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首页 《价格理论》[美]弗里德曼(英文原版)

《价格理论》[美]弗里德曼(英文原版).pdf

《价格理论》[美]弗里德曼(英文原版)

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2009-09-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《《价格理论》[美]弗里德曼(英文原版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

PriceTheory:AnIntermediateTextbyDavidDFriedmanPublishedbySouthWesternPublishingCoDavidDFriedman,TableofContentsIntroductionPrefaceSectionIECONOMICSFORPLEASUREANDPROFITChapterWhatisEconomicsHowEconomistsThinkSectionIIPRICE=VALUE=COST:COMPETITIVEEQUILIBRIUMINASIMPLEECONOMYChapterTheConsumer:ChoiceandIndifferenceCurvesTheConsumer:MarginalValue,MarginalUtility,andConsumerSurplusProductionSimpleTradeMarketsendashPuttingitAllTogetherTheBigPictureHalftimeSectionIIICOMPLICATIONS,ORONWARDTOREALITYChapterTheFirmSmallNumbersProblems:MonopolyandAllThatHardProblems:GameTheory,StrategicBehavior,andOligopolyTimeandChanceTheDistributionofIncomeandtheFactorsofProductionSectionIVJUDGINGOUTCOMESChapterEconomicEfficiencyWhatisEfficientMarketInterferenceMarketFailuresTheauthorretainsallrightsinthismaterial,savethatusersoftheWorldWideWebarepermittedtoreproduceittotheextent,andonlytotheextent,thatdoingsoisanecessarypartofreadingitonthewebTheprintedversionofthebook,alongwithsupplementarymaterials,isavailablefromSouthWesternPublishing,Cincinnati,OHMynewbookHiddenOrder:TheEconomicsofEverydayLifeoffersasimilarapproachtoexplainingeconomicsinashorterform,aimedattheintelligentlaymanratherthanatstudentstakingintermediatemicroClickhereforthetableofcontents,andhereforalinktoMyPublisher'sPageThechaptersgivenherearefromtheversionsonmyharddisk,anddifferinminordetailsfromthepublishedversionsThesameistrueofthefiguresSectionVAPPLICATIONSendashCONVENTIONALANDUNChapterThePoliticalMarketplaceTheEconomicsofLawandLawBreakingTheEconomicsofLoveandMarriageSectionVIWHYYOUSHOULDBUYTHISBOOKChapterFinalWordsAdditionalChaptersfromtheFirstEditionnotincludedintheSecondChapterTheEconomicsofHeatingInflationandUnemploymentPrefaceManystudentshavebeenpersuaded,bytheirexperienceinhighschoolandcollege,thattakingacourseconsistsofmemorizingasetofconclusionsReadingatextbookthenbecomesanexerciseincreativehighlighting,designedtoextractfromfivehundredpagesofverbiagethethirtyorfortypagescontainingtheanswerstothequestionsthatwillappearonthefinalexamSuchacollectionofanswersisaboutaseasytorememberasacollectionofrandomnumbers,andnotmuchmoreusefulStudentswhotakesuchcoursesgenerallyforgetshortlyafterthefinalmostofwhattheyhavelearnedThisbookisbasedonadifferentideaofhoweconomics(andmostotherthings)shouldbetaughttheideathatsinceanswersarehardtorememberandeasytolookup,oneshouldinsteadconcentrateonlearningwaysofthinkingThebookhastwocentralpurposesThefirstistointroduceyoutowhatoneofmycompetitorshascalled"theeconomicwayofthinking"EconomistseveneconomistswithwidelydifferingpoliticalviewshaveincommonanapproachtounderstandinghumanbehaviorthatseemsnaturaltothemandveryoddindeedtomostnoneconomistsThisbookisdesignedtointroduceyoutothatwayofthinking,inthehopethatmanyofyouwillfinditinterestingandatleastsomemayfinditirresistableIaminthatsenseamissionaryThesecondcentralpurposeofthebookistoteachyoutheanalyticalcoreofeconomicsasitnowexistsOneofthefeaturesofeconomicsthatdistinguishesitfrommostoftheothersocialsciencesisthatithassuchacoreasetofwellworkedoutandcloselyrelatedideasthatunderliealmosteverythingdoneinthefieldThatcoreispricetheorytheanalysisofwhythingscostwhattheydoandofhowpricesfunctiontocoordinateeconomicactivityThisbookisorganizedintosixsectionsSectionIisageneralintroductiontowhateconomicsisandwhyitisworthlearningSectionIIshowshowthepricesatwhichgoodsandservicesaresoldandthequantitiesproducedandconsumedaredeterminedinasimpleeconomyItisthemostimportantpartofthebookIfyoucompletelyunderstandityouwillknoweconomics,inthesamesensethataFrenchsixyearoldknowsFrenchYoumaystillbemissingmanydetailsandcomplications,butyouwillunderstandtheessentiallogicofhowaneconomyworksSectionIIIaddsthemostimportantofthecomplicationsomittedintheprevioussection,includingfirms,monopoly,change,anduncertaintySectionIVintroducestheideaofeconomicefficiencyandshowshowitcanbeusedtoevaluatetheoutcomeofdifferenteconomicarrangementsSectionVpresentsanumberofrealworldapplicationsoftheideasoftheprevioussections,someofthemconventional,mostnotThefinalchapterofthebookdiscusseswhateconomicsisgoodforandwhateconomistsdoSomechaptershavespecialsectionsattheendidentifiedbyathinbluelinerunningdownthemarginThesesectionscontainmaterialthat,whileinterestinginitselfandperhapsusefulinlatercourses,isnotessentialtounderstandingtherestofthetextTheyareintendedforstudentswhofindtheideasofthechaptersufficientlyinterestingtowanttopursuethemfurtherOnethingIhopeyouwillpayattentiontoasyougothroughthebookistheimportanceofunderstandingthingsratherthanmerelyrememberingthemYoushouldtrytodevelop(ifyouhavenotalreadydeveloped)abuiltinalarmthatgoesoffwheneverIsay"itfollowsthat"andyouseenoparticularreasonwhyitfollowsorwheneverIsaythattheanswerisaparticularpointonagraphandyouseenogoodreasonwhyitshouldbethatpointinsteadofsomeotherpointWheneverthealarmgoesoff,gobackovertheargumenttoseeifyouhavemissedsomethingIfwhatIamsayingstilldoesnotmakesense,askyourinstructor,oranotherstudent,orsomeoneItisallsupposedtomakesense,andifitdoesnot,oneofusismakingamistakeYoumayeventuallyconcludethatthemistakeismine(orthetypesetter's)butyoushouldstartbyassumingthatitisyoursDedicationThisbookisdedicatedtoAS,DR,AM,andMF,fromwhomIlearnedeconomicsandtoLinda,Ruben,andallofthetheotherswhohavemadethevalueofteachingitgreaterthanthecostIwouldalsoliketothankthepeoplewhohelpedmewritethisbookthecreatorsofthecomputers(LNWforthefirstedition,Macintoshforthesecond),wordprocessors(LeScriptandWriteNow),andgraphicssoftware(MacPaintandMacDraw)withwhichitwaswrittenThanksarealsoduetoDavidBesanko,JerryFusselman,JamesGravesandLawrenceLynchforusefulcommentsandsuggestions,andspecialthankstoWolfgangMayerforassistanceinfindingandcorrectingdefectsaboveandbeyondwhatanauthormayreasonablyexpectfromareviewerAdditionalMaterialsInadditiontothetextbookitself,thereareaninstructor'smanual(whichprovidessuggestedtestquestions)andasetofcomputerprogramsTheprogramsareintendedforstudentusetheyaredesignedtoteachafewconceptsthatIbelievecanbetaughtbetterbyacomputerthanbyabookInstructorswhowishtomakethemavailabletotheirstudentsshouldrequestdiskettesfromSouthWesternPublishingCompany,specifyingMacintoshorMSDosThediskettesarenotcopyprotectedanystudenttakingacourseforwhichthisbookisarequiredtextisentitledtocopyandusethemNotetotheWebbedversionofthis:Idonotknowwhetherthediskettesarestillavailableornot,norwhethertheprograms,whichwereoriginallywrittenabouttenyearsago,willstillrunonthecurrentversionsofIntelandMachardwareandtheassociatedoperatingsystemsDFSectionEconomicsforPleasureandProfitChapterWhatIsEconomicsEconomicsisoftenthoughtofeitherastheanswerstoaparticularsetofquestions(HowdoyoupreventunemploymentWhyarepricesrisingHowdoesthebankingsystemworkWillthestockmarketgoup)orasthemethodbywhichsuchanswersarefoundNeitherdescriptionadequatelydefineseconomics,bothbecausethereareotherwaystoanswersuchquestions(astrology,forexample,mightgiveanswerstosomeofthequestionsgivenabove,althoughnotnecessarilytherightanswers)andbecauseeconomistsuseeconomicstoanswermanyquestionsthatarenotusuallyconsidered"economic"(WhatdetermineshowmanychildrenpeoplehaveHowcancrimebecontrolledHowwillgovernmentsact)Iprefertodefineeconomicsasaparticularwayofunderstandingbehaviorwhatarecommonlythoughtofaseconomicquestionsaresimplyquestionsforwhichthiswayofunderstandingbehaviorhasprovedparticularlyusefulinthepast:EconomicsisthatwayofunderstandingbehaviorthatstartsfromtheassumptionthatpeoplehaveobjectivesandtendtochoosethecorrectwaytoachievethemThesecondhalfoftheassumption,thatpeopletendtofindthecorrectwaytoachievetheirobjectives,iscalledrationalityThistermissomewhatdeceptive,sinceitsuggeststhatthewayinwhichpeoplefindthecorrectwaytoachievetheirobjectivesisbyrationalanalysisanalyzingevidence,usingformallogictodeduceconclusionsfromassumptions,andsoforthNosuchassumptionabouthowpeoplefindthecorrectmeanstoachievetheirendsisnecessaryOnecanimagineavarietyofotherexplanationsforrationalbehaviorTotakeatrivialexample,mostofourobjectivesrequirethatweeatoccasionally,soasnottodieofhunger(exceptionifmyobjectiveistobefertilizer)Whetherornotpeoplehavededucedthisfactbylogicalanalysis,thosewhodonotchoosetoeatarenotaroundtohavetheirbehavioranalyzedbyeconomistsMoregenerally,evolutionmayproducepeople(andotheranimals)whobehaverationallywithoutknowingwhyThesameresultmaybeproducedbyaprocessoftrialanderrorifyouwalktoworkeveryday,youmaybyexperimentfindtheshortestrouteevenifyoudonotknowenoughgeometrytocalculateitRationalityinthissensedoesnotnecessarilyrequirethoughtInthefinalsectionofthischapter,IgivetwoexamplesofthingsthathavenomindsandyetexhibitrationalityHalfoftheassumptioninmydefinitionofeconomicswasrationalitytheotherhalfwasthatpeoplehaveobjectivesInordertodomuchwitheconomics,onemuststrengthenthispartoftheassumptionsomewhatbyassumingthatpeoplehavereasonablysimpleobjectiveswithnoideaatallaboutwhatpeople'sobjectivesare,itisimpossibletomakeanypredictionaboutwhatpeoplewilldoAnybehavior,howeverpeculiar,canbeexplainedbyassumingthatthebehavioritselfwastheperson'sobjective(WhydidIstandonmyheadonthetablewhileholdingaburning$,billbetweenmytoesIwantedtostandonmyheadonthetablewhileholdingaburning$,billbetweenmytoes)Totakeamoreplausibleexampleofhowasomewhatcomplicatedobjectivecanleadtoapparentlyirrationalbehavior,considersomeonewhohasachoicebetweentwoidenticalproductsatdifferentpricesItseemsthatforalmostanyobjectivewecanthinkof,hewouldprefertobuythelessexpensiveitemIfhisobjectiveistohelpthepoor,hecangivethemoneyhesavestothepoorIfhisobjectiveistohelphischildren,hecanspendthemoneyhesavesonthemIfhisobjectiveistolivealifeofpleasureandluxury,hecanspendthemoneyonCaribbeancruisesandcaviarButsupposeyouaretakingadatetoamovieYouknowyouaregoingtowantacandybar,whichcosts$inthetheaterand$intheSevenElevengroceryyoupassonyourwaythereDoyoustopatthestoreandbuyacandybarDoyouwantyourdatetothinkyouareatightwadYoubuythecandybaratthetheater,impressingyourdate(youhope)withthefactthatyouarethesortofpersonwhodoesnothavetoworryaboutmoneyOnecouldgetoutofthisproblembyclaimingthatthetwocandybarsarenotreallyidenticalthecandybaratthetheaterincludestheadditionalcharacteristicofimpressingyourdateButifyoufollowthislineofargument,notwoitemsareidenticalandthestatementthatyoupreferthelowerpricedoftwoidenticalitemshasnocontentIwouldprefertosaythatthetwoitemsareidenticalenoughforourpurposesbutthatinthisparticularcaseyourobjectiveissufficientlyoddsothatourprediction(basedontheassumptionofreasonablysimpleobjectives)turnsouttobewrongWHYECONOMICSMIGHTWORKEconomicsisbasedontheassumptionthatpeoplehavereasonablysimpleobjectivesandchoosethecorrectmeanstoachievethemBothhalvesoftheassumptionarefalsepeoplesometimeshaveverycomplicatedobjectivesandtheysometimesmakemistakesWhythenistheassumptionusefulSupposeweknowsomeone'sobjectiveandalsoknowthathalfthetimethatpersoncorrectlyfiguresouthowtoachieveitandhalfthetimeactsatrandomSincethereisgenerallyonlyonerightwayofdoingthings(orperhapsafew)butverymanywrongways,the"rational"behaviorcanbepredictedbutthe"irrational"behaviorcannotIfwepredictthisperson'sbehaviorontheassumptionthatheisrational,wewillberighthalfthetimeIfweassumeheisirrational,wewillalmostneverberight,sincewestillhavetoguesswhichirrationalthinghewilldoWearebetteroffassumingheisrationalandrecognizingthatwewillsometimesbewrongToputtheargumentmoregenerally,thetendencytoberationalistheconsistent(andhencepredictable)elementinhumanbehaviorTheonlyalternativetoassumingrationality(otherthangivingupandconcludingthathumanbehaviorcannotbeunderstoodandpredicted)wouldbeatheoryofirrationalbehavioratheorythattoldusnotonlythatsomeonewouldnotalwaysdotherationalthingbutalsowhichparticularirrationalthinghewoulddoSofarasIknow,nosatisfactorytheoryofthatsortexistsThereareanumberofreasonswhytheassumptionofrationalitymayworkbetterthanonewouldatfirstthinkOneisthatweareoftenconcernednotwiththebehaviorofasingleindividualbutwiththeaggregateeffectofthebehaviorofmanypeopleInsofarastheirrationalpartoftheirbehaviorisrandom,itseffectsarelikelytoaverageoutintheaggregateSuppose,forexample,thattherationalthingtodoistobuymorehamburgertheloweritspricePeopleactuallydecidehowmuchtobuybyfirstmakingtherationaldecisionthenflippingacoinIfthecoincomesupheads,theybuyapoundmorethantheywereplanningtoifitcomesuptails,theybuyapoundlessThebehaviorofeachindividualwillberatherunpredictable,butthetotaldemandforhamburgerwillbealmostexactlythesameaswithoutthecoinflipping,sinceonaverageabouthalfthecoinswillcomeupheadsandhalftailsAsecondreasonwhytheassumptionworksbetterthanonemightexpectisthatweareoftendealingnotwitharandomsetofpeoplebutwithpeoplewhohavebeenselectedfortheparticularroletheyareplayingConsidertheheadsofcompaniesIfyouselectedpeopleatrandomforthejob,theassumptionthattheywanttomaximizethecompany'sprofitsandknowhowtodosowouldnotbeaveryplausibleoneButpeoplewhodonotwanttomaximizeprofits,ordonotknowhowto,areunlikelytobechosenforthejobiftheyare,theyareunlikelytokeepitiftheydo,theircompaniesarelikelytobecomeincreasinglyunimportantintheeconomy,untileventuallythecompaniesgooutofbusinessSothesimpleassumptionofprofitmaximizationplusrationalityturnsouttobeagoodwaytopredicthowfirmswillbehaveAsimilarargumentappliestothestockmarketWemayreasonablyexpectthattheaverageinvestmentismadebysomeonewithanaccurateideaofwhatcompaniesarewortheventhoughtheaverageAmerican,andeventheaverageinvestor,maybepoorlyinformedaboutsuchthingsInvestorswhoconsistentlybetwrongonthestockmarketsoonhaveverylittletobetwithInvestorswhoconsistentlybetrighthaveanincreasingamountoftheirownmoneytoriskandoftenotherpeople'smoneyaswellHencethewellinformedinvestorshaveaninfluenceonthemarketoutofproportiontotheirnumbersasafractionofthepopulationIfweanalyzetheworkingsofthemarketontheassumptionthatallinvestorsarewellinformed,wemaycomeupwithfairlyaccuratepredictionsinspiteoftheinaccuracyoftheassumptionInthisasinallothercases,theultimatetestofthemethodiswhetheritspredictionsturnouttodescriberealitycorrectlyWhethersomethingisaneconomicquestionisnotsomethingweknowinadvanceItissomethingwediscoverbytryingtouseeconomicstoansweritSOMESIMPLEEXAMPLESOFECONOMICTHINKINGSofar,IhavetalkedofeconomicsintheabstractitisnowtimeforsomeconcreteexamplesIhavechosenexamplesinvolvingissuesnotusuallyconsideredeconomicinordertoshowthateconomicsisnotaparticularsetofquestionstobeansweredbutaparticularwayofansweringquestionsIwillbeginwithtwoverysimpleexamplesandthengoontosomeslightlymorecomplicatedonesYouarelayingoutacollegecampusasarectangularpatternofconcretesidewalkswithgrassbetweenthemYouknowthatoneoftheobjectivesofmanypeople,includingmanystudents,istogetwheretheyaregoingwithaslittleeffortaspossibleyoususpectmostofthemrealizethatastraightlineistheshortestdistancebetweentwopointsYouwouldbewelladvisedtotakeprecautionsagainststudentscuttingacrossthelawnPossibleprecautionswouldbeconstructingfencesordiagonalwalkways,addingtoughgroundcover,orreplacingthegrasswithcementandpaintingitgreenOnepointtonoteItmaybethateveryonewillbebetteroffifnoonecutsacrossthelawn(assumingthestudentsliketolookatgreenlawnswithoutbrownpathsacrossthem)Rationalityisanassumptionaboutindividualbehavior,notgroupbehaviorThequestionofunderwhatcircumstancesindividualrationalitydoesordoesnotleadtothebestresultsforthegroupisoneofthemostinterestingquestionseconomicsinvestigatesEvenifastudentisinfavorofgreengrass,hemaycorrectlyarguethathisdecisiontocutacrossprovidesmorebenefit(timesaved)thancost(slightdamagetothegrass)tohimThefactthathisdecisionprovidesadditionalcosts,butnoadditionalbenefits,tootherpeoplewhoalsodislikehavingthegrassdamagedisirrelevantunlessmakingthoseotherpeoplehappyhappenstobeoneofhisobjectivesThetotalcostsofhisactionmaybegreaterthanthetotalbenefitsbutaslongasthecoststohimarelessthanthebenefitstohim,hetakestheactionThispointwillbeexaminedatmuchgreaterlengthinChapter,whenwediscusspublicgoodsandexternalitiesAsecondsimpleexampleofeconomicthinkingisFriedman'sLawforFindingMen'sWashrooms"Men'sroomsareadjacent,inoneofthethreedimensions,toladies'rooms"Oneofthebuilder'sobjectivesistominimizec

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《价格理论》[美]弗里德曼(英文原版)

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