’ssystems,theidealcopyofthehumanraceanditsenvironmentBiosphererevealsinminiaturethefactthatthehumanraceandtheentireplanetarealreadybecomingtheirownvirtualreality,thatunderneathitsvastgeodesicdomeofinformation,theplanethasalreadyembarkedonanexperimentalpathfromwhichthereisnoreturnFromthismomentonitispossibletoaskifwearestilldealingwithhumanbeingsIsaspeciesthatsucceedsinsynthesizingitsownimmortality,andthatseekstotransformitselfintopureinformation,stillparticularlyahumanspeciesHumankinddoesnotdiscriminateitwillinglybecomesitsownguineapigunderthesametermsastherestoftheworld,animateandinanimateHumankindblithelyplayswithitsownfutureasaspeciesinthesamewaythatitthefinalsolutionplayswiththefutureofallothercreaturesInitsblindquesttopossessgreaterknowledge,humankindprogramsitsowndestructionwiththesamecasualferocitythatitappliestothedestructionofeverythingelseYoucouldhardlyaccusehumanityofegocentrismHumanitysacrificesitselfasawholespeciestoanunknownexperimentalfateunknownbeforethis,inanycase,tootherspecies,whohaveneverknownanyfatebutanaturaloneAndwhilethisnaturaldestinywouldseemrelatedtosomethinglikeaninstinctforselfpreservation,thenewexperimentaldestinytowhichthehumanracedevotesitselfsweepsawayallinstinctforselfpreservationThedisappearanceofthisconceptfromthefieldsofresearchindicatesthat,behindtheecologicalobsessionwithprotectionandconservationwhichhasmuchmoretodowithnostalgiaandremorseanentirelydifferentinclinationhastakenover:theinclinationtosacrificetheentirespeciestolimitlessexperimentationAndsoadoubleandcontradictorymovement:Humankind,aloneamongalllivingthings,triestobuilditselfadeathlessalteregoandatthesametimetoperfectnaturalthefinalsolutionselectionthroughartificialselectionanactthatconfersonthehumanbeinganabsoluteprivilegeYetatthesametimeandpreciselythroughthisaction,humankindputsanendtonaturalselection,aprocessthatimplies,accordingtothelawsofevolution,thedeathofanygivenspeciesincludingitsownByendingnaturalselection,humankindcontravenessymboliclaw,andinsodoingeffectivelyrisksitsowndisappearanceNot,thistime,becauseofnaturallaw,butbywayofitsdetourIntheirarrogantplantobringevolutiontoanend,humanbeingssetinmotiontheinvolutionoftheirownkind,whichisintheprocessoflosingitsspecificity,itsveryimmunityForthedeathrateofartificialspeciesisevenmorerapidthanthatofnaturalspeciesBytakinganartificialcourse,ourspeciesmayberunningallthemorequicklyintoitsowndeclineAllthisderivesfromastrangefact:apparently,thehumanracecannotbeari

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