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首页 *新书上架*【福柯】安全、领土、人口

*新书上架*【福柯】安全、领土、人口.pdf

*新书上架*【福柯】安全、领土、人口

九月虺
2009-09-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*【福柯】安全、领土、人口pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MICHELFOUCAULTSecurity,Territory,PopulationLECTURESATTHECOLLÈGEDEFRANCE,EditedbyMichelSenellartGeneralEditors:FrançoisEwaldandAlessandroFontanaEnglishSeriesEditor:ArnoldIDavidsonTRANSLATEDBYGRAHAMBURCHELLpalgravemacmillanCONTENTSForeword:FrançoisEwaldandAlessandroFontanaIntroduction:ArnoldIDavidsononeJANUARYGeneralperspectiveofthelectures:thestudyofbiopower~Fiveproposalsontheanalysisofmechanismsofpower~Legalsystem,disciplinarymechanisms,andsecurityapparatuses(dispositifs)Twoexamples:(a)thepunishmentoftheft(b)thetreatmentofleprosy,plague,andsmallpox~Generalfeaturesofsecurityapparatuses():thespacesofsecurity~Theexampleofthetown~Threeexamplesofplanningurbanspaceinthesixteenthandseventeenthcenturies:(a)AlexandreLeMaître’sLaMétropolitée()(b)Richelieu(c)NantestwoJANUARYGeneralfeaturesoftheapparatusesofsecurity(II):relationshiptotheevent:theartofgoverningandtreatmentoftheuncertain(l’aléatoire)–Theproblemofscarcity(ladisette)intheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies–Fromthemercantiliststothephysiocrats–Differencesbetweenapparatusesofsecurityanddisciplinarymechanismsinwaysofdealingwiththeevent–Thenewgovernmentalrationalityandtheemergenceof“population”–Conclusiononliberalism:libertyasideologyandtechniqueofgovernmentthreeJANUARYGeneralfeaturesofapparatusesofsecurity(III)–Normation(normation)andnormalization–Theexampleoftheepidemic(smallpox)andinoculationcampaignsintheeighteenthcentury–Theemergenceofnewnotions:case,risk,danger,andcrisis–Theformsofnormalizationindisciplineandinmechanismsofsecurity–Deploymentofanewpoliticaltechnology:thegovernmentofpopulations–Theproblemofpopulationinthemercantilistsandthephysiocrats–Thepopulationasoperator(operateur)oftransformationsindomainsofknowledge:fromtheanalysisofwealthtopoliticaleconomy,fromnaturalhistorytobiology,fromgeneralgrammartohistoricalphilologyfourFEBRUARYTheproblemof“government”inthesixteenthcentury~Multiplicityofpracticesofgovernment(governmentofself,governmentofsouls,governmentofchildren,etcetera)~Thespecificproblemofthegovernmentofthestate~Thepointofrepulsionoftheliteratureongovernment:Machiavelli’sThePrince~BriefhistoryofthereceptionofThePrinceuntilthenineteenthcentury~TheartofgovernmentdistinctfromthePrince’ssimpleartfulness~Exampleofthisnewartofgovernment:GuillaumedelaPerrièreLeMiroirpolitique()~Agovernmentthatfindsitsendinthe“things”tobedirected~Declineoflawtotheadvantageofavarietyoftactics~Thehistoricalandinstitutionalobstaclestotheimplementationofthisartofgovernmentuntiltheeighteenthcentury~Theproblemofpopulationanessentialfactorinunblockingtheartofgovernment~Thetriangleformedbygovernment,population,andpoliticaleconomy~Questionsofmethod:theprojectofahistoryof“governmentality”OvervaluationoftheproblemoftheStatefiveFEBRUARYWhystudygovernmentality~TheproblemoftheStateandpopulation~Reminderofthegeneralproject:tripledisplacementoftheanalysisinrelationto(a)theinstitution,(b)thefunction,and(c)theobject~Thestakeofthisyear’slectures~Elementsforahistoryof“government”Itssemanticfieldfromthethirteenthtothesixteenthcentury~TheideaofthegovernmentofmenItssources:(A)TheorganizationofapastoralpowerinthepreChristianandChristianEast(B)Spiritualdirection(directiondeconscience)~FirstoutlineofthepastorateItsspecificfeatures:(a)itisexercisedoveramultiplicityonthemove(b)itisafundamentallybeneficentpowerwithsalvationoftheflockasitsobjective(c)itisapowerwhichindividualizesOmnesetsingulatimTheparadoxoftheshepherd(berger)~TheinstitutionalizationofthepastoratebytheChristianchurchsixFEBRUARYAnalysisofthepastorate(continuation)~TheproblemoftheshepherdflockrelationshipinGreekliteratureandthought:Homer,thePythagoreantraditionRarenessoftheshepherdmetaphorinclassicalpoliticalliterature(Isocrates,Demosthenes)~Amajorexception:Plato’sTheStatesmanTheuseofthemetaphorinotherofPlato’stexts(Critias,Laws,TheRepublic)ThecritiqueoftheideaofamagistrateshepherdinTheStatesmanThepastoralmetaphorappliedtothedoctor,farmer,gymnast,andteacher~ThehistoryofthepastorateintheWest,asamodelofthegovernmentofmen,isinseparablefromChristianityItstransformationsandcrisesuptotheeighteenthcenturyNeedforahistoryofthepastorate~Characteristicsofthe“governmentofsouls”:encompassingpowercoextensivewiththeorganizationoftheChurchanddistinctfrompoliticalpower~TheproblemoftherelationshipsbetweenpoliticalpowerandpastoralpowerintheWestComparisonwiththeRussiantraditionsevenFEBRUARYAnalysisofthepastorate(end)~SpecificityoftheChristianpastorateincomparisonwitheasternandHebraictraditions~AnartofgoverningmenItsroleinthehistoryofgovernmentaltiy~MainfeaturesoftheChristianpastoratefromthethirdtothesixthcentury(SaintJohnChrysostomSaintCyprian,SaintAmbrose,GregorytheGreat,Cassian,SaintBenedict):()therelationshiptosalvationAneconomyofmeritsandfaults:(a)theprincipleofanalyticalresponsibility(b)theprincipleofexhaustiveandinstantaneoustransfer(c)theprincipleofsacrificialreversal(d)theprincipleofalternatecorrespondence()Therelationshiptothelaw:institutionofarelationshipofcompletesubordinationofthesheeptothepersonwhodirectsthemAnindividualandnonfinalizedrelationshipDifferencebetweenGreekandChristianapatheia()Therelationshiptothetruth:theproductionofhiddentruthsPastoralteachingandspiritualdirection~Conclusion:anabsolutelynewformofpowerthatmarkstheappearanceofspecificmodesofindividualizationItsdecisiveimportanceforthehistoryofthesubjecteightMARCHThenotionof“conduct”~Thecrisisofthepastorate~Revoltsofconductinthefieldofthepastorate~Theshiftofformsofresistancetothebordersofpoliticalinstitutionsinthemodernage:examplesofthearmy,secretsocieties,andmedicine~Problemofvocabulary:“Revoltsofconduct,”“insubordination(insoumission),”“dissidence,”and“counterconduct”PastoralcounterconductsHistoricalreminder:(a)asceticism(b)communities(c)mysticism(b)Scripture(e)eschatologicalbeliefs~Conclusion:whatisatstakeinthereferencetothenotionof“pastoralpower”forananalysisofthemodesofexerciseofpoweringeneralnineMARCHFromthepastoralofsoulstothepoliticalgovernmentofmen~Generalcontextofthistransformation:thecrisisofthepastorateandtheinsurrectionsofconductinthesixteenthcenturyTheProtestantReformationandtheCounterReformationOtherfactors~Twonotablephenomena:theintensificationofthereligiouspastorateandtheincreasingquestionofconduct,onbothprivateandpubliclevels~Governmentalreasonspecifictotheexerciseofsovereignty~ComparisonwithSaintThomas~Breakupofthecosmologicaltheologicalcontinuum~Thequestionoftheartofgoverning~Commentontheproblemofintelligibilityinhistory~Raisond’État():newnessandobjectofscandal~Threefocalpointsofthepolemicaldebatearoundraisond’État:Machiavelli,“politics”(la“politique”),andthe“state”tenMARCHRaisond’État(II):itsdefinitionandprincipalcharacteristicsintheseventeenthcentury~Thenewmodelofhistoricaltemporalityentailedbyraisond’État~Specificfeaturesofraisond’Étatwithregardtopastoralgovernment:()Theproblemofsalvation:thetheoryofcoupd’État(Naudé)Necessity,violence,theatricality~()TheproblemofobedienceBacon:thequestionofseditionDifferencesbetweenBaconandMachiavelli~()Theproblemoftruth:fromthewisdomoftheprincetoknowledgeofthestateBirthofstatisticsTheproblemofthesecret~Thereflexiveprisminwhichtheproblemofthestateappeared~Presenceabsenceof“population”inthisnewproblematicelevenMARCHRaisond’État(III)~Thestateasprincipleofintelligibilityandasobjective~Thefunctioningofthisgovernmentalreason:(A)IntheoreticaltextsThetheoryofthepreservationofthestate(B)InpoliticalpracticeCompetitionbetweenstates~TheTreatyofWestphaliaandtheendoftheRomanEmpire~Force,anewelementofpoliticalreason~Politicsandthedynamicofforces~Thefirsttechnologicalensembletypicalofthisnewartofgovernment:thediplomaticmilitarysystem~Itsobjective:thesearchforaEuropeanbalanceWhatisEuropeTheideaof“balance”~Itsinstruments:()war()diplomacy()theinstallationofapermanentmilitaryapparatus(dispositif)twelveMARCHThesecondtechnologicalassemblagecharacteristicofthenewartofgovernmentaccordingtoraisond’État:policeTraditionalmeaningsoftheworduptothesixteenthcenturyItsnewsenseintheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies:calculationandtechniquemakingpossiblethegooduseofthestate’sforces~ThetriplerelationshipbetweenthesystemofEuropeanbalanceandpolice~DiversityofItalian,German,andFrenchsituations~TurquetdeMayerne,LaMonarchiearistodémocratique~Thecontrolofhumanactivityasconstitutiveelementoftheforceofthestate~Objectsofpolice:()thenumberofcitizens()thenecessitiesoflife()health()occupations()thecoexistenceandcirculationofmen~PoliceastheartofmanaginglifeandthewellbeingofpopulationsthirteenAPRILPolice(continuation)~Delamare~ThetownassiteforthedevelopmentofpolicePoliceandurbanregulationUrbanizationoftheterritoryRelationshipbetweenpoliceandthemercantilistproblematic~Emergenceofthemarkettown~MethodsofpoliceDifferencebetweenpoliceandjusticeAnessentiallyregulatorytypeofpowerRegulationanddiscipline~Returntotheproblemofgrain~CriticismofthepolicestateonthebasisoftheproblemofscarcityThethesesoftheéconomistesconcerningthepriceofgrain,population,andtheroleofthestate~BirthofanewgovernmentalityGovernmentalityofthepolitiquesandgovernmentalityoftheéconomistes~Thetransformationsofraisond’État:()thenaturalnessofsociety()newrelationshipsbetweenpowerandknowledge()takingchargeofthepopulation(publichygiene,demography,etc)()newformsofstateintervention()thestatusofliberty~Elementsofthenewartofgovernment:economicpractice,managementofthepopulation,lawandrespectforliberties,policewitharepressivefunction~Differentformsofcounterconductrelativetothisgovernmentality~GeneralconclusionCoursesummaryCoursecontextIndexofnotionsIndexofnamesFOREWORDMICHELFOUCAULTTAUGHTATtheCollègedeFrancefromJanuaryuntilhisdeathinJune(withtheexceptionofwhenhetookasabbaticalyear)Thetitleofhischairwas“TheHistoryofSystemsofThought”OntheproposalofJulesVuillemin,thechairwascreatedonthNovemberbythegeneralassemblyoftheprofessorsoftheCollègedeFranceandreplacedthatof“TheHistoryofPhilosophicalThought”heldbyJeanHyppoliteuntilhisdeathThesameassemblyelectedMichelFoucaulttothenewchaironthAprilHewasyearsoldMichelFoucault’sinaugurallecturewasdeliveredonndDecemberTeachingattheCollègedeFranceisgovernedbyparticularrulesProfessorsmustprovidehoursofteachingayear(withthepossibilityofamaximumofhalfthistotalbeinggivenintheformofseminars)EachyeartheymustpresenttheiroriginalresearchandthisobligesthemtochangethecontentoftheirteachingforeachcourseCoursesandseminarsarecompletelyopennoenrolmentorqualificationisrequiredandtheprofessorsdonotawardanyqualificationsIntheterminologyoftheCollègedeFrance,theprofessorsdonothavestudentsbutonlyauditorsMichelFoucault’scourseswereheldeveryWednesdayfromJanuarytoMarchThehugeaudiencemadeupofstudents,teachers,researchersandthecurious,includingmanywhocamefromoutsideFrance,requiredtwoamphitheatersoftheCollègedeFranceFoucaultoftencomplainedaboutthedistancebetweenhimselfandhis“public”andofhowfewexchangesthecoursemadepossibleHewouldhavelikedaseminarinwhichrealcollectiveworkcouldtakeplaceandmadeanumberofattemptstobringthisaboutInthefinalyearshedevotedalongperiodtoansweringhisauditors’questionsattheendofeachcourseThisishowGérardPetitjean,ajournalistfromLeNouvelObservateur,describedtheatmosphereatFoucault’slecturesin:WhenFoucaultenterstheamphitheater,briskanddynamiclikesomeonewhoplungesintothewater,hestepsoverbodiestoreachhischair,pushesawaythecassetterecorderssohecanputdownhispapers,removeshisjacket,lightsalampandsetsoffatfullspeedHisvoiceisstrongandeffective,amplifiedbyloudspeakersthataretheonlyconcessiontomodernisminahallthatisbarelylitbylightspreadfromstuccobowlsThehallhasthreehundredplacesandtherearefivehundredpeoplepackedtogether,fillingthesmallestfreespace…ThereisnooratoricaleffectItisclearandterriblyeffectiveThereisabsolutelynoconcessiontoimprovisationFoucaulthastwelvehourseachyeartoexplaininapubliccoursethedirectiontakenbyhisresearchintheyearjustendedSoeverythingisconcentratedandhefillsthemarginslikecorrespondentswhohavetoomuchtosayforthespaceavailabletothemAtFoucaultstopsThestudentsrushtowardshisdesknottospeaktohim,buttostoptheircassetterecordersTherearenoquestionsInthepushingandshovingFoucaultisaloneFoucaultremarks:“ItshouldbepossibletodiscusswhatIhaveputforwardSometimes,whenithasnotbeenagoodlecture,itwouldneedverylittle,justonequestion,toputeverythingstraightHowever,thisquestionnevercomesThegroupeffectinFrancemakesanygenuinediscussionimpossibleAndasthereisnofeedback,thecourseistheatricalizedMyrelationshipwiththepeoplethereislikethatofanactororanacrobatAndwhenIhavefinishedspeaking,asensationoftotalsolitude…”Foucaultapproachedhisteachingasaresearcher:explorationsforafuturebookaswellastheopeningupoffieldsofproblematizationwereformulatedasaninvitationtopossiblefutureresearchersThisiswhythecoursesattheCollègedeFrancedonotduplicatethepublishedbooksTheyarenotsketchesforthebookseventhoughbothbooksandcoursessharecertainthemesTheyhavetheirownstatusTheyarisefromaspecificdiscursiveregimewithinthesetofFoucault’s“philosophicalactivities”Inparticulartheysetouttheprogrammeforagenealogyofknowledgepowerrelations,whicharethetermsinwhichhethinksofhisworkfromthebeginningofthes,asopposedtotheprogrammeofanarcheologyofdiscursiveformationsthatpreviouslyorientatedhisworkThecoursesalsoperformedaroleincontemporaryrealityThosewhofollowedhiscourseswerenotonlyheldinthrallbythenarrativethatunfoldedweekbyweekandseducedbytherigorousexposition,theyalsofoundaperspectiveoncontemporaryrealityMichelFoucault’sartconsistedinusinghistorytocutdiagonallythroughcontemporaryrealityHecouldspeakofNietzscheorAristotle,ofexpertpsychiatricopinionortheChristianpastoral,butthosewhoattendedhislecturesalwaystookfromwhathesaidaperspectiveonthepresentandcontemporaryeventsFoucault’sspecificstrengthinhiscourseswasthesubtleinterplaybetweenlearnederudition,personalcommitmentandworkontheevent♠Withtheirdevelopmentandrefinementinthes,Foucault’sdeskwasquicklyinvadedbycassetterecordersThecourses–andsomeseminars–havethusbeenpreservedThiseditionisbasedonthewordsdeliveredinpublicbyFoucaultItgivesatranscriptionofthesewordsthatisasliteralaspossibleWewouldhavelikedtopresentitassuchHowever,thetransitionfromanoraltoawrittenpresentationcallsforeditorialintervention:attheveryleastitrequirestheintroductionofpunctuationanddivisionintoparagraphsOurprinciplehasbeenalwaystoremainascloseaspossibletothecourseactuallydeliveredSummariesandrepetitionshavebeenremovedwheneveritseemedtobeabsolutelynecessaryInterruptedsentenceshavebeenrestoredandfaultyconstructionscorrectedSuspensionpointsindicatethattherecordingisinaudibleWhenasentenceisobscurethereisaconjecturalintegrationoranadditionbetweensquarebracketsAnasteriskdirectingthereadertothebottomofthepageindicatesasignificantdivergencebetweenthenotesusedbyFoucaultandthewordsactuallyutteredQuotationshavebeencheckedandreferencestothetextsusedareindicatedThecriticalapparatusislimitedtotheelucidationofobscurepoints,theexplanationofsomeallusionsandtheclarificationofcriticalpointsTomakethelectureseasiertoread,eachlectureisprecededbyabriefsummarythatindicatesitsprincipalarticulationsThetextofthecourseisfollowedbythesummarypublishedbytheAnnuaireduCollègedeFranceFoucaultusuallywrotetheseinJune,sometimeaftertheendofthecourseItwasanopportunityforhimtopickoutretrospectivelytheintentionandobjectivesofthecourseItconstitutesthebestintroductiontothecourseEachvolumeendswitha“context”forwhichthecourseeditorsareresponsibleItseekstoprovidethereaderwithelementsofthebiographical,ideologicalandpoliticalcontext,situatingthecoursewithinthepublishedworkandprovidingindicationsconcerningitsplacewithinthecorpususedinordertofacilitateunderstandingandtoavoidmisinterpretationsthatmightarisefromaneglectofthecircumstancesinwhicheachcoursewasdevelopedanddeliveredSecurity,Territory,Population,thecoursedeliveredin,iseditedbyMichelSenellart♠AnewaspectofMichelFoucault’s“œuvre”ispublishedwiththiseditionoftheCollègedeFrancecoursesStrictlyspeakingitisnotamatterofunpublishedwork,sincethiseditionreproduceswordsutteredpubliclybyFoucault,excludingtheoftenhighlydevelopedwrittenmaterialheusedtosupporthislectures

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