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首页 *应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】模拟物与拟像

*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】模拟物与拟像.pdf

*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】模拟物与拟像

九月虺
2009-09-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】模拟物与拟像pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TABLEOFCONTENTSIThePrecessionofSimulacraIIHistory:ARetroScenarioIIIHolocaustIVTheChinaSyndromeVApocalypseNowVITheBeaubourgEffect:ImplosionandDeterrenceVIIHypermarkedandHypercommodityVIIITheImplosionofMeaningintheMediaIXAbsoluteAdvertising,GroundZeroAdvertisingXCloneStoryXIHologramsXIICrashXIIISimulacraandScienceFictionXIVTheAnimals:TerritoryandMetamorphosesXVTheRemainderXVITheSpiralingCadaverXVIIValue'sLastTangoXVIIIOnNihilismTHEPRECESSIONOFSIMULACRAThesimulacrumisneverwhathidesthetruthitistruththathidesthefactthatthereisnoneThesimulacrumistrueEcclesiastesIfoncewewereabletoviewtheBorgesfableinwhichthecartographersoftheEmpiredrawupamapsodetailedthatitendsupcoveringtheterritoryexactly(thedeclineoftheEmpirewitnessesthefrayingofthismap,littlebylittle,anditsfallintoruins,thoughsomeshredsarestilldiscernibleinthedesertsthemetaphysicalbeautyofthisruinedabstractiontestifyingtoaprideequaltotheEmpireandrottinglikeacarcass,returningtothesubstanceofthesoil,abitasthedoubleendsbybeingconfusedwiththerealthroughaging)asthemostbeautifulallegoryofsimulation,thisfablehasnowcomefullcircleforus,andpossessesnothingbutthediscretecharmofsecondordersimulacra*Todayabstractionisnolongerthatofthemap,thedouble,themirror,ortheconceptSimulationisnolongerthatofaterritory,areferentialbeing,orasubstanceItisthegenerationbymodelsofarealwithoutoriginorreality:ahyperrealTheterritorynolongerprecedesthemap,nordoesitsurviveitItisneverthelessthemapthatprecedestheterritoryprecessionofsimulacrathatengenderstheterritory,andifonemustreturntothefable,todayitistheterritorywhoseshredsslowlyrotacrosstheextentofthemapItisthereal,andnotthemap,whosevestigespersisthereandthereinthedesertsthatarenolongerthoseoftheEmpire,butoursThedesertoftherealitselfInfact,eveninverted,Borges'sfableisunusableOnlytheallegoryoftheEmpire,perhaps,remainsBecauseitiswiththissameimperialismthatpresentdaysimulatorsattempttomakethereal,allofthereal,coincidewiththeirmodelsofsimulationButitisnolongeraquestionofeithermapsorterritoriesSomethinghasdisappeared:thesovereigndifference,betweenoneandtheother,thatconstitutedthecharmofabstractionBecauseitisdifferencethatconstitutesthepoetryofthemapandthecharmoftheterritory,themagicoftheconceptandthecharmoftherealThisimaginaryofrepresentation,whichsimultaneouslyculminatesinandisengulfedbythecartographersmadprojectoftheidealcoextensivityofmapandterritory,disappearsinthesimulationwhoseoperationisnuclearandgenetic,nolongeratallspecularordiscursiveItisallofmetaphysicsthatislostNomoremirrorofbeingandappearances,oftherealanditsconceptNomoreimaginarycoextensivity:itisgeneticminiaturizationthatisthedimensionofsimulationTherealisproducedfromminiaturizedcells,matrices,andmemorybanks,modelsofcontrolanditcanbereproducedanindefinitenumberoftimesfromtheseItnolongerneedstoberational,becauseitnolongermeasuresitselfagainsteitheranidealornegativeinstanceItisnolongeranythingbutoperationalInfact,itisnolongerreallythereal,becausenoimaginaryenvelopsitanymoreItisahyperreal,producedfromaradiatingsynthesisofcombinatorymodelsinahyperspacewithoutatmosphereBycrossingintoaspacewhosecurvatureisnolongerthatofthereal,northatoftruth,theeraofsimulationisinauguratedbyaliquidationofallreferentialsworse:withtheirartificialresurrectioninthesystemsofsigns,amaterialmoremalleablethanmeaning,inthatitlendsitselftoallsystemsofequivalences,toallbinaryoppositions,toallcombinatoryalgebraItisnolongeraquestionofimitation,norduplication,norevenparodyItisaquestionofsubstitutingthesignsoftherealforthereal,thatistosayofanoperationofdeterringeveryrealprocessviaitsoperationaldouble,aprogrammatic,metastable,perfectlydescriptivemachinethatoffersallthesignsoftherealandshortcircuitsallitsvicissitudesNeveragainwilltherealhavethechancetoproduceitselfsuchisthevitalfunctionofthemodelinasystemofdeath,orratherofanticipatedresurrection,thatnolongerevengivestheeventofdeathachanceAhyperrealhenceforthshelteredfromtheimaginary,andfromanydistinctionbetweentherealandtheimaginary,leavingroomonlyfortheorbitalrecurrenceofmodelsandforthesimulatedgenerationofdifferencesTHEDIVINEIRREFERENCEOFIMAGESTodissimulateistopretendnottohavewhatonehasTosimulateistofeigntohavewhatonedoesn'thaveOneimpliesapresence,theotheranabsenceButitismorecomplicatedthanthatbecausesimulatingisnotpretending:"WhoeverfakesanillnesscansimplystayinbedandmakeeveryonebelieveheisillWhoeversimulatesanillnessproducesinhimselfsomeofthesymptoms"(Littré)Therefore,pretending,ordissimulating,leavestheprincipleofrealityintact:thedifferenceisalwaysclear,itissimplymasked,whereassimulationthreatensthedifferencebetweenthe"true"andthe"false,"the"real"andthe"imaginary"Isthesimulatorsickornot,giventhatheproduces"true"symptomsObjectivelyonecannottreathimasbeingeitherillornotillPsychologyandmedicinestopatthispoint,forestalledbytheillness'shenceforthundiscoverabletruthForifanysymptomcanbe"produced,"andcannolongerbetakenasafactofnature,theneveryillnesscanbeconsideredassimulatableandsimulated,andmedicinelosesitsmeaningsinceitonlyknowshowtotreat"real"illnessesaccordingtotheirobjectivecausesPsychosomaticsevolvesinadubiousmanneratthebordersoftheprincipleofillnessAstopsychoanalysis,ittransfersthesymptomoftheorganicordertotheunconsciousorder:thelatterisnewandtakenfor"real"morerealthantheotherbutwhywouldsimulationbeatthegatesoftheunconsciousWhycouldn'tthe"work"oftheunconsciousbe"produced"inthesamewayasanyoldsymptomofclassicalmedicineDreamsalreadyareCertainly,thepsychiatristpurportsthat"foreveryformofmentalalienationthereisaparticularorderinthesuccessionofsymptomsofwhichthesimulatorisignorantandintheabsenceofwhichthepsychiatristwouldnotbedeceived"This(whichdatesfrom)inordertosafeguardtheprincipleofatruthatallcostsandtoescapetheinterrogationposedbysimulationtheknowledgethattruth,reference,objectivecausehaveceasedtoexistNow,whatcanmedicinedowithwhatfloatsoneithersideofillness,oneithersideofhealth,withtheduplicationofillnessinadiscoursethatisnolongereithertrueorfalseWhatcanpsychoanalysisdowiththeduplicationofthediscourseoftheunconsciousinthediscourseofsimulationthatcanneveragainbeunmasked,sinceitisnotfalseeither*WhatcanthearmydoaboutsimulatorsTraditionallyitunmasksthemandpunishesthem,accordingtoaclearprincipleofidentificationTodayitcandischargeaverygoodsimulatorasexactlyequivalenttoa"real"homosexual,aheartpatient,oramadmanEvenmilitarypsychologydrawsbackfromCartesiancertaintiesandhesitatestomakethedistinctionbetweentrueandfalse,betweenthe"produced"andtheauthenticsymptom"Ifheisthisgoodatactingcrazy,it'sbecauseheis"Norismilitarypsychologymistakeninthisregard:inthissense,allcrazypeoplesimulate,andthislackofdistinctionistheworstkindofsubversionItisagainstthislackofdistinctionthatclassicalreasonarmeditselfinallitscategoriesButitiswhattodayagainolanksthem,submergingtheprincipleoftruthBeyondmedicineandthearmyfavoredterrainsofsimulation,thequestionreturnstoreligionandthesimulacrumofdivinity:"Iforbadethattherebeanysimulacrainthetemplesbecausethedivinitythatanimatesnaturecanneverberepresented"IndeeditcanbeButwhatbecomesofthedivinitywhenitrevealsitselfinicons,whenitismultipliedinsimulacraDoesitremainthesupremepowerthatissimplyincarnatedinimagesasavisibletheologyOrdoesitvolatilizeitselfinthesimulacrathat,alone,deploytheirpowerandpompoffascinationthevisiblemachineryoficonssubstitutedforthepureandintelligibleIdeaofGodThisispreciselywhatwasfearedbyIconoclasts,whosemillennialquarrelisstillwithustoday*Thisispreciselybecausetheypredictedthisomnipotenceofsimulacra,thefacultysimulacrahaveofeffacingGodfromtheconscienceofman,andthedestructive,annihilatingtruththattheyallowtoappearthatdeepdownGodneverexisted,thatonlythesimulacrumeverexisted,eventhatGodhimselfwasneveranythingbuthisownsimulacrumfromthiscametheirurgetodestroytheimagesIftheycouldhavebelievedthattheseimagesonlyobfuscatedormaskedthePlatonicIdeaofGod,therewouldhavebeennoreasontodestroythemOnecanlivewiththeideaofdistortedtruthButtheirmetaphysicaldespaircamefromtheideathattheimagedidn'tconcealanythingatall,andthattheseimageswereinessencenotimages,suchasanoriginalmodelwouldhavemadethem,butperfectsimulacra,foreverradiantwiththeirownfascinationThusthisdeathofthedivinereferentialmustbeexorcisedatallcostsOnecanseethattheiconoclasts,whomoneaccusesofdisdainingandnegatingimages,werethosewhoaccordedthemtheirtruevalue,incontrasttotheiconolaterswhoonlysawreflectionsinthemandwerecontenttovenerateafiligreeGodOntheotherhand,onecansaythattheiconworshiperswerethemostmodernminds,themostadventurous,because,intheguiseofhavingGodbecomeapparentinthemirrorofimages,theywerealreadyenactinghisdeathandhisdisappearanceintheepiphanyofhisrepresentations(which,perhaps,theyalreadyknewnolongerrepresentedanything,thattheywerepurelyagame,butthatitwasthereinthegreatgamelayknowingalsothatitisdangeroustounmaskimages,sincetheydissimulatethefactthatthereisnothingbehindthem)ThiswastheapproachoftheJesuits,whofoundedtheirpoliticsonthevirtualdisappearanceofGodandontheworldlyandspectacularmanipulationofconsciencestheevanescenceofGodintheepiphanyofpowertheendoftranscendence,whichnowonlyservesasanalibiforastrategyaltogetherfreeofinfluencesandsignsBehindthebaroquenessofimageshidestheéminencegriseofpoliticsThiswaythestakewillalwayshavebeenthemurderouspowerofimages,murderersofthereal,murderersoftheirownmodel,astheByzantineiconscouldbethoseofdivineidentityTothismurderouspowerisopposedthatofrepresentationsasadialecticalpower,thevisibleandintelligiblemediationoftheRealAllWesternfaithandgoodfaithbecameengagedinthiswageronrepresentation:thatasigncouldrefertothedepthofmeaning,thatasigncouldbeexchangedformeaningandthatsomethingcouldguaranteethisexchangeGodofcourseButwhatifGodhimselfcanbesimulated,thatistosaycanbereducedtothesignsthatconstitutefaithThenthewholesystembecomesweightless,itisnolongeritselfanythingbutagiganticsimulacrumnotunreal,butasimulacrum,thatistosayneverexchangedforthereal,butexchangedforitself,inanuninterruptedcircuitwithoutreferenceorcircumferenceSuchissimulation,insofarasitisopposedtorepresentationRepresentationstemsfromtheprincipleoftheequivalenceofthesignandofthereal(evenifthisequivalenceisUtopian,itisafundamentalaxiom)Simulation,onthecontrary,stemsfromtheUtopiaoftheprincipleofequivalence,fromtheradicalnegationofthesignasvalue,fromthesignasthereversionanddeathsentenceofeveryreferenceWhereasrepresentationattemptstoabsorbsimulationbyinterpretingitasafalserepresentation,simulationenvelopsthewholeedificeofrepresentationitselfasasimulacrumSuchwouldbethesuccessivephasesoftheimage:itisthereflectionofaprofoundrealityitmasksanddenaturesaprofoundrealityitmaskstheabsenceofaprofoundrealityithasnorelationtoanyrealitywhatsoeveritisitsownpuresimulacrumInthefirstcase,theimageisagoodappearancerepresentationisofthesacramentalorderInthesecond,itisanevilappearanceitisoftheorderofmaleficenceInthethird,itplaysatbeinganappearanceitisoftheorderofsorceryInthefourth,itisnolongeroftheorderofappearances,butofsimulationThetransitionfromsignsthatdissimulatesomethingtosignsthatdissimulatethatthereisnothingmarksadecisiveturningpointThefirstreflectsatheologyoftruthandsecrecy(towhichthenotionofideologystillbelongs)Thesecondinauguratestheeraofsimulacraandofsimulation,inwhichthereisnolongeraGodtorecognizehisown,nolongeraLastJudgmenttoseparatethefalsefromthetrue,therealfromitsartificialresurrection,aseverythingisalreadydeadandresurrectedinadvanceWhentherealisnolongerwhatitwas,nostalgiaassumesitsfullmeaningThereisaplethoraofmythsoforiginandofsignsofrealityaplethoraoftruth,ofsecondaryobjectivity,andauthenticityEscalationofthetrue,oflivedexperience,resurrectionofthefigurativewheretheobjectandsubstancehavedisappearedPanicstrickenproductionoftherealandofthereferential,paralleltoandgreaterthanthepanicofmaterialproduction:thisishowsimulationappearsinthephasethatconcernsusastrategyofthereal,oftheneorealandthehyperrealthateverywhereisthedoubleofastrategyofdeterrenceRAMSES,ORTHEROSYCOLOREDRESURRECTIONEthnologybrushedupagainstitsparadoxicaldeathin,thedaywhenthePhilippinegovernmentdecidedtoreturnthefewdozenTasadaywhohadjustbeendiscoveredinthedepthsofthejungle,wheretheyhadlivedforeightcenturieswithoutanycontactwiththerestofthespecies,totheirprimitivestate,outofthereachofcolonizers,tourists,andethnologistsThisatthesuggestionoftheanthropologiststhemselves,whowereseeingtheindigenouspeopledisintegrateimmediatelyuponcontact,likemummiesintheopenairInorderforethnologytolive,itsobjectmustdiebydying,theobjecttakesitsrevengeforbeing"discovered"andwithitsdeathdefiesthesciencethatwantstograspitDoesn'tallscienceliveonthisparadoxicalslopetowhichitisdoomedbytheevanescenceofitsobjectinitsveryapprehension,andbythepitilessreversalthatthedeadobjectexertsonitLikeOrpheus,italwaysturnsaroundtoosoon,and,likeEurydice,itsobjectfallsbackintoHadesItisagainstthishelloftheparadoxthattheethnologistswishedtoprotectthemselvesbycordoningofftheTasadaywithvirginforestNoonecantouchthemanymore:asinaminetheveiniscloseddownSciencelosespreciouscapitalthere,buttheobjectwillbesafe,losttoscience,butintactinits"virginity"Itisnotaquestionofsacrifice(scienceneversacrificesitself,itisalwaysmurderous),butofthesimulatedsacrificeofitsobjectinordertosaveitsrealityprincipleTheTasaday,frozenintheirnaturalelement,willprovideaperfectalibi,aneternalguaranteeHerebeginsanantiethnologythatwillneverendandtowhichJaulin,Castaneda,ClastresarevariouswitnessesInanycase,thelogicalevolutionofascienceistodistanceitselfincreasinglyfromitsobject,untilitdispenseswithitentirely:itsautonomyisonlyrenderedevenmorefantasticitattainsitspureformTheIndianthusreturnedtotheghetto,intheglasscoffinofthevirginforest,againbecomesthemodelofsimulationofallthepossibleIndiansfrombeforeethnologyThismodelthusgrantsitselftheluxurytoincarnateitselfbeyonditselfinthe"brute"realityoftheseIndiansithasentirelyreinventedSavageswhoareindebtedtoethnologyforstillbeingSavages:whataturnofevents,whatatriumphforthissciencethatseemeddedicatedtotheirdestruction!Ofcourse,thesesavagesareposthumous:frozen,cryogenized,sterilized,protectedtodeath,theyhavebecomereferentialsimulacra,andscienceitselfhasbecomepuresimulationThesameholdstrueatCruesot,atthelevelofthe"open"museumwhereonemuseumifiedinsitu,as"historical"witnessesoftheirperiod,entireworkingclassneighborhoods,livingmetallurgiczones,anentireculture,men,women,andchildrenincludedgestures,languages,customsfossilizedaliveasinasnapshotThemuseum,insteadofbeingcircumscribedasageometricsite,iseverywherenow,likeadimensionoflifeThusethnology,ratherthancircumscribingitselfasanobjectivescience,willtoday,liberatedfromitsobject,beappliedtoalllivingthingsandmakeitselfinvisible,likeanomnipresentfourthdimension,thatofthesimulacrumWeareallTasadays,IndianswhohaveagainbecomewhattheyweresimulacralIndianswhoatlastproclaimtheuniversaltruthofethnologyWehaveallbecomelivingspecimensinthespectrallightofethnology,orofantiethnology,whichisnothingbutthepureformoftriumphalethnology,underthesignofdeaddifferences,andoftheresurrectionofdifferencesItisthusverynaivetolookforethnologyintheSavagesorinsomeThirdWorlditishere,everywhere,inthemetropolises,intheWhitecommunity,inaworldcompletelycatalogedandanalyzed,thenartificiallyresurrectedundertheauspicesofthereal,inaworldofsimulation,ofthehallucinationoftruth,oftheblackmailofthereal,ofthemurderofeverysymbolicformandofitshysterical,historicalretrospectionamurderofwhichtheSavages,noblesseoblige,werethefirstvictims,butthatforalongtimehasextendedtoallWesternsocietiesButinthesamebreathethnologygrantsusitsonlyandfinallesson,thesecretthatkillsit(andwhichtheSavagesknewbetterthanitdid):thevengeanceofthedeadTheconfinementofthescientificobjectisequaltotheconfinementofthemadandthedeadAndjustasallofsocietyisirremediablycontaminatedbythismirrorofmadnessthatithashelduptoitself,sciencecan'thelpbutdiecontaminatedbythedeathofthisobjectthatisitsinversemirrorItissciencethatmasterstheobjects,butitistheobjectsthatinvestitwithdepth,accordingtoanunconsciousreversion,whichonlygivesadeadandcircularresponsetoadeadandcircularinterrogationNothingchangeswhensocietybreaksthemirrorofmadness(abolishestheasylums,givesspeechbacktotheinsane,etc)norwhenscienceseemstobreakthemirrorofitsobjectivity(effacingitselfbeforeitsobject,asinCastaneda,etc)andtobenddownbeforethe"differences"Theformproducedbyconfinementisfollowedbyaninnumerable,diffracted,sloweddownmechanismAsethnologycollapsesinitsclassicalinstitution,itsurvivesinanantie

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*应求重贴*【鲍德里亚】模拟物与拟像

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