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首页 Osprey [MAA] 169.Resistance.Warfare.1940-45(二战抵…

Osprey [MAA] 169.Resistance.Warfare.1940-45(二战抵抗运动-英文版军事).pdf

Osprey [MAA] 169.Resistance.War…

tiantian1726 2009-09-27 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Osprey [MAA] 169.Resistance.Warfare.1940-45(二战抵抗运动-英文版军事)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含OSPREY'MENATARMSSERIESTextiJyCARLOSCABALLEROJURADOColourplatesiJyPAULHANNO符等。

OSPREY'MENATARMSSERIESTextiJyCARLOSCABALLEROJURADOColourplatesiJyPAULHANNON,~,,,,MENATARMSSERIESEDITOR:MARTINWINDROWt:sistancemtjitreResistanceandCollaboratiollillUistenzEurope,TextbyCARLOSCABALLEROJURADOTranslatedbyANUNCIACIONSOM,LLAColourplatesbyPAULHANNO:OSPREYPBUSHINGLONDODedicationThisbookisdedicatedtomymotherEditor'sNoteThisbookdealswithNorway,Denmark,Holland,Belgium,FranceandItalyThecompanionvolumeMAAParlisanWaifare,byNigelThomasandPeterAbbott,coversparalleldevelopmellLsinPoland,Russia(includingtheUkraine,ByelorussiaandtheBalticRepublics),Yugoslavia,AlbaniaandGreecePublishedinIgbyOspreyPublishingLtdMembercompanyoftheGeorgePhilipGroupLongAcre,LondonWCEgLPCopyrightIgOspreyPublishingLtdThisbookiscopyrightedundertheBerneConventionAllrightsreservedApartfromanyfairdealingforthepurposeofprivatestudy,research,criticism'review,aspermittedundertheCopyrightAct,,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedi'larctrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,electrical,chemical,mechanical,optical,photocopying,recording'othcrwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofthecopyrightownerEnquiriesshouldbeaddressedLOthePublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataCaballeroJurado,CarlosResistancewarfare,(Menatarmsseriesg),WorldWar,'UndergroundmovementsITitleIISeries'DEgFilmsetinGreatBritainPrintedinHongKongAcknowledgementsTheauthorgratefullyacknowledgestheinvaluableassistanceofthefollowing:AlfredoCampcllo,forassistancewithpictureresearchDavidLittlejohn,authorofThePatrioticTraitorsandForeignLegionsojtlteThirdReich,forhishelpwiththeItalianandFrenchsectionsHansWNeulen,authorofEurojascltistnusundderZweiteWeltkriegandAnDeutscherSeite:InternationaleFreiwilligeVOIWehnnachtundvVaffenSS,forhishelpwiththeScandinavian,DutchandItaliansectionsMichelleRallo,forhishelpwiththeItaliansectionFransSelleslaghoftheCentredcRecherchesetd'EtudesdelaSecondeGuerreMondiale,BrusselsNigelThomas,coauthorofGermany'sEasternFrontAlliesandPartisanWarfareinthisseries,forhishelpwiththeFrenchandlLaliansectionsDrTrumppoftheFederalGermanBundesarchivandJanVincx,authorofVlaandereninUnifoml,,forhishelpwiththeBelgiansectionArtist'sNoteReadersmaycaretonotethattheoriginalpaintingsfromwhichthecolourplatesinthisbookwerepreparedareavailableforprivatesaleAllreproductioncopyrightwhatsoeverisretainedbythepublisherAllenquiriesshouldbeaddressedLO:PaulHannonStationRoadKingsLangleyHensWDLBThepublishersregretthattheycanenterintonocorrespondenceuponthismatterResistanceIMrfirei',IntroductionTheoccupationofWesternEuropebytheWehrmachtbroughtaboutthebirthofresistancemovementsinallthecountriesaffected~andalsocollaborationistmovements,directlyopposedtotheresistanceThewaragainstGermanybecameacivilwar,moreorlessviolent,withineachcountryDuringthe',andparticularlybetween'and,EuropehadbeendividedbetweentwopoliticalblocsantiFascisffi,andantiCommunismThesetwobroadpoliticalattitudesnaturallyevolvedduringthe'SintoresistanceandcollaborationmovementsFormanyyearssincetheendoftheSecondWorldWartheresistershavebeenpresentedinauniversallyheroiclightthecollaborators,ascriminalsAccordingtothisscenariotheresistancewasapopularmovementwithpatrioticaims,whilethecollaboratorswereagroupofvillainoustraitorswhosoldouttotheGermansToday,thissimplisticversionofeventscanhardlybesustainedTherewerepatriotsandopportunists,heroesandcriminalsintheranksofbothResistanceandCollaborationFormany,thechoicewassimplybetweentwodifferentviewsofthedestinyoftheircountryFortheantiFasciststheprioritywasthedestructionofGermanFascism,withAlliedhelpFortheantiCommunists,Germanhelpwasnecessaryforthedestructionofthe'Bolshevikmenace',evenifthepriceofGermanoccupationhadtobepaidItalyandFranceexcepted,theresistancemovementshadlittlevalueasamilitarycontributiontotheAlliedcauseinWesternEuropeTheyneverrepresentedaseriousmilitarydangerfortheGermansneitherweretheyofsignificantassistancetoAlliedoperationsonthebattlefieldTheyalwaysneededabundanthelpfromoutsideWithouttheparticipationoftheBritishSOE,andthearmsdropswhichtheycouldorganise,theresistanceNCOofGermanPolicewearingthepipedservicetunicwithaneightbuttonfront,darkbrowncollarandcuffs,andbrightgreenpipingThewreathedPoliceversionofthenationaleagleandswastikaisworningreenontheleftarmandinsilveronthecapNotethatPoliceNCOsdidnotwearthegromsilverbraid<rresuroundtheircollars,apeculiaritylat~ro:tendedtosomeoftheforeignauxiliaryforcesraisedunderPolicesponsorship(Bundesarchiv)wouldinmanycaseshaverepresentedliulemorethanagestureThoughresistancebegan,tentatively,in,therealdateofitsbirthasasignificantmovementwas',coincidingwithHitler'sinvasionofSovietRussianEuropeanCommunistpartieshadcriticisedorfranklysabotagedthewareffortagainstGcrmanyintheirown("oulilries,inaccordancewiththeNaziSovietPactin'theysuddenly'discoveredinthemselvesamorerobustpatriotismInMauriceThorez,generalsecrelaryoftheFrenchCommunistParty,desertedfromtheFrenchArmyandfledtoRussia,urginghisfollowerstodolikewisehewasstrippedofhisFrenchnationalityJn'IheorderedhisfollowerstothrowthemselvesintoaviolentguerrillacampaignagainsttheGermanstosaveFranceortohelpRussiaDcGaullehimselfwarnedtheFrenchCommunistsoftheharmtheirmethodsbroughtdownupontheFrenchpopulationTheydidnottakemuchnotice:theirattacks,locallysuccessful,provokedindiscriminateGermanreprisals,whichinturnattractedrecruitstotheCommunists'causeAstheearlyChristianshadfoundunderRomanpersecution,'thebloodofthemartyrsistheseedoftheChurch'TheCommunistsweretheonlyfactionwithintheresistancemovementswhohadpreviousknowledgeofundergroundpoliticalactivityandthetechniquesofrevolutionaryinsurrectionTheyusedtheirtrainingtoinfiltrateotherresistanceorganisations,andtomanipulatethcmforthelongtermadvantageortheCommunistcause,lookingbeyondtheeventualliberationoftheircountriesfromtheGermansTheywerethemostdisciplinedanddTicientofalltheresistersandconsequentlytheirCustOD'lSoflit:iaJsZoJlbeamtenplayedanimportantpartinfightingthelogisticorganisationofResistancemovementshere,theycheckaFrenchfisbinJ!:boatUnifonnsareinfieldgrey,withdarkgreenWaffenfarbeanddarkgreenandsilverinsigniatheeufTbandshowsasilvereagleandswastikaonasilveredgedgreenbandRankisindicatedbyshoulderstraps,collarpatchesandalsocapcords(Bundesarchiv)membershipincrcased,eventhoughsomewartimerecruitsdidnotsharetheirideologyAstheCommunistswcrcthehardcoreofactiveresistance,collaborationistauthoritieswereabletoturnthepatrioticargumentagainstthemtheirpropagandapresentedresistancemovementsingeneralnotaspatriots,butasRussianagentsdeterminedtoimposeontheircountriesaStalinistdictatorshipGermanSecurityFOrcesTheHohereSSundPolizeifiihrerorHSSPF('HighCommandoftheSSandPolice')werercsponsibleforsecurityinoccupiedWesternEuropeTherewereHSSPFinNorway,Denmark,Holland,BelgiumandFranceInItalythiscommandwasdesignatedHochsterSSundPolizeifLihrerheldbyoneorrJimmler'sfavourites,SSGenWolJf,itembracedtwoseparateHSSPFHSSPF'Oberitalien',andHSSPF'AdriatischesKustenland'TheGermansecurityforcesintheWestwerelessimportantthanthosedeployedintheEast,foranumberofreasonsFirstly,theresistancemovemenlSthemselveswerelessimportantsecondly,Westernterrainofferedfarlessspaceandcover(orresistanceactivitiesandthirdly,othermeanswerelocallyavailableinalloccupiedWesterncountriesthenationalpoliceforcesremainedinexistence,andinmanyofthemlargenumbersofWehrmachtregularswerestationedtowardoffAlliedinvasionThefirstGermansecurityforcestransferredtotheWesterncountrieswereseveralStandarte(regiments)oftheSSTotenkopfverbiindeorSSTV'SSDeath'sHeadUnits'ThethSTVStandartewasestablishedinDenmark,thethandthinorway,andthethandIIthinHollandJnFebruary'theseunitsweredisbandedandtheirpersonneltransferredtotheWaffenSS'(Theonlypeculiarityoftheiruniformshadbeentheuscofthedeath'sheadinsteadoftheSSrunesonthecollarpatch)VeryfewPoliceReghnents(retitled'SSPoliceRegiments'from)weresenttoWesterncountriesonapermanentbasisThePoliceRegtsIATIlLWllffmSS,JorexplanationofIherelationshiptlwsediflcrelllorj{anisations'Nordnorwegen'and'Sudnorwegen'(laterretitledthandthSSPoliceRegts)wereestablishedinNorwayTheywerereinforcedbythethandthPoliceRegts,thelattersubsequentlytransferredto!LalyInDenmarktherewereonlytwoPoliceGuardBatlalions,establishedin'HollandhadtherdPoliceRegtandinBelgiumnoGermanPolicedeploymentwasfeltnecessaryTheth,th,'thandthPoliceRegtsservedinFranceorshortperiodsandanadhocunit,PoliceRegt'Griese',wascreatedtoparticipateintheoccupationofthesocalled'FreeZone'ofVichysouthernFranceinNovemberThesituationinItalywasverydifferentTheth,'thand'thPoliceRegtsservedinthatcountryandimportantpoliceforceswerealsorecruitedamongethnicGermans(Volksdeutsche)fromtheSouthernTyrolPoliceRegts'Bozen','Alpenvorland','Schlander'and'Brixen'wererecruitedbetweenOctober'andOctober',andservedalloveroccupiedItalyInNovember'newSouthTyroleanforceswerecreatedaspartoftheVolkssturmthe'homePhotographedataninterunitskicompetitioninoccupiedNorway,thesePolicepersonneldisplayusefuluttiforrndetailsThedistinctivestyleofPoliceshoulderstrapsisdisplayedbythebendingfigureattherightandnotePolicecollarpatches,whichforenlistedmenandNCOsborethesilvergreyLit~e"onPolicegreenbackingpipedinsilvergreyOfficersworetheirlargersilverLitzenonunpipedgreenbackingGeneralsasextremerightworeWehrmachtstylegoldoakleafpatchesonPolicegreenbackinguntilautumn:seeunderPlateA(Bundesarchiv)guard'organisationcreatedthroughoutReichterritoryfromSeptember'ThenewunitsdifferedinsomerespectsfromtherestoftheVolkssturm:theyadoptedatitleStandschutzcninaccordancewithTyroleantraditiontheyworetheirownarmshieldinsigniaandtheywereorganisedbythePolice,notbytheNaziPartyThethreeStandschutzenBataillonewerenamed'Meran','Gossensass'and~Mals'AseparateforceentitledSudtirolerOrdnungsdienst(laterretitledStadtundLandwaeht)wasalsoreeruitedamongVolksdeutscheitstotalstrengthofsome,menwasmadeupofsmalllocalunitsInItalytheGermanPolicerecruitedvolunteerunits,somethingnotseeninotherWesterncountriesTheCorpodiSicurezzaTrentino,withastrengthofabout,Italians,servedonattachmenttotheGermanPoliccintheSouthTyrolAnotherItalianunitwasthesocalledMilizRegiment'DeMaria'(Polizei),whichwouldprovidethemainelementfortheItalianSSBrigadeIntheUdineregiontheSturmlcgionM'Tagliamento'(Polizei)inItalianform,Lcgioncd'AssaltoM'Tagliamento'(Polizia)wasemployedagainstguerrillasInJanuarythisunitwasretitledPolizeiFreiwilligeGebirgsjagcrBtl'Tagliamento'(VolunteerPoliceAlpineBn'TagIiamento')TheGermanPolicetriedtoattracttotheirrankstheefficientCarabinieri,Italy'straditionalnationalgendarmerieforceTheywerenotparticolarlysuccessfulinthis,astheforcehadastrongMonarchisttraditionnevertheless,severalVolunteerPoliceBattalionswerecreatedtoincorporatethemTheorderofbattlcoftheHSSPF'Oberitalien'ofFebruaryincludesIIVolunJonasLie,herewearingWaffenSSumfonnwasQuisling'sMinisterofJusticeandPolice,andleaderoftheNorwegianGennanicSSAtrightaretwoofficersofthisGermOlukeSSNorge(noteeufftitle)theNSbadgeofaneagleclutchinga'StOlarsCross'canbeseenontheirleCtsleevesandalsoasthecapbadgeoftheNorwegianpoliceofficerbehindLie(Neulen)teerPoliceBnsandtwoVolunteerPoliceDepotBnsrecruitedamongItaliansInApriltherewereonlyfourbattalionsandthetwodepotunitsFinally,inDecember',thereweretwoPolizeiFreiwilligeBtlItalien,andonePolizeiErsatzBtlltalienTheHSSPF'AdriatischesKustenland'wasmoresuccessfulinrecruitingItalians:herethevolunteerswouldnothavetofighttheircompatriotsintheresistancemovements,buttheYugoslavianpartisanswhowereseekingtoannexethatborderregionofItalyTheJuneorderofbattleincludesPoliceBnsentitled'Gorz','Udine','Fiume'and'Pola'TheSDtheSSSecurityService~idnotemployitsEinsatzgruppen('ActionGroups')inWesternEuropeasitdidintheEastOnlysmallsupervisorystaffsweresetupInsomeindividualcasesFlemish,French,andotherforeignersarebelievedtohavevolunteeredforservicewiththesegroupsTheAllgemeineSS,theblackclad'generalservice'militiaoftheNaziParty(nottobeconfusedwiththegreyuniformedWalfenSScombatunits)establishednationalbranchesinthe'Germanic'occupiedcountriesTheyrecruitedthemostactiveandcommittedcollaborationistsinNorway,Denmark,FlandersandHollandforthis'GermanicSS',whichactedasaproviderofvolunteersforforeignWaffenSSunitsandotherproGermansecurityforcesTheWaffenitselfsetupsomevolunteerunitswithspecificallysecurityduties:SSGuardBn'Nordwest'fromDutehvolunteers,SSGuardBn'Nord'fromNorwegians,andSSGuardBn'Sjaelland'fromDanesResistanceinWesternEuropecentredonespionageandintelligeneegatheringandtheGermanstookactivemeasurestocountertheseeffortsTheresponsibleservieesweretheAbwehr,orWehrmachtCounterIntelligeneeServiceandtheGehenneFeldpolizei,GFPtheSecretMilitaryPoliceTheAbwehrreeordedimportantsuccesses,particularlyinHolland,wheretheireflortswereaidedbysomeappalUnglapsesofjudgementonthepartoftheresponsibleBritishSOEdepartmentinLondonInJanuary'allAbwehrpersonnelinWesternEuropewerereorganisedintofiveunitscalledFrontaufklarungskommando(FrontIntelligeneeCommands):FAK,,','andTheGFP,mannedbyformermembersoftheGermanCriminalPoUce,operatedundertheordersofArmyGroupsorMilitaryCommandersintheoccupiedcountriesMembersofthisorganisationservedeitherinArmyuniformorincivilianclothestheirmissionwastocombatespionageandsabotageagainstmilitarytargetsTlteSOEThehistoryofWesternEuropeanResistanceisunthinkablewithoutamention,howeverbrief,oftheBritishSpecialOperationsExecutiveCreatedinJuly'byWinstonChurchill,withthetaskof'settingEuropeablaze',theSOEwasledatfirstbyHughDalton,andlatcrbyLordWolmerInpractice,theorganisation'smissionwastwofold:toobligetheWehrmachttomaintainlargeoccupationforcesinWesternEurope,andtohampertheharnessingofEuropeanindustryandeconomytotheGermancauseThehistoryofeachdepartmentofSOEissocomplexthatnotevenabriefsummarymaybeNorwegianMiloTgmemberstrainsomewhereincentralNorwayLedbyexArmyofficers,thisorganisationneverthelesscarriedoutfewattacksbeforeattemptedhereInevitably,therewassomedupUcationofeffortbetweenvariousdifferentBritishandAWedagenciesconcernedwitbtheoccupiedcountriesandinevitably,theseagenciesdidnotalwaysseetheirbestinterestsasentirelycoincidentalwiththoseofothersInanundergroundwarthiskindoffrictionandintcrnalrivalrycanalltoooftenleadtotragicandunnecessarydeathsSOEincludedbothBritishandforeignpersonnel,inEnglandandinsertedbehindenemylinesContactswithsomeofthe'governmentsinexile'andwithresistancemovementsinoccupiedEuropewercsometimcsuneasyTheSOEwassometimesaccusedofactingmainlyintheBritishinterest,withouttakingaccountoftheharmdonelocallyandofdamagingtheauthorityofthegovernmentsinexileIndefenceofSOEitcanbcstatedwithconfidencethatunderthecircumstancesinwhichtheyhadtooperatenoagencycouldhaveachievedmuchmoreTheireffortswereoftenhamperedbydeviousnessonthepartofotheragenciesandgroupsintruth,manyofLhe'governmentsinexile'hadlittleauthoritytobecompromisedandresistancegroupswerequiteruthlessintheirattemptstoenlistormanipulateSOEsupporttostrengthentheirlocalpositionagainstrivalresistancegroupsWhatiscertainisthatSOEgrewenormouslyExcludingItaly,theysentintooccupiedWesternEuropesome,agentsManyofthesebravemenandwomenwerecaptured,hideouslytortured,andfinallyexecuted,orsenttoconcentrationcampsOthers,luckierintheirassignmentsorcontacts,foundthemselvesresponsiblefortheSentriesatthedoorsoftheheadquartersoftheDanishSchalllrgKorps~twearDanishunifonnsapartfroIDthe'mobileswastika'collarpatchandthesteelhehnetcfPlateCII(Neulen)logisticsupportoflargeresistancenetworksTheyweretheconduitthroughwhichclandestineRAFmissionsdroppedmoney,arms,explosives,andsignalsequipmentInSOEhadsomespecialschoolswheresaboteur,spies,radiooperators,documentforgersandotherspecialistsweretrainedFromthatyeartheSOE'sleadingroleinthisworkdeclinedrclativetothatoftheAmericanOSS(OfficeofStrategicServices)Commandingmuchgreaterresources,theOSSwasable,forinstance,todrop,tonsofarmsandequipmentintooccupiedItalybetweenJanuaryandApril'aloneNorwayCollaborationForalongtimeitwasbelievedthatcollaborationhadalreadybeguninNorwaybeforetheGermanoccupation,andthatMajQuisling'sFascistpartytheNasjonalSamligactedasa'fifthcolumn'duringtheinvasionTnfact,itnowappearsthattheNSdidnotsoact:thou"hQuislingwhosenamehasbecomesynon~IUlI:"!itIIIheideaofapaidtraitoridproclaimhi""Ir'headofgovernment',andordertheNorwegianarmedRforcestoceasefire,tothesurpriseoftheGermansandofhisownfollowersGermanyhadplannedthatfollowingtheDanishpatternorway'sindependentpoliticalsystemshouldremaininbeing,andthekingremaininthecountry,tolendanairoflegitimacytoanoccupationconcernedsolelywithpreventingAlliedlandingsThisscenariodissolvedwithQuisling'sunexpectedbidforpower,andtheconsequentescapeofKingHaakonVIItoEnglandtsoonbecameclear

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