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首页 *应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】生产之镜

*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】生产之镜.pdf

*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】生产之镜

九月虺
2009-09-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】生产之镜pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheMirrorofProduction,byJeanBaudrillard(TelosPress,StLouis,MO,)ppAuthorInformationBibliographicDetailsTableofContentsFrontMatterPageNATitlePageandCreditsPageNATableofContentsPageNATranslator'sIntroductionPagePrefacePageBodyPageI:TheConceptofLaborPageCritiqueofUseValueandLaborPowerPageTheConcreteAspectofLabor:TheDialecticofQualityandQuantityPageMan'sDoubleGenericFacePageEthicofLabor:EstheticofPlayPageMarxandtheHieroglyphofValuePageEpistemologyI:IntheShadowofMarxistConceptsPageTheCritiqueofPoliticalEconomyIsBasicallyCompletedPageII:MarxistAnthropologyandtheDominationofNaturePageTheMoralPhilosophyoftheEnlightenmentPageLycurgusandCastrationPageJudaeoChristianAntiPhysisPageEpistemologyII:StructuralLimitsoftheMarxistCritiquePageIII:HistoricalMaterialismandPrimitiveSocietiesPageStructuralCausalityandthePrimitivesPageSurplusandAntiProductionPageMagicandLaborPageEpistemologyIII:MaterialismandEthnocentrismPageIV:OntheArchaicandFeudalModePageTheSlavePageTheArtisanPageEpistemologyIV:MarxismandMiscomprehensionPageV:MarxismandtheSystemofPoliticalEconomyPageAEuclideanGeometryofHistoryPageTheThirdPhaseofPoliticalEconomyPageContradictionandSubversion:TheDisplacementofthePoliticalPagePoliticalRevolutionandCulturalRevolutionPageTheEconomicasIdeologyandSimulationModelPageMarxistTheoryandtheWorkers'Movement:TheConceptofClassPageRevolutionasFinality:HistoryinSuspensePageTheRadicalityofUtopiaPageNAFrontMatterTitlePageandCreditsTheMirrorofProductionNATheMirrorofProductionbyJeanBaudrillardTranslatedwith"Introduction"byMarkPosterTELOSPRESSSTLOUISNAPublishedoriginallyasLeMiroirdelaProductionEnglishtranslationcopyright©byTelosPressAllrightsreservedISBN:LibraryofCongress:ManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaNATableofContentsTranslator'sIntroductionPrefaceChapterI:TheConceptofLaborCritiqueofUseValueandLaborPowerTheConcreteAspectofLabor:The"Dialectic"ofQualityandQuantityMan'sDouble"Generic"FaceEthicofLaborEstheticofPlayMarxandtheHieroglyphofValueEpistemologyI:IntheShadowofMarxistConceptsTheCritiqueofPoliticalEconomyIsBasicallyCompletedChapterII:MarxistAnthropologyandtheDominationofNatureTheMoralPhilosophyoftheEnlightenmentLycurgusandCastrationJudaeoChristianAntiPhysisEpistemologyII:StructuralLimitsoftheMarxistCritiqueChapterIII:HistoricalMaterialismandPrimitiveSocietiesStructuralCausalityandthePrimitivesSurplusandAntiProductionMagicandLaborEpistemologyIII:MaterialismandEthnocentrismChapterIV:OntheArchaicandFeudalModeTheSlaveTheArtisanEpistemologyIV:MarxismandMiscomprehensionChapterV:MarxismandtheSystemofPoliticalEconomyAEuclideanGeometryofHistoryTheThirdPhaseofPoliticalEconomyContradictionandSubversion:TheDisplacementofthePoliticalTheEconomicasIdeologyandSimulationModelMarxistTheoryandtheWorkers'Movement:TheConceptofClassRevolutionasFinality:HistoryinSuspenseTheRadicalityofUtopiaTranslator'sIntroductionForsometimenowmanyofushaveharboredtheknowledgeoratleastthesuspicionthatMarxismisaninadequateperspectiveforthecriticalanalysisofadvancedsocietyWehavetoyedwithsyntheses,thoseoftheFrankfurtSchool,oftheItalianphenomenologicalMarxists,oftheFreudoMarxists,oftheFrenchexistentialMarxistswithoutcompletelysatisfyingresultsRadicalswhopreferactiontotheoryalsobearwitnesstotheimpasseofMarxismbytheirfranticflightfromadvancedsocietyunderthechangingbannerofsomeHeroofthecolonizedpeoples,HoChiMinh,CheGuevarra,MaoandnowStalinhimselfInthisconjunctureJeanBaudrillard,inTheMirrowofProduction,hasattemptedaradicaldeconstructionofMarxismalongwithanalternativestandpointfortoday'sradicalismInTheMirrorofProduction(),BaudrillardmarshallshisearlieranalysesfromLesystèmdesobjets(),Lasociétédeconsummation()andPourunecritiquedel'économiepolitiquedusigne()forasystematiccritiqueofMarxismHiscompellingconclusionisthatMarx'stheoryofhistoricalmaterialism,whetheritisattributedtotheManuscripts,totheGermanIdeology,toCapital,ortotheentirecorpus,istooconservative,toorootedintheassumptionsofpoliticaleconomy,toodependentonthesystemofideasthatitseekstooverthrowtoprovideaframeworkforradicalactionThefatalweaknessinMarxcomesnotfromhisefforttooutlinearevolutionarysocialtheoryBaudrillarddoesnotdisputethisimperativebutinthefailureofhistoricalmaterialismtoattainthisendForBaudrillardtheconceptualgroundsuponwhichMarxlaidhiscritiqueofpoliticaleconomywerethe"forms"ofproductionandlabor,formsthatMarxdidnotsubjecttocriticismandwhichwere,inorigin,thoseofpoliticaleconomyitselfWhenMarxunmaskedananthropologyofneedsandofusevaluebehindthesystemofexchangevaluehewasnottranscendingpoliticaleconomybutmerelyseeingitsreversesideSelectingrepresentativequotesfromtheentirescopeofMarx'stexts,fromtheCritiqueofHegel'sPhilosophyofRighttotheNotesonWagner,BaudrillardarguesthatMarx'sefforttoplumbthe"apparentmovementofpoliticaleconomy"inordertoreverseitstheoreticalflowinwhichusevaluederivedfromexchangevalue,farfromdismantlingpoliticaleconomy,onlycompletedand"interiorized"itHenceMarx'sargumentagainst"abstractlabor"byreferenceto"concrete"laborstillreliedontherationalistWesternconceptoflaboritselfInbothcases"socialwealth"isstillconceivedintermsofauniversalactivityofman,ie,labor,thatimposesanarbitrary,rationalistintentionalityonallhumanactivityBenjaminFranklinandMarxagreethat"man"isa"toolmaking"animalNewLefttheoristshavenotoftensystematicallyinterrogatedMarxhimselfThetheoryofhistoricalmaterialismhasnotoftenbeenanalyzedtoseeifitsemphasesanddirectionsmightnotsystematicallyobscurethecontemporarysocialfieldItispreciselythistaskthatBaudrillardsetsforhimselfandhisjudgmentissevere:"MarxismassiststheruseofcapitalItconvincesmenthattheyarealienatedbythesaleoftheirlaborpowerhenceitcensorsthemuchmoreradicalhypothesisthattheydonothavetobethelaborpower,the`unalienable'powerofcreatingvaluebytheirlabor"Farfromtranscendingpoliticaleconomy,Marxism,toBaudrillard,strengthensandextendsitsmostbasicpropositionsManisconceptualizedasaproducinganimaljustasinpoliticaleconomy,exceptthatMarxwantstoliberatehisproductivepotentialThisstillleavesuswithametaphoror"mirror"ofproductionthroughwhichaloneeveryaspectofsocialactivityisintelligibleAndsocontemporaryFrenchtheoristsremaintrappedinthisconceptualcage:Althusserseestheoryasa"production,"DeleuzeandGuattarigiveusanunconsciousthatisa"producer"ofdesire,theTelQuelgroupreferstotextual"production"Butitwaspoliticaleconomythaterectedthat"phantasm,"inBaudrillard'swords,oflaborasthehumanessenceTowhateverextentMarxwasabletodemystifyitsliberalusage,toextractitfromthehegemonyofbourgeoisrule,hestillturneditovertotheworkingclass,imposeditonthem,astheircentralmeansofselfcomprehensionBaudrillardwouldliketoliberatetheworkersfromtheir"laborpower,"tohavethem,iftheyaretorepresentaradicalalternativetothepresentsystem,thinkthemselvesunderanothersignthanthatofproductionMarx'sconceptoflaboris,initsdeepestlevels,identifiedwiththatofpoliticaleconomyManisconfrontedbynatureasanaturalnecessitywhichhemustactuponMandoesthisbyinvestingnaturewithvalue,avaluethathethenextractsTheschemeisoneinwhichlaborpowerutilizestechnologytocompelnaturetoyielditsrichesforhumanenjoymentBothpoliticaleconomyandMarxismareatonehereBaudrillardpointsoutthatthereisnosymbolicexchangeinthisperspective,thereisnoreciprocalplayofmeaningsandactsLaborandnaturearebothreducedto"values"thatrequirethepropermeans(technology)toactualizePoliticaleconomymightidealizelaborintoanindividualistmoralitywhereashistoricalmaterialismmightmaterializeitinanotionoffulfillment:Butbothparticipateinthesameanthropologyofmanseekinghistelosintheconquestofnature,ananthropologythatbecomesmystifyingwhenthesystembeginstocreateecologicalcatastrophesBaudrillardarguesthat"Bypositingusevalueasthebeyondofexchangevalue,onelocksalltranscendenceintothesingle,internalalternativeofthefieldofvalueButqualitativeproductionisnowtherealmofrational,positivefinalitythetransformationofnatureisnowtheplaceofitsobjectificationasaproductiveforceunderthesignofutility(thesameissimultaneouslytrueofhumanlabor)Evenbeforethestageofexchangevalueandoftheequivalenttimeofabstractsociallabor,laborandproductionalreadyconstituteanabstraction,areductionandanoutrageousrationalizationintherelationtotherichnessofsymbolicexchange"Autilitarianhypothesisencompasesthehumanprojectandnature,onethatisarbitraryandunjustified,inbothpoliticaleconomyanditscritiqueWhatisatstakeinBaudrillard'scritiqueofMarxisthegravitationalcenterofthesystemofpoliticaleconomyForMarx,theprimaryplace(determinantinstance)ofcapitalismisinthestructureofthemeansofproductionandtherelationsofproductionOveragainstpoliticaleconomy,whichsoughtthedeepstructureofcapitalismintheprocessofexchangevalue,inthedeterminationofthepriceofthecommoditythroughthe"free"intercourseofdemandsandsupplies,Marxshiftedthecentertowardthe"real"actoftheproductionandtheconsumptionofproductsButforBaudrillard,inbothcasesthereallogicisthesame:itistheinvestmentofthingswithvalueitistheplacingofasignonathingandthelogicofthisprocessofsignificationisthetrueessenceofcapitalThedifferencebetweenMarxandpoliticaleconomyisnotasgreatastheiragreementTheMarxistcritiqueunmaskedthe"abstractions"ofexchangevalueinfavorofthe"concrete"processesofusevalue,ofproductionandlaborButMarx'sconceptswerenotatallradicaltheydidnotreachtherootofthematterAllMarxdidwastosetforththerepressedsideoftheequationsofpoliticaleconomyInsteadoftheshadowsofthemarketplace,wearesenttoanequallyobscureundersideofthesystem:theplaceofproductionFollowingthisdisplacementofthecenterofthesystemtoits"humanside,"Marxunravelledthethreadsoftheentiresocialfieldthroughthe"mirrorofproduction,"atthesametimeunmaskingtheexploitativenatureofthesystemInsteadofthe"justice"ofexchangeequivalence,wehavetheunjustextractionofsurplusvaluefomthelaborer,or,alternatively,thealienationofhislifeenergiesIntheprocessofMarx'sanalysis,however,thesocialsphereisfiltered,inexorably,throughtheconceptsofproductionandlaborwhichbecometheunquestionedmetaphysicalreferencepointsofsocialrealityTheproblemisnotthatMarxisaneconomicdeterminist,thathedoesnotvaluehighlyenoughthe"finer"aspectsofhumancultureItisnotaquestionofreplacinga"materialist"theorywithan"idealist"oneRather,theproblemisthathedidnotpenetratethecentrallogicofpoliticaleconomy,whichis,toBaudrillard,itslogicofsignificationMarxtheorizedtheoriginofpoliticaleconomyasatransformationofthemodeofproductionandrelationsofproductionButtherehasbeenaseconddecisivechangeinpoliticaleconomythatMarxdidnotrecognizeandthisinvolveda"processofsocialabstraction"thatrefersnottothecommoditybuttothesignThechiefmeritofBaudrillard'sthoughtistoarticulateacritiqueofthepoliticaleconomyofthesignwhichheregardsasthedominantsocialformofadvancedcapitalismPoliticaleconomyhadgenerateditsmodeofsignificationfromtheoutset,duringtheRenaissance,butMarxwasunabletotheorizethisobjectbecausefirst,likeRicardoandtheothers,hewastiedtothemirrorofproduction,and,second,becausehisdiscourse,liketheirs,wasrepresentationalandhenceincapableofseeingtheradicallynewformofsocialexchangesBaudrillardemploystheconceptsofcontemporarystructurallinguisticstodevelophiscritiqueStructuralistsbreakdownthelinguisticsignintoasignifier(alanguageterm),asignified(anintendedmeaning),andareferent(anobjectpointedtobythesignifier)Structuralistsmerelytheorizethesignifier,insearchofitssystematicquality,relegatingthesignifiedandthereferenttoanobscurehorizonoftheirscienceWhattheyhavebeenabletodoistoshowthatsignifiershavebecomeabstractedfromthesubject(thesignified)andfromthesocialworldofobjects(thereferent)Whiletheyclaimthissituationisnaturalandinevitable,BaudrillardarguesthattheessenceofpoliticaleconomyispreciselythisseparationtheincreasingautonomizationofthesignifiernotsimplyintherealmoflanguagebutinallaspectsofsocialexchangeMarxforesawthatcapitalismwouldcorruptallvalues,moral,cultural,sexual,etc,bytheforceoftheexchangevalueofthecommodityBaudrillardassertsthatthestrategyofthecapitalistsystemistogeneratethisabstractstructureofsignificationofwhichthecommodityismerelyoneexampleWhathappensinpoliticaleconomyisthis:"thesignifiedandthereferentarenowabolishedtothesoleprofitoftheplayofsignifiers,ofageneralizedformalizationwherethecodenolongerrefersbacktoanysubjectiveorobjective`reality,'buttoitsownlogicThesignifierbecomesitsownreferentandtheusevalueofthesigndisappearstotheprofitonlyofitscommutationandexchangevalueThesignnolongerdesignatesanythingatallItapproachesinitstruthitsstructurallimitwhichistoreferbackonlytoothersignsAllrealitythenbecomestheplaceofasemilogicalmanipulation,ofastructuralsimulationAndwhereasthetraditionalsignistheobjectofaconsciousinvestment,ofarationalcalculationofsignifieds,hereitisthecodethatbecomestheinstanceofabsolutereference"Herewearebeyondthestablebourgeoisworldofthenineteenthcenturywheretheconsumercarefullyweighedhismoneyagainstthevalueofthecommodity,carefullyestimatedhisneedagainsthisresourcesThisstable,comfortable,knowableworldwherewordsclearlyreferredtothings,whereideasrepresentedreality,wherevaluescorrespondedtoneeds,wherecommoditieshadunquestionedvalue,wastheworldofMarxandhisthoughtTherecouldsimplynotbearticulateda"revolution"inunderarmdeodorants,theincorporation(imaginaryorreal)ofpersonalqualitiesthroughthepurchaseofcommodities,ora"cleanbomb"Baudrillard'scritiqueofthesignallowshimtorenderthesituationofadvancedcapitalismwithmuchmoreconcretenessthantraditionalMarxismWholerealmsofcontemporaryprotest(Blacks,Women,Youth,etc)andcritique(consumption,sex,language,themedia,etc)canbeseenbetterinrelationtotherepressivenessofthecodethaninrelationtothemodeofproductionThedramatictensioninthesystemcomesfromitsdifficultyinreproducingthecode,whileproductionitselfbecomesmerelyanideologicalsupportofthesystem(Itdeliversthegoods)InLesystémdesobjets,BaudrillardanalyzedconsumptionthroughacritiqueofthesignTheprejudiceinfavorofproductionastheactivemomentandconsumptionaspassiveoriginatedwiththepoliticaleconomybutwasconfirmedbyMarxThisproductivistideologyproducesanabsenceinsocialtheory:itcannotaccountforthearticulatedcomplexityofasymbolicexchangeinconsumptionBaudrillardassertsthatconsumptionisas"active"anexchangeasproductionInconsumptionthereisanactiveappropriationofsigns,notthesimpledestructionofanobjectWhatisconsumedisnotsimplyamaterialobjectthatsatisfiesanalltoorationalneed,butasymbolicmeaninginwhichtheconsumerplaceshimselfinacommunicationstructurewhereanexchangeoccurswhichisprofoundlytiedtothewholesystemofpoliticaleconomyInorderforthesystemtobereproducedtheremustbenotsimplythereproductionoflaborpowerbutthecontinuousreproductionofthecodeToBaudrillard,thepresentsystemofsignsinconsumptionentailsaseriousdistortionofhumanexchangeUnderpoliticaleconomy,everylevelofsocialexchangeisreducedfromsymbolicreciprocitytothe"terrorism"ofthe"code"Baudrillard'scritiqueofpoliticaleconomyleadsnotsimplytoanotherproductivistideology,butpenetratesthesysteminaradicalway:theabstractionfromthesymbolicreciprocityofexchangestotheabstract,discontinuousmanipulationofthecodeItistheverygeniusofpoliticaleconomy,ageniusthatmakesitimmunetotraditionalMarxistcritiques,thatthesignsexchangedincommunicationhavenoreferentCapitalismdetachesthesignifierfromthesignified,makingthesignifieritsownsignifiedWhatiscrucialabout,say,agivenunderarmdeodorant,isnotthatithasagivenexchangevalueoragivenusevalue,notthattheworkerswhoproduceditwerealienatedorexploitedThesecretofthiscommodityisthatitcantotallytranscendallofthese"referents,"thatitcanbecomeatotallydetachedobjectofexchangeandthatthepersonwhoconsumesitcanfinda"meaning"inittobeappropriatedthatistotallydivorcedfromthemechanismsofproductionanddistributionWhatisconsumedisnotathing,ladenwithmaterialityandthecomplexcyclethatfinallyderivesfromlaborandnature,butpurelyandsimplyanelementinacodeTherecanbenointernalcontradictionendangeringthesystemofmonopolycapitalbecause,aslongasitcontrolsthecode,consumptioncanbeindefinitelyextendedThereisnoreferentagainstwhichtodefineafinitudeofneedsbecausethecodeisitsownreferentandthereisnoendtotheconsumptionofthecodeAslongasthecodeisnotdismantled,therewillbenodifficultyforthesystemingetti

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