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首页 产品经理手册

产品经理手册

产品经理手册

haohaohao
2009-09-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《产品经理手册pdf》,可适用于项目管理领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankProductManager’sHandbookTheCompleteProductManagementResourcesecondeditionTHELindaGorchelsNTCContemporaryPublishingGroupNTCBusinessBooksCopyright©byLindaGorchelsAllrightsreservedManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaExceptaspermittedundertheUnitedStatesCopyrightActof,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformorbyanymeans,orstoredinadatabaseorretrievalsystem,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherXThematerialinthiseBookalsoappearsintheprintversionofthistitle:AlltrademarksaretrademarksoftheirrespectiveownersRatherthanputatrademarksymbolaftereveryoccurrenceofatrademarkedname,weusenamesinaneditorialfashiononly,andtothebenefitofthetrademarkowner,withnointentionofinfringementofthetrademarkWheresuchdesignationsappearinthisbook,theyhavebeenprintedwithinitialcapsMcGrawHilleBooksareavailableatspecialquantitydiscountstouseaspremiumsandsalespromotions,orforuseincorporatetrainingprogramsFormoreinformation,pleasecontactGeorgeHoare,SpecialSales,atgeorgehoaremcgrawhillcomor()TERMSOFUSEThisisacopyrightedworkandTheMcGrawHillCompanies,Inc(“McGrawHill”)anditslicensorsreserveallrightsinandtotheworkUseofthisworkissubjecttothesetermsExceptaspermittedundertheCopyrightActofandtherighttostoreandretrieveonecopyofthework,youmaynotdecompile,disassemble,reverseengineer,reproduce,modify,createderivativeworksbasedupon,transmit,distribute,disseminate,sell,publishorsublicensetheworkoranypartofitwithoutMcGrawHill’spriorconsentYoumayusetheworkforyourownnoncommercialandpersonaluseanyotheruseoftheworkisstrictlyprohibitedYourrighttousetheworkmaybeterminatedifyoufailtocomplywiththesetermsTHEWORKISPROVIDED“ASIS”McGRAWHILLANDITSLICENSORSMAKENOGUARANTEESORWARRANTIESASTOTHEACCURACY,ADEQUACYORCOMPLETENESSOFORRESULTSTOBEOBTAINEDFROMUSINGTHEWORK,INCLUDINGANYINFORMATIONTHATCANBEACCESSEDTHROUGHTHEWORKVIAHYPERLINKOROTHERWISE,ANDEXPRESSLYDISCLAIMANYWARRANTY,EXPRESSORIMPLIED,INCLUDINGBUTNOTLIMITEDTOIMPLIEDWARRANTIESOFMERCHANTABILITYORFITNESSFORAPARTICULARPURPOSEMcGrawHillanditslicensorsdonotwarrantorguaranteethatthefunctionscontainedintheworkwillmeetyourrequirementsorthatitsoperationwillbeuninterruptedorerrorfreeNeitherMcGrawHillnoritslicensorsshallbeliabletoyouoranyoneelseforanyinaccuracy,errororomission,regardlessofcause,intheworkorforanydamagesresultingtherefromMcGrawHillhasnoresponsibilityforthecontentofanyinformationaccessedthroughtheworkUndernocircumstancesshallMcGrawHillandoritslicensorsbeliableforanyindirect,incidental,special,punitive,consequentialorsimilardamagesthatresultfromtheuseoforinabilitytousethework,evenifanyofthemhasbeenadvisedofthepossibilityofsuchdamagesThislimitationofliabilityshallapplytoanyclaimorcausewhatsoeverwhethersuchclaimorcausearisesincontract,tortorotherwiseDOI:XabcMcGrawHillPrefacevAcknowledgmentsixPartITheRoleandOperationofProductManagementTheNewProductManagementIntroducingProductManagementandManagingProductManagersTheCrossFunctionalRoleofProductManagersProductmanagercomPartIIPlanningSkillsforProductManagersTheProductMarketingPlanningProcessCustomerValueManagementTheAnnualProductPlanPartIIIProductSkillsEvaluatingtheProductPortfolioStrategicProductPlanningNewProducts:Proposal,Development,andLaunchTheFinancialSideofProductManagementPartIVFunctionalSkillsPricingProductsandServicesTheProductManagerasMarketingManagerProductManagement:TheFinalFrontierAppendix:SampleJobDescriptionsEndnotesGlossaryIndexContentsMcGrawHill'sTermsofUseThispageintentionallyleftblankvBacktotheFutureThechangesIhaveobservedinbusinesshavebeendramaticsincethefirsteditionofmybookwaspublishedTheInternetwasafledglingconceptatthattimeandnowithasbecomeafairlystandardpartofbusinessAlthoughglobalizationwasagrowingphenomenonpriortomyfirstedition,ithasalsoescalatedinimportanceOntheotherhand,therehavebeensomeconstantsThroughalltheturbulence,thereremainsaneedforentrepreneurialspirit,foranabilitytoworkwithandthroughotherpeople,andforaclearandfocuseddirectionThesearethecharacteristicsofaproductmanageractingasthegeneralmanagerofa“virtualcompany”ProductmanagementhaslongbeenviewedasoneofthemoreeffectiveorganizationalformsformultiproductfirmsTheadvantagesarenumerousandfrequentlydocumentedFirst,itprovidesadedicatedchampionforaproduct,brand,orserviceSecond,ahealthyinternalcompetitiveenvironmentcanbecreatedThird,bychampioninganumberofofferings,afirmcanmorequicklyrespondtoshiftingcustomerloyaltiesAnd,finally,anopportunityisprovidedtoreadilyassesscandidatesforpromotiontohighermanagementlevelsPrefaceNevertheless,theeffectivenessofproductmanagementiscontingentuponseveralfactorsIfweexpectproductmanagerstotrulychampionbrands,theymustbeengagedinbothdaytodaydecisionissuesandindevelopingthestrategicfuturepathsoftheirofferingsAlthoughsomecompanieshavecreatedahierarchicalproductmanagementstructuretodothis,effectiveproductmanagementinthefuturewillresultfromahorizontaldecisionmakingprocessProductmanagerswillplayamajorroleinmostproductrelateddecisions,whilerelyingonspecialiststocarryoutmanyofthosedecisionsTheemphasiswillbeonmatchingcustomerneedswithcorporatecapabilitiesthroughthedevelopmentofspecificproductsandservicesNow,tointroducethesecondedition,I’dliketousethecontemporaryformat(oftenusedinwebsitedesign)offrequentlyaskedquestions(FAQs)FrequentlyAskedQuestions(FAQs)WhatisaproductmanagerAproductmanageristypicallyamiddlemanagerchargedwithmanagingandmarketingexistingproducts(anddevelopingnewproducts)foragivenproductline,brand,orserviceOtherjobtitlescouldincludebrandmanager,industrymanager,orcustomersegmentmanager(Notethatthetermproductwillrefertobothproductsandservices)WhattypesofcompaniesuseproductmanagersProductmanagersareusedinalltypesofcompaniesfromconsumerpackagedgoodstoservices(suchasfinancialinstitutions)toindustrialcompanies(suchasoriginalequipmentmanufacturers(OEMs),componentsuppliers,andaftermarketfirms)tononprofitorganizations(suchashospitals)What’sthedifferencebetweenproductmanagementandproductdevelopmentProductmanagementistheholisticjobofproductmanagers,includingplanning,forecasting,andmarketingproductsorservicesProductdevelopmentisacorporateprocessofdesigningandcommercializingnewproductsThisbookfocusesonproductmanagementvi•TheProductManager’sHandbookWhoshouldreadthisbookThisbookistargetedmostdirectlyatexistingproductmanagersandcustomersegmentmanagers(primarilyin“nontraditional”rolesbeyondconsumerpackagedgoods)However,ithasbeenusedeffectivelybypeopleinalltypesofcompaniesandindustriesManynewproductmanagersanddirectorsorvicepresidentsofproductmanagementormarketinghavefounditvaluableaswellWhatwillIlearnbyreadingthisbookYou’lllearnaboutdifferentapproachestoproductmanagementfromdifferenttypesoforganizations,aswellasideasforgettingworkdonethroughotherfunctionalareasYou’lllearnhowtodevelopannualmarketingplansforyourproductsandservices,withaspecialemphasisonenhancingcustomerloyaltyandprofitabilityYou’lllearnhowtostrategicallyevaluateyourproductportfolio,walkthroughatypicalcorporatedevelopmentprocess,andprepareforeffectivelaunchstrategiesAndfinally,you’lllearnvariouswaystoaddperceivedvaluebothtoyourproductandtoyoureffectivenessasaproductmangerHowwillIlearntheseskillsSeveraltechniqueshavebeenusedtohelpyouinthelearningprocess:()realworldcasesshowingproductmanagementinaction,()handsonworksheetsfortheplanningprocess,and()checklistsattheendofeachchapterforevaluatingprogressateverycriticalstageInaddition,thiseditionhasnewchaptersontheimpactoftechnologyonproductmanagers(Chapter),customervaluemanagement(Chapter),andthefinancialsideofproductmanagement(Chapter)WhatfeedbackdidyoureceiveonthefirsteditionAreviewpublishedintheJulyissueoftheJournalofProductInnovationManagementstatedThisbookisahandybroadbasedreferenceguidedescribingallaspectsoftheproductmanagementfunctionandrelatingthemtothecontemporaryandturbulentbusinessclimateItprovidesarealisticoverviewofthemanyrolesproductmanagersplayanditexamines,inanorganizedfashion,avarietyofmanagementtoolswhichmaybeemployedtomaximizethevalueoftheproductmanagerPreface•viiviii•TheProductManager’sHandbookThebookisvaluablebecauseitprovidestheoreticframeworksforidentifying,analyzing,andmanagingproductlineswhilesupportingthoseapproacheswithrelevantandrecognizablecasestudiestoclearlyillustratethepointsbeingmadeAcustomerreviewfromAmazoncomstated:ProductManagementisoneofthosejobsthatisdifferentforeachproductmanagerwhatitisdependsonyourproductandwhatyoumakeofitThedangeristhatwhenyouwriteaboutproductmanagement,youfocusonyourspecificexperienceIfoundthisbooktobegeneralenoughtobeofinteresttomanystillitwasnotsohighlevelthatitdidnotprovideanyhelpIwouldrecommendthisbooktoeveryonewhothinksaboutproductmanagementasanextcareerIwouldalsorecommendittothosewhohavebeeninproductmanagementforseveralyears,andjustwanttoreadwhatothersthinkaboutitInaddition,sincethebookhasbeenusedaspartofanexecutiveeducationprogramsponsoredbytheSchoolofBusinessattheUniversityofWisconsin−Madison,ithasbeenreviewedbyhundredsofproductmanagersandhasreceivedhighmarksforpracticalityandusefulnessIsthebookavailableinternationallyYes,thebookhashadincreasinginternationalsalesandthefirsteditionwastranslatedintoSpanishixMyinterestinproductmanagementbeganseveralyearsagowhenIrealizedthatthetermmeantsignificantlydifferentthingstodifferentcompaniesSeveralpeoplecontributedtothisgrowingawareness,includingparticipantsatmyproductmanagementworkshops,sponsoredbytheExecutiveEducationdepartmentoftheSchoolofBusinessattheUniversityofWisconsin−MadisonIfoundnumerousexamplesofnontraditionalapproachestothesubject,andwidelyvaryingsuccessfactorsThisbookhighlightssomeofthosefindingsInaddition,severalproductmanagersrespondedtoEmailinquiriesabouttheirpositionsandsuppliedexamplejobdescriptionsIwanttothankallthoseindividualsfortheirwillingnesstoprovideinputfortherevisionofthebookAcknowledgmentsThispageintentionallyleftblankPartITheRoleandOperationofProductManagementMcGrawHill'sTermsofUseThispageintentionallyleftblankTheabilitytoattractandretainhighprofitcustomersisadistinguishingcharacteristicofsuccessfulbusinesses,andmanycompaniesstrugglewithhowtoattainthatgoalTosucceed,firmsemploymanydifferentstrategies,includingcompetencymanagementcustomerretentionprogramsstrategicleveragingglobalmarketingprojectmanagementbig,hairy,audaciousgoals(BHAGs)EcommerceandsupplychainmanagementYetallofthetoolsandtechniquesespousedbymanagementgurushavenotreplacedtheimportanceofasolidorganizationalstructuretoguideanorganizationinaccomplishingcorporategoalsOnesuchorganizationalstructurethathaswithstoodthetestoftimeinmanysituationsistheproductmanagementstructureInthistypeofstructure,productmanagersoverseeasetofdefinedproductsorservicesthatfacedifferentcompetitorsanddifferentcustomerconstraintsthanmanyoralloftheotherproductsandservicesinthecompanyDeterminingifproductmanagementistheoptimalstructureforaparticularcompanyinvolvesanumberofconsiderations,includingthecompany’sculturehowmuchtechnicalknowledgeisrequiredtodesign,launch,andsupportspecificproductsandwhetherthecompany’sproductsrequiredistinctlydifferentapproachesto“goingtomarket”Onceastructureisestablished,clarifyingtherolesofcompanypersonnelwithwhomproductmanagersroutinelyinteractisimportantTheproductmanagerisageneralistwhomustrelyonnumerousfunctionalspecialiststodevelopandmarkettheproductlineTheprod•TheProductManager’sHandbookuctmanageristheliaisonamongthefunctionaldepartmentswithinthecompanyaswellasamongthecompany,thesalesforce,andthecustomersforallproductrelatedissuesAsaresult,someunderstandingofmutualexpectationsisappropriateOnanongoingbasis,productmanagersexchangeinformationwiththesalesforceTheyrepresentthevoiceofthecustomeratinternalmeetingsontheproductlineinquestionAndtheyneedtoplanforcurrentandfutureproductactivitiesthatbenefitthecompanyasawholePartIdiscussestheevolutionofproductmanagement,providessuggestionsforselectingthe“right”productmanagersandmanagingthesystemeffectively,anddemonstratestheneedforproductmanagerstobecrossfunctionalleadersTherehasbeenanevolutioninproductmanagementoverthepastdecadeRatherthandeclininginnumberandimportanceashadbeenforecastinnumerousarticles,productmanagement(especially“nontraditional”product,market,andservicemanagement)hasprevailedbyencompassingcustomermanagementandvaluechainanalysis,evolvingintoamoreholisticpositionTheoverallresponsibilityofaproductmanageristointegratethevarioussegmentsofabusinessintoastrategicallyfocusedwhole,maximizingthevalueofaproductbycoordinatingthe“production”ofanofferingwithanunderstandingofmarketneedsToaccomplishthis,aproductmanagerneedsabroadknowledgeofvirtuallyallaspectsofacompanyalongwithveryfocusedknowledgeofaspecificproductorproductlineanditscustomersProductmanagersmanagenotonlyproducts,butprojectsandprocessesaswellProcterGamblehasbeencreditedwiththecreationoftheproductmanagementconceptIn,CamaysoapwaslanguishingwhileIvorysoapwasthrivingAProcterGambleexecutivesuggestedthatanindividualmanagerbeassignedresponsibilityforCamay,ineffectpittingthebrandsagainsteachotherThisbrandmanagementsystemwassosuccessfulthatitwascopiedbymostconsumerpackagedgoodscompaniesTheNewProductManagementMcGrawHill'sTermsofUseProductmanagementisamatrixorganizationalstructureinwhichaproductmanagerischargedwiththesuccessofaproductorproductlinebuthasnodirectauthorityovertheindividualsproducingandsellingtheproductMuchoftheworkofaproductmanageristhroughvariousdepartmentsandcrossfunctionalteams,almostasiftheproductmanagerwereoperatingabusinesswithinabusiness(SeefeatureTheLifeofaConsumerBrandProductManager)TherearebothadvantagesanddisadvantagestotheproductmanagementapproachOntheplusside,aproductmanagerprovidesdedicatedattentiontoaproductlineThisresultsinbetterinformationaboutthecustomers,competition,andstrategicpotentialforthatgroupofproductsInaddition,sincetheproductmanagermustnecessarilyinteractwiththevariousoperationalunitsofacompany,thepositioncanprovideagoodtraininggroundforyoungexecutivesOntheotherhand,onecommoncriticismoftheproductmanagementstructureisthatitisa“fasttrack”or“steppingstone”position,overemphasizingshorttermresultsItalsopromotestheperceptionthatproductmanagementskillsaremoretransferablethanproductandindustryknowledgeInaddition,productmanagementcancauseconflictbecausetheproductmanagerhaslimitedfunctionalauthorityovermanypartsofthedevelopment,marketing,andsalesoftheproduct,butmayneverthelesshavebottomlineresponsibilityFinally,productmanagersmightfocusontheproductalmosttotheexclusionofthecustomerDespiteitslimitations,productmanagement(orsomevariationofit)hasfounditswayintovirtuallyeverytypeofindustry,goingwellbeyondthetraditionalconsumerproductbrandmanagerpositionEvenwithinfastmovingconsumerpackagedgoodscompanies,productmanagementhasevolvedHowever,becauseoftheincreasinglevelofinternalbrandcannibalizationandcompetitionforresources,alongwithmediafragmentationandahigherlevelofretailandconsumersophistication,productmanagementisbeingstretchedintodifferent“shapes”ProductManagementTodayProductmanagementasanorganizationalformhasmovedintoavarietyofbusinesstobusinessfirms,aswellasserviceorganizationssuchasfinancialinstitutionsandhospitalsMostlargebankshaveproductmanagersforcreditcards,depositservices,trustoperations,andcom•TheProductManager’sHandbookTheNewProductManagement•TheLifeofaConsumerBrandProductManagerTracyCarlson,seniorproductmanagerforLeverBrothers’Wiskdetergent,spendsaninordinateamountoftimewithstainsInanefforttomoveherbrandtobecomethebestsellingliquidlaundrydetergentinthecountry,shehastoconvinceconsumersofthesuperiorityofherproductoverProcterGamble’sTideLikehercounterpartsatotherconsumerproductcompanies,CarlsonisresponsiblefornearlyeveryaspectofherproductMorethanbeingsimplychampionsfortheirbrands,productmanagersareviewedinsomewaysasrunningtheirownlittlebusinessesTheynotonlyoverseeproductdevelopment,butalsomonitoradvertisingandpromotion,aswellasnegotiatetoobtainshelfspacefromretailersWithcurrentproductproliferation,manufacturersconcedethattherearefewlastingcompetitiveadvantagesfromwhichtoattainmarketdominanceTherefore,sensitivity,intelligence,andintuitionareimportanttraitsforproductmanagersfacingthesebattlesButtherealchallengeofthejobforproductmanagerslikeCarlsonisoftensimplygettingtheproductontoshelvesAglutofnewproductshasmaderetailersreluctanttoopenshelfspacewithoutgenerousinducementsfrommanufacturersTheinducementsincludepayingforinstoredisplays,feesformentioningtheproductinstoreadvertisingcirculars,andcompensationfortheincreasedprocessingcostsofwarehousingthenewproductsCarlsonwillnotrevealtheWiskmarketingbudget,butshesaidthatingeneralthe

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