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首页 *新书上架*生态社会主义:从深度生态到社会正义

*新书上架*生态社会主义:从深度生态到社会正义.pdf

*新书上架*生态社会主义:从深度生态到社会正义

九月虺
2009-09-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*生态社会主义:从深度生态到社会正义pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ECOSOCIALISMCapitalismcontinuestodegradeecosystemsandcreatesocialinjusticeTheEarthSummitdemonstratedthatthepowerfulvestedinterestsbehindWesterncapitalismhavenointentionofradicallychangingtheirgoalsandmethodstohelpcreateanenvironmentallysoundorsociallyjustglobalsocietyInordertoconfrontthis,thegreenmovementmustnowdevelopacoherentecosocialistpoliticsPeoplemustcontroltheirownlivesandtheirrelationshipwiththeirenvironmentDrawingonMarx,Morris,Kropotkinandanarchosyndicalism,DavidPepperpresentsaprovocativelyanthropocentricanalysisofthewayforwardforgreenpoliticsandenvironmentalmovementsEstablishingtheelementsofaradicalecosocialism,thebookrejectsbiocentrism,simplisticlimitstogrowthandoverpopulationtheses,whilstexposingthedeficienciesandcontradictionsingreenapproachestopostmodernpoliticsanddeepecologyEcoSocialismwillprovidestudentsofecology,politicsandtheenvironmentwithathoroughintroductiontotheideologiesofMarxism,anarchismanddeepecology,andhowthesecanbesynthesisedintoaradicalgreenpoliticsDavidPepperisprincipallecturerinGeographyatOxfordBrookesUniversityECOSOCIALISMFromdeepecologytosocialjusticeDavidPepperLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEEThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,SimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NY©DavidPepperAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(hbk)(pbk)ToNickieviiCONTENTSTablesandFigureixForewordxiREDANDGREEN:OLDORNEWPOLITICSTheredgreendebateSomeoldpoliticalquestionsPOLITICALECONOMYANDPOLITICALIDEOLOGY:WHEREGREENS,MARXISTSANDANARCHISTSFITINEcocentrismandtechnocentrismQuestionsofpoliticaleconomyEnvironmentalismandtraditionalpoliticalideologiesGreenpoliticsarepostmodernpoliticsTHEMARXISTPERSPECTIVEONNATUREANDENVIRONMENTALISMMarxism’srelevancetoecocentrismThematerialistapproachtohistoryTheanalysisofcapitalismImplicationsforenvironmentandnatureMarxismandthepopulationresourcesissueThesocietynaturedialectic,andalienationfromnatureMarxismandliberationSocialchangeandmetatheoryTheMarxistcritiqueofecocentrismANARCHISMANDTHEGREENSOCIETYWhatisanarchismAnarchismandthesocietynaturerelationshipAnarchistsandhumannatureTheanarchocommunistutopiaThefourthworldAnarchistapproachestosocialchangeCONTENTSviiiCONCLUSION:SOCIALISMANDTHEENVIRONMENTSocialistanarchistdifferencesPushingecologismclosertoecosocialismEcosocialismsummarisedEcosocialisminpracticePostscript:thewayforwardforredgreenpoliticsReferencesIndexixTABLESANDFIGURETableSomefundamentalsocialquestionsthatunderlietraditionalandgreenpoliticaldebatesThebalanceofprogressanddeprivationEuropeanperspectivesonenvironmentalpoliticsandresourcemanagement:contemporarytrendsinenvironmentalismPoliticalphilosophiesandenvironmentalismAnarchism:forandagainstTypesofanarchismandecoanarchismBioregionalcomparedwithindustrioscientificparadigmsAnarchisticfeaturesofalternativecommunitiesRussell’sanarchosyndicalist(guildsocialist)visionoftheworld‘asitcouldbemade’SomesocialistanarchistdifferencesFrankel’ssemiautarkyeconomyFigureSomeofthelinksbetweenpoliticaleconomicthinkers,traditionalpoliticalideologies,viewsaboutpoliticaleconomyandperspectivesonenvironmentalismxiFOREWORDIfinishedthepenultimatedraftofthisbookjustastheEarthSummitinRiodeJaneiroclosedJonathonPorritt,thatmostpublicofBritis’hgreenspokespeople,declaredthathehadgonetothesummitwithlowexpectationsandhadthemallmet!Thisbooksetsout,amongotherthings,somereasonswhyPorrittwasindeedwisetohavelowexpectationsManyothergreens,however,declaredtheirdisappointmentattheSummit’smeagreoutcomesThismustmeanthattheysomehowexpectedtheworld’srichestnationstosacrificeasubstantialpartoftheirrichesand,moresignificantly,themeansofobtainingthem,tohelpthepoorestnationstoprotecttheenvironmentswhichtheynowhavetodestroyinordertosurviveanddevelopintheworldeconomicsystemWeshouldall,however,appreciatethatbeingcapitalistnations,theUSA,theEC,JapanandthelikecannotdothisinanyseriousandpermanentwaywithoutceasingtobewhattheyareMarxistAnalysisrevealswhythisisso,anditalsosuggestshowbesttothinkaboutchangetowardsradicallyalternativeeconomicandsocialarrangements,ofthekindwhichtheconceptofatrulycommun(al)ist‘sustainabledevelopment’demandsTherearemanyotherthingsaboutMarxismwhichgreensmayfindusefulandinteresting,andIattempttooutlinethemhereIalsodescribetheinfluencewhichanarchismhashadonpresentgreenpoliticalphilosophy,andIsuggestwhatelementsofthisinfluenceshouldberetainedandwhatshouldbediscouragedTheaimistooutlineanecosocialistanalysisthatoffersaradical,sociallyjust,environmentallybenignbutfundamentallyanthropocentricperspectiveongreenissuesForIthinkthatthisiswhatthegreenmovementnowneeds,ratherthanitscurrent‘biocentric’andpoliticallydiffuseapproach,inordertoappealtotheconcernsofthemanywhoarestillalienatedbyorindifferenttoitFurthermore,andpragmatismaside,Ithinkitimportantnottoallowourconcernfornonhumannaturetobecomeasubstitutefor,orapriorityover,concernaboutpeopleSomegreensbelievethatweshouldprotectandrespectnatureforits‘intrinsicworth’,whateverthatis,ratherthanitsworthfor(all)peopleIamnotcomfortableaboutthisSocialjustice,Ithink,ortheincreasinglyglobalFOREWORDxiilackofit,isthemostpressingofallenvironmentalproblemsAndtheSummitshowedclearlythatattainingmoresocialjusticeistheprerequisiteforcombatingozonedepletion,globalwarmingandtherestAllthisisthepoliticalmessageofthebookHoweverpreachingisnotitsmainpurposeThatistoexplainaslucidlyaspossiblewhatMarxismandanarchismareabout,andwhatistheirrelevancetosomeofthemostpressingpoliticalissueswhichthegreenmovementraisesItismainlyintendedforstudentsinvariousdisciplines,andforallinterestedbutnotparticularlyacademicpeopleinandaroundthegreenmovementItaimstosynthesiseandrepresentclearlytheviewsofMarxists,anarchistsandotherswhomaynothavewrittenprimarilyforsuchanaudienceItaroseoutofmyattemptstoprepareasubstantiallyrevisedneweditionofRootsofModernEnvironmentalismHavingsurveyedmyprofusenotes,collectedsincethefirsteditionwaspublished,IsurmisedthatIwouldprobablyneedaboutathirdofamillionwordstosayallthatIneededto,andthat(quiteunreasonably)thepublisherwouldnotletmehavethem!This,then,constitutesmyfurtherreflectionsonjustthesixthandseventhchaptersofthatbookItdoesnotsetouttoachievethesamebreadthorscopeasRootsForonething,itassumesthatreadersalreadyknowsomethingoftheconcernsandapproachesofecocentrism(assetoutbrieflyinRootsorveryfullyinAndrewDobson’sexcellentbookonGreenPoliticalThought)Foranother,itdoesnotintendtochartcomprehensivelyallthepossiblerootsofpoliticalecologyandecologicalpolitics(otherrecentbookshavedonethis),buttoconcentrateonMarxismandanarchismAndwithintheseboundariestherearefurtherlimitationsForinstancetheMarxisteconomictheoryissketchedoutinitsbasicsonly,althoughIconcedethatamajorandurgenttaskofecosocialismistograspthenettlethatthegreenmovementhasoftenavoidedandgettogripswiththedetailsofagreensocialistpoliticaleconomyAnd,indiscussingagentsandactorsinradicalecosocialistchange,Iassertthecontinuingimportanceofa(world)proletariat,butdonotgetroundtothealsoimportantissueofwheretheselfemployedorthemanagerialclassesmightfitinanycollectiveradicalmovementFurthermorethebookisoverwhelminglyabouttheory,whereasamuchslimmervolumewithfeasiblesuggestionsaboutwhattodomightcontributesomuchmoreAndwhere,Ihearreadersask,isthediscussionof‘afeministperspective’whichisbecomingalmostmandatoryforthissortofbookIconfessthatIwouldlikethebooknottohavetheseandothershortcomings,whicharecertainlynotthefaultofthosewhosehelpIacknowledgebelowOutoftherangeofpossibleexcuses,IamnotsurewhichtoselectInsufficientspaceIthinkIprefertheoneaboutmerelyintendingtosuggestsomepossibleitemsonanagendaforfuturediscussionHowever,thetruthisthatIhavestillgotalottolearnandthinkoutButthensohaseveryoneelseinandaroundthegreenmovementFOREWORDxiiiIlearnedsomethingthroughwritingRoots,whichwasbetterreceivedandmorewidelyusedthanIhadexpectedButsomegreencriticshateditsMarxistleaningsIhopethatIcanwinthemoverbythisfullerand,Ihope,moresatisfyingaccount,andthatitwillhelpusalltosharpenupourthinkingandouractinthefaceofthecontinuingstubbornrefusalofthegreenmillenniumtoappearoverthehorizon(the‘newworldorder’havingshownitselftobemerelyaneworderofexploitationofpeopleandnature)Ithankthefollowingfortheirhelp,eitherinsupplyingmaterial,orincriticisingpartofthetextorsimplyinencouragingmetothinkcriticallyaboutparticularideaswhichhavesubsequentlyfeaturedinthebook:AdamBuick,DaveElliot,NickieHallam,JimO’Connor,PhilO’Keefe,ChrisPark,RichardPeet,GrahamPurchase,BiffShoreandFrankWebsterAndIamgladtohavebeenabletolistentomanyrecordingsofthediscussionmeetingsoftheSocialistPartyofGreatBritainIhavefoundtheminformativeandchallengingthepeoplewhomakethemavailabledoaconsiderableservice,andIrecommendthemtoreaderswhowanttofindoutaboutsocialismfromsocialistsratherthanjustfrommoredetachedandlessexcitingacademictextbooksThelatterpartofChapteroriginallyappearedasanarticleinTheRaven,(),March,andChapteristakenfromanarticleforthcominginthejournalCapitalism,Nature,SocialismDavidPepper,OxfordREDANDGREEN:OLDORNEWPOLITICSTHEREDGREENDEBATETenyearsago,afriendaskedmetoaddressalocalFriendsoftheEarthmeetingwhichhewasorganisingMyinterestwasinthehistoricalrootsofgreenphilosophy,soIregaledmyaudiencewithaccountsofWilliamMorris,PeterKropotkinandthelikeNaively,ImentallypreparedmyselftoreceiveaccoladesintheensuingdiscussionfordrawingsuchhistoricallinksInsteadIsensedantipathymingledwithhostilityfromsomeTheyweredisappointedHadInotrealisedthatwhatthegreensweresayinghadneverbeensaidbeforeDidInotappreciateitsdistinctivenessfromconventionalpoliticsIhadoffendedafundamentalaspectofgreenpsyche,whichholdsthatecologismreallyisaboutanewworldorder,andanew‘politicsoflife’(tousetheGreenPartyslogan)Icompoundedthiscrimebysuggesting,inRootsofModernEnvironmentalism,thatgreensneededtoassimilateMarxistperspectivesintotheiranalysisThiswasaredraginthefaceofagreenbull,beingdismissedas‘justsomuchangrysplutteringfromwornoutideologueswhohavelosttouchwiththerealworld’(PorrittandWinner,)Notwithstandingthisfamiliarcriticism,I,aclappedoutideologueandaspiringmemberofthat‘malignforce’,theMarxistleft(PorrittandWinner,p),intendtosplutteronunabashedIwilltry,inthefollowingpages,toextendanddeepentherecentdebatebetweentheredandgreenpositionsonour‘ecologicalcrisis’ThisisbecauseIdonotacceptAdrianAtkinson’sdismissalofthisdebateasamere‘argument’betweentwoviewsthat,inpractice,displaynofundamentalcontradictionTrue,therearemanyconjunctionsbetweenredgreensandgreengreens(thesetermsbothdescriberadicalecologists,or‘ecocentrics’asopposedto‘light’greensor‘environmentalists’,ietechnocentrics,whoarenotthesubjectofthisbookseeChapter)IfredgreensmakemuchuseofMarxism,however,greengreensaremoreindebtedtoanarchismAndalthoughthetwooftenconflateintheanarchocommunismofthelikesofKropotkin,elementsofwhichformatemplateformodernecotopias,andforthesocialECOSOCIALISMecologyofMurrayBookchin,therearealsosignificantpotentiallyirreconcilabledifferencesbetweenthemThisisimportant,inthesedaysoftentativeradicalalliancesandredgreennetworks,forreasonswhichTonyBenngave(citedinPorrittandWinner,p):Untilthebasicprinciplesofsocialismarereestablished(equity,democracy,accountability,internationalismandmorality),onecannotbuildnonopportunistic,genuinerelationswithmovementswhicharethemselvesdividedovertheprimacyoftheseprinciplesIthinkitistimewehadthewholethingout,andthisbookintendstocontributetothatprocessaprocesswhichisofmorethanjustacademicimportanceForWesterncapitalismisyetagainincrisis,andmorethaneverbeforetheeffectsofthecrisisextendacrosstheworldAtthesametimethatrecessionandretrenchmenthavedecimatedmanufacturingindustryintheoldheartlands,andpeoplestubbornlyrefusetoconsumetheirwayoutofslump,capitalism’sresponsehasbeentoreacheverdeeperintosecondandthirdworldsformarketsandsourcesofcheaplabourandmaterialsThecurrentsearchforanew,more‘liberal’GeneralAgreementonTariffsandTrade(GATT)signifiesanattempttobringeveryoneunambiguouslyintotheglobalcapitalisteconomyThisthreatensafurthermushroomingofwhatneithersocialistsnorgreenswantthehedonisticconsumersocietywithahighthroughputofgoodsbutalowoutputofhumanfulfilmentInit,disenfranchisedandunderprivilegedgroupsareincreasinglyeconomicallymarginalisedandtheenvironmentalcostsofthesearchforprofitsmountButthesetwinevilsofsocialinjusticeandenvironmentaldegradationwillcontinuetogrow,eventhoughmostpeoplerecognisethemasevils,forthereisnoprospectthattheirpresentrootcausesintheeconomicsandpoliticsofcapitalismwillberadicallyexaminedandtackledTheEarthSummitinRiodeJaneiromadethisplainForwhilesomethirdworldleadersandothereminentpublicfigurescorrectlyidentifiedtheproblemsandtheircauses,Westernleadersstaunchlydefendedthe‘right’ofmultinationalcapitaltocontinueoperatinginthesameoldwayandresurrectedoldMalthusian(thirdworld)‘overpopulation’canardsfortheirexplanationsofcausesFacedwithdraftglobalaccords,conventionsandotheragreementstotakefundamentalactiononsocialandenvironmentalproblemstheywateredthemdown,prevaricatedandevenrefusedpointblanktosignthemOr,moredishonestly,theydidsoandthenwenthomeandcarriedonwiththesameoldpoliciesItisattimeslikethesethattheleftandthegreensanticipatethattheywillmaketheirmarkmosteffectivelyYetthishasnothappenedThealmostworldwidedisarrayoftheleftinthesiswelldocumentedButthegreens,whopromisedusa‘newpolities’toreplacebothsocialismandcapitalism,havealsobeenontheretreatElectoralgainsmadeinEuropeintheearlyshavebeensubstantiallyrelinquishedindeedtheBritishGreenREDANDGREEN:OLDORNEWPOLITICSPartyfacescrisisattheverytimeofwriting,withtheresignationofhalfitsexecutivecouncilandafallinmembershipfromnearly,into,in(TheTimes,August)Since,then,thepragmatic,‘realist’,butanodynepoliticsofsocialdemocracy,democraticsocialismandgreenreformismhavefailedtomountaseriousthreattothestatusquomoreradicalsocialistsandgreensargueafreshthatwhatisneededisthemuchmorefundamentalpoliticsofecosocialismAndyet,foralltheexploratoryredgreen‘networking’thatgoeson,noverypotent,effectiveandcoherentecosocialismhasemergedIthinkthatthisisbecauseofthefactthattobringtogetherredandgreenyouhave,effectively,tounitesocialismwithanarchismthetraditionalpoliticalphilosophywhichmorethananyotherinformsthegreenmovementThisisnotaseasyasitsounds,because,contrarytopopularmisconception,itisnotalwayspossibletoregardanarchismasjustanotherformofsocialismThisbooktriestohelpthecauseofecosocialistpoliticsbydescribingandexplainingtheformsofsocialismparticularlyMarxistsocialismandanarchismonwhichtheymustbebasedIthighlightsandclarifiesmanyofthedifferencesbetweensocialismandanarchisminordertosuggesttheagendaforanyfuturepoliticaldiscoursewhichwantstoclosethegapandcreateecosocialismasamorevitalforceItdoesthisbysuggestingthatgreensshouldmakemoreofanaccommodationwithredsbydroppingthoseaspectsoftheiranarchismthataremoreakintoliberalandpostmodernpoliticsAtthesametimeredsshouldaccommodatewithgreensbyrevivingthosetraditionsinsocialismwhichIdescribeandreviewhereincludingtraditionsofdecentralismandofthesocietynaturedialectic,alongwithsomeresuscitationoforthodoxMarxism’smaterialismandemphasisonrediscoveringourpowerasproducersThemainpartofthebookmaintains,inChapter,thatMarxistperspectiveshavemoretooffergreensthanjustanincisiveanalysisofcapitalism,importantasthisisMarxismsuggestsadialecticalviewofthesocietynaturerelationship,whichisnotlikethatofecocentricsortechnocentrics,andchallengesbothofthemIthasahistoricalmaterialistapproachtosocialchange,whichoughttoinformgreenstrategyAnditiscommittedtosocialism,asBenndefinesitaboveAnd,yes,itis,andIam,anthropocentricenoughtoinsistthatnature’srights(biologicalegalitarianism)aremeaninglesswithouthumanrights(socialism)EcosocialismsaysthatweshouldproceedtoecologyfromsocialjusticeandnottheotherwayaroundManygreens(egSchumacher)havesaidthatMarxismisrigid,inflexible,deterministic,mechanistic(ratherthanorganic),overly‘scientific’(inthepositivistsense

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