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首页 *应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】消费社会

*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】消费社会.pdf

*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】消费社会

九月虺
2009-09-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】消费社会pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheConsumerSociety:MythsandStructures,byJeanBaudrillard(Sage,London,England,)ppAuthorInformationBibliographicDetailsTableofContentsFrontMatterPageNATitlePageandCreditsPageNAContentsPageviiForewordPageixIntroductionPagePartI:TheFormalLiturgyoftheObjectPage:ProfusionPage:TheMiraculousStatusofConsumptionPage:TheViciousCircleofGrowthPagePartII:TheTheoryofConsumptionPage:TheSocialLogicofConsumptionPage:TowardsaTheoryofConsumptionPage:PersonalizationortheSmallestMarginalDifferencePagePartIII:MassMedia,SexandLeisurePage:MassMediaCulturePage:TheFinestConsumerObject:TheBodyPage:TheDramaofLeisureortheImpossibilityofWastingOne'sTimePage:TheMystiqueofSolicitudePage:AnomieintheAffluentSocietyPageConclusion:OnContemporaryAlienationortheEndofthePactwiththeDevilPageNAFrontMatterTitlePageandCreditsTheConsumerSocietyJeanBaudrillardiTheConsumerSocietyiiTheory,CultureSocietyTheory,CultureSocietycatersfortheresurgenceofinterestinculturewithincontemporarysocialscienceandthehumanitiesBuildingontheheritageofclassicalsocialtheory,thebookseriesexamineswaysinwhichthistraditionhasbeenreshapedbyanewgenerationoftheoristsItwillalsopublishtheoreticallyinformedanalysesofeverydaylife,popularculture,andnewintellectualmovementsEDITOR:MikeFeatherstone,NottinghamTrentUniversitySERIESEDITORIALBOARDRoyBoyne,UniversityofDurhamMikeHepworth,UniversityofAberdeenScottLash,LancasterUniversityRolandRobertson,UniversityofPittsburghBryanSTurner,DeakinUniversityTHETCSCENTERTheTheory,CultureSocietybookseries,thejournalsTheory,CultureSocietyandBodySociety,andrelatedconference,seminarandpostgraduateprogrammesoperatefromtheTCSCentreatNottinghamTrentUniversityForfurtherdetailsoftheTCSCentre'sactivitiespleasecontact:CentreAdministratorTheTCSCentre,RoomFacultyofHumanitiesNottinghamTrentUniversityCliftonLane,Nottingham,NGNS,UKemail:tcsntuacukRecentvolumesinclude:TheBodyandSocietyExplorationsinSocialTheorySecondeditionBryanSTurnerTheSocialConstructionofNatureKlausEderDeleuzeandGuattariAnIntroductiontothePoliticsofDesirePhilipGoodchildPierreBourdieuandCulturalTheoryCriticalInvestigationsBridgetFowlerReFormingtheBodyReligion,CommunityandModernityPhilipAMellorandChrisShillingTheShoppingExperienceeditedbyPasiFalkandColinCampbellUndoingAestheticsWolfgangWelschSimmelonCulture:SelectedWritingseditedbyDavidFrisbyandMikeFeatherstoneiiiTheConsumerSocietyMythsandStructuresJeanBaudrillardSAGEPublicationsLondon·ThousandOaks·NewDelhiivEnglishtranslationcopyright©SagePublicationsIntroduction©GeorgeRitzerOriginallypublishedasLasociétédeconsommation©EditionsDenoëlThiseditionThistranslationispublishedwithfinancialsupportfromtheFrenchMinistryofCulturePublishedinassociationwithTheory,CultureSociety,NottinghamTrentUniversityAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,transmittedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthePublishersSAGEPublicationsLtdBonhillStreetLondonECAPUSAGEPublicationsIncTellerRoadThousandOaks,CaliforniaSAGEPublicationsIndiaPvtLtd,MBlockMarketGreaterKailashINewDelhiBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationdataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNISBN(pbk)LibraryofCongresscatalogcardnumberTypesetbyPhotoprint,Torquay,DevonPrintedinGreatBritainbyRedwoodBooks,Trowbridge,WiltshirevShowerhimwithallearthlyblessings,plungehimsodeepintohappinessthatnothingisvisiblebutthebubblesrisingtothesurfaceofhishappiness,asifitwerewatergivehimsucheconomicprosperitythathewillhavenothinglefttodobutsleep,eatgingerbread,andworryaboutthecontinuanceofworldhistoryFyodorDostoyevsky,NotesfromUndergroundviiContentsForewordixTranslator'sAcknowledgementsxiIntroductionGeorgeRitzerPartITheFormalLiturgyoftheObjectProfusionTheMiraculousStatusofConsumptionTheViciousCircleofGrowthPartIITheTheoryofConsumptionTheSocialLogicofConsumptionTowardsaTheoryofConsumptionPersonalizationortheSmallestMarginalDifferencePartIIIMassMedia,SexandLeisureMassMediaCultureTheFinestConsumerObject:TheBodyTheDramaofLeisureortheImpossibilityofWastingOne'sTimeTheMystiqueofSolicitudeAnomieintheAffluentSocietyConclusionOnContemporaryAlienationortheEndofthePactwiththeDevilNotesIndexixForewordJeanBaudrillard'sbookTheConsumerSocietyisamasterfulcontributiontocontemporarysociologyItcertainlyhasitsplaceinthetraditionwhichincludesDurkheim'sTheDivisionofLabourinSociety,Veblen'sTheoryoftheLeisureClassandDavidRiesman'sTheLonelyCrowdBaudrillardanalysesourcontemporaryWesternsocieties,includingthatoftheUnitedStatesThisanalysisfocusesonthephenomenonoftheconsumptionofobjectswhichhehasalreadytackledinTheSystemofObjects(Gallimard,translation,Verso,)Inhisconclusiontothatvolume,heformulatestheplanofthepresentwork:`Ithastobemadeclearfromtheoutsetthatconsumptionisanactiveformofrelationship(notonlytoobjects,butalsotosocietyandtotheworld),amodeofsystematicactivityandglobalresponsewhichfoundsourentireculturalsystem'Heshowswithgreatperspicacityhowthegianttechnocraticcorporationsfosterirrepressibledesires,creatingnewsocialhierarchieswhichhavereplacedtheoldclassdifferencesAnewmythologyhasariseninthiswayAsBaudrillardwrites,Thewashingmachineservesasanapplianceandactsasanelementofprestige,comfort,etcItisstrictlythislatterfieldwhichisthefieldofconsumptionAllkindsofotherobjectsmaybesubstitutedhereforthewashingmachineassignifyingelementInthelogicofsigns,asinthatofsymbols,objectsarenolongerlinkedinanysensetoadefinitefunctionorneedPreciselybecausetheyarerespondingheretosomethingquitedifferent,whichiseitherthesociallogicorthelogicofdesire,forwhichtheyfunctionasashiftingandunconsciousfieldofsignificationConsumption,asanewtribalmyth,hasbecomethemoralityofourpresentworldItiscurrentlydestroyingthefoundationsofthehumanbeing,thatistosay,thebalancewhichEuropeanthoughthasmaintainedsincetheGreeksbetweenourmythologicalrootsandtheworldofthelogosBaudrillardisawareoftheriskwearerunningLetusquotehimonceagain:JustasmedievalsocietywasbalancedonGodandtheDevil,sooursisbalancedonconsumptionanditsdenunciationThoughatleastaroundtheDevilheresiesandblackmagicsectscouldorganizeOurmagiciswhiteNoheresyispossibleanylongerinastateofaffluenceItistheprophylacticwhitenessofasaturatedsociety,asocietywithnohistoryandnodizzyingheights,asocietywithnomythotherthanitselfTheConsumerSociety,writteninaconcisestyle,shouldbecarefullystudiedbytheyoungergenerationPerhapstheywilltakeupthexmissionofbreakingupthismonstrous,ifnotindeedobscene,worldoftheabundanceofobjectssoformidablysustainedbythemassmediaandparticularlybytelevision,thisworldwhichthreatensusallJPMayerUniversityofReadingxiTranslator'sAcknowledgementsIwouldliketothankMarieDominiqueMaison,LeslieHill,MikeGaneandGlynisPowellforvariousformsoflinguisticassistancewiththistranslationThanksarealsoduetoRichardGSmithforprovidingsomeinvaluablebackgroundinformationForreasonsofstyle,theauthorhasmadesomeveryminorchangestotheoriginaltextIhavepersonallytakenthelibertyofnumberingthechaptersCTIntroductionGeorgeRitzerThisEnglishtranslationofTheConsumerSociety:MythsandStructures(originallypublishedin)willbebothatreatandarevelationtoadmirersoftheworkofJeanBaudrillardnotfluentinFrenchHereisanearlyworkbyascholarwhohascomtobethoughtofbymanyastheleadingpostmodernsocialtheoristPostmodernistswillbegratifiedtofind,atleastintheirrudimentaryform,manyoftheideasassociatedwithBaudrillard'slater,morepostmoderntheorizingModernistswillfindaBaudrillardwhoisamuchmoremodernsocialthinkerthanheisusuallythoughttobeonewhoisapttobefarmoretotheirlikingthantheBaudrillardofthelastdecadeorsoMetatheoristswillfindmanyrewardsinthisworkincludingagreatersenseofBaudrillard'stheoreticalrootsandthechallengeofunderstandingaworkofathinkerwhowasclearlyinthethroesofaprofoundintellectualtransformationMostimportantly,theoristsandotherstudentsofconsumersocietywilldiscoveratreasuretroveofinsightsandperspectivesintotheworldofconsumptionThus,thisisarewardingbookatmanylevels,althoughithas,aswewillsee,itsflawsThisisnodustyandoutdatedtheoreticalworkthatisoflittlemorethanhistoricalinterestInfact,itisahighlycontemporaryworkthatreadsverywelloveraquarterofacenturyafteritsinitialpublicationThereis,forexample,Baudrillard'sdiscussionofsuchtimelyissuesassexuallyambiguous,hermaphroditicmodelsnotunlikethosewhoadornthecontroversialCalvinKleinadvertisementsthesedaystheboominginterestinfitnessthedesireforslimnessandtheresultingdietingmaniaobesityandtheobsessionwithlowcalorie,lowfatfoodsandtheburgeoninguseofsexualityforcommercialpurposesMoregenerally,andimportantly,thisisabookaboutconsumptionanditisclearthatBaudrillardwasfaraheadofhistimeinfocusingonthisissueWhilemostofhiscontemporariesinFrance(andelsewhere)weremiredinstaleolddebatesaboutproduction,BaudrillardrecognizedthatconsumptionwaswheretheimportantnewissuesandproblemsweretobefoundTimehasclearlyborneBaudrillardoutTherehasbeenanoutpouringofwork,especiallyinGreatBritain(foranoverview,seeGabrielandLang,),onconsumptionandpostmodernsocietyisnowseenasbeingmoreorlesssynonymouswithconsumersociety(Featherstone,Bauman,)Baudrillard'sforesightasfarasconsumptionisconcernedisexemplifiedbythefact,amongothers,thathedealtwiththeissueofcreditatthisearlystageinthedevelopmentofthemoderncredit,especiallycreditcard,systemTothisday,thisissuehasreceivedvirtuallynoattentionfromsocialtheoristsThisisinspiteofthefactthatitisanabsolutelycentralaspectoftheboomingconsumersocietyYet,whenBaudrillardwaswritinginthelatesthecreditcardindustrywasinitsinfancyanditwasnottobegintoprofoundlytransformsocietyuntillongafterTheConsumerSocietywaspublishedThus,Baudrillardwasaheadofhistimeinrecognizingtheimportanceofthisissue,andmanyotherissues,associatedwiththeconsumersocietyAModernWorkTherearemanywaysinwhichTheConsumerSocietycanbeseenasapieceofmodernsocialtheoryThebookoffersagenerallysustainedandcoherentargumentWhilethiswasalsotrueofthepreviouslypublishedTheSystemofObjects(),andremainedthecaseforanumberofBaudrillard'sworksthatfollowedinthesandintotheearlys,itiscertainlynottrueofthemorerecentworkswhichoftenreadlikepastichesofaphorismswithlittleornothingtoconnectthemThemodernreaderwhoisputoffbyBaudrillard'smorerecentpostmodernstylewillbemorecomfortablewiththestructureanddevelopmentofTheConsumerSocietyThescholarlyformatofthebookwillbefamiliartomostmodernreadersIntellectualpredecessorsandantagonistsareclear(somethingnotalwaysthecaseinpostmodernworks)and,asaresult,soaretherootsofmanyofBaudrillard'sideasApowerfulintellectualpresenceisJohnKennethGalbraith,especiallyhisbookTheAffluentSociety()BaudrillardusesmanyofGalbraith'sideas,andhiscriticalanalysisofthem,todevelophisownperspectiveontheaffluent,thatisconsumer,societyForexample,Baudrillardarguesthatthereisnosuchthingasanaffluentsocietyallsocietiescombine`structuralexcess'and`structuralpenury'Ratherthananaffluentsociety,Baudrillardarguesthatweliveina`growthsociety'However,thisgrowthbringsusnoclosertobeinganaffluentsocietyGrowthproducesbothwealthandpovertyInfact,growthisafunctionofpovertygrowthisneededtocontainthepoorandmaintainthesystemWhileheisnotalwaysconsistentonthis,Baudrillardarguesthatthegrowthsocietyis,infact,theoppositeoftheaffluentsocietyItsinherenttensionsleadtopsychologicalpauperizationaswellassystematicpenury(seelater)since`needs'willalwaysoutstriptheproductionofgoodsSincebothwealthandshortageareinherentinthesystem,effortslikethoseproposedbyGalbraithtosolvetheproblemofpovertyaredoomedtofailureThus,invariousways,Baudrillardnotonlycritiques,butalsobuildsinverymodernwaysupon,Galbraith'sworkBaudrillardmakessimilar,albeitfarlesselaborate,useoftheideasofotherimportantthinkersofthedaysuchasMarshallMcLuhan,DanielBell,DavidRiesman,DanielBoorstin,andeventhepopularwriterVancePackardInotherwords,theintellectuallandscapeexploredbyBaudrillardwasonethatwouldhavebeenmuchthesamehadathinkerlessassociatedwiththemovetopostmoderntheoryapproachedthetopicoftheconsumersocietyinthelatesAndheexploresthatlandscapeinwaysthatareveryfamiliartothemodernistMoreimportantly,thesetofclassicsocialtheoristsinformingBaudrillard'sworkwasmuchthesameasaffectedthetheorizingofmoreconventionalthinkersofthedayThemostpowerfulpresence,atleastovertly,isMarx,butDurkheim,Veblen,andLéviStraussalsoplaycentralrolesinthisanalysis(Tocquevilleisthere,aswell)Furthermore,thereisanefforttosynthesizeideasfromthesetheoristswithanumberofothertheoreticalinputsAmodern,mainstreamsocialtheoristwouldbequitecomfortablewithboththetheoreticalheritageandthesyntheticeffortsinvolvedinthisworkTheimportantroleaccordedtoMarxandhisideas,especiallycommoditiesandtheirusevalueandexchangevalue,isinterestinginlightofthefactthatBaudrillardwassoontobreakwithMarxinTheMirrorofProduction()andmoveprogressivelyawayfromaMarxianperspectiveMarxiantheoryisonlyoneofseveralinputsshapingthisworkandinatleastonecrucialway(tobediscussedlater)thisbookdeviatesdramaticallyfromaMarxianorientationPartofthereasonforhisinfluenceisthefactthatMarx,themastertheoristofproduction,alsohasmuchtooffertoanyoneconcernedwithconsumptionTherearemanyparallelsdrawnbyBaudrillardbetweenproductionandconsumption(forexample,justaswagelabourextortedlabourpowerandincreasesinproductivity,creditextortssavingstheconsumerisoftenseenasaworker,aproductiveforcethereisa`reservearmy'ofneedsanalogoustotheindustrialreservearmy)theideasthatapplytoproductionareoftenextendedtoconsumptionOneofthemostinterestingoftheseextensionsisBaudrillard'suseoftheconceptofsurplusvalueinreferencetothedistributionofwelfaretothelargercommunityHiscontentionisthatsocietyisexpendingpartofitssurplusinordertokeepthepublicinlinePublicmunificenceisseenasbothakindofideologicalconstraint(engenderingamythofserviceratherthanaviewoftheworldwhereeverythingisboughtandsold)andakindofsocialcontrolMoreimportantly,forMarx,andinterestinglystillforBaudrillardinthiswork,productionisaccordedpriorityoverconsumptionThereisstillthesenseinthiswork,bothexplicitlyandimplicitly,thatproductionisthebaseandallelse,includingconsumptionandthecultureofwhichitissuchanintegralpart,issuperstructureThisisclearlyalimiting,ifnotaselfdefeating,perspectiveinlightofdevelopmentsinboththesocialworldandsocialtheoryIntermsofthelatter,thereisnowaclearrecognitionoftheindependentimportance,ifnotascendancy,ofcultureandcommoditiesAndfew,evenamongdiehardMarxiantheorists,wouldsubscribetoalimitedbasesuperstructureargumentBeyondusevalue,exchangevalue,commodities,andbasesuperstructureBaudrillardemploysaratherlengthylitanyofMarxianideasinTheConsumerSocietyTheconceptsofideology,commodityfetishismandreificationclearlyfitquitewellintoaMarxianapproachtoconsumptionMoregenerally,thereisagreatdealofdialecticalthinkingabout,amongotherthings,thecontradictionsthatafflictconsumersociety(especiallytheinabilityofproductiontokeeppacewiththeexplosivegrowthof`needs'andtheideologyofequalityversustheincreasingdifferentiationofconsumersociety)ThereisasensethatthetendencytowardmonopolizationoccursnotonlyintheworldofproductionbutalsointheworldofconsumptionEventhatoldwarhorse,alienation,istrottedoutonoccasionand,startlingly,iscentraltothetitleofthebook'sconcludingchapterThereistalkofrevolution,evenahopethatconsumptionoffersthepossibilityof`deepcrises',`newcontradictions',andevenrevolutionarychangeHowever,intheend,Baudrillard'sstructuralism,especiallyhisinterestintheimmutabilityofthe`code',leadshimtotheviewthatnotruerevolutionispossibleThisisoneofthemanyplacesinwhichBaudrillard'stheoreticalresourcesareatoddswithoneanotherandleadtoacontradictoryperspectiveontheconsumersocietyAndthisisoneofthereasonswhyBaudrillardwassoontobreakwiththeMarxiantraditionItsoptimisticviewofthefuturewasatloggerheadswithhisessentiallypessimisticviewoftheworldÉmileDurkheimisasecondclassicaltheoristwhoseideashadaprofoundinfluenceonthisworkAswewillseebelow,BaudrillardhadatthispointnotyetabandonedsociologysoitisnotsurprisingthatheshouldbedrawntoDurkheim,thepremierFrenchclassicalsociologicaltheoristOneimportanteffectofthisisthatBaudrillardfocuseshisattentiononcollectivephenomena,onDurkheimiansocialfactsIndeed,hedescribesconsumptioninveryDurkheimian

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