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首页 *新书上架*大学生的精神健康

*新书上架*大学生的精神健康.pdf

*新书上架*大学生的精神健康

九月虺
2009-09-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《*新书上架*大学生的精神健康pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

MENTALHEALTHOFCOLLEGESTUDENTSNopartofthisdigitaldocumentmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeansThepublisherhastakenreasonablecareinthepreparationofthisdigitaldocument,butmakesnoexpressedorimpliedwarrantyofanykindandassumesnoresponsibilityforanyerrorsoromissionsNoliabilityisassumedforincidentalorconsequentialdamagesinconnectionwithorarisingoutofinformationcontainedhereinThisdigitaldocumentissoldwiththeclearunderstandingthatthepublisherisnotengagedinrenderinglegal,medicaloranyotherprofessionalservicesMENTALHEALTHOFCOLLEGESTUDENTSKATHERINENMORROWEDITORNovaSciencePublishers,IncNewYorkCopyright©byNovaSciencePublishers,IncAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans:electronic,electrostatic,magnetic,tape,mechanicalphotocopying,recordingorotherwisewithoutthewrittenpermissionofthePublisherForpermissiontousematerialfromthisbookpleasecontactus:TelephoneFaxWebSite:http:wwwnovapublisherscomNOTICETOTHEREADERThePublisherhastakenreasonablecareinthepreparationofthisbook,butmakesnoexpressedorimpliedwarrantyofanykindandassumesnoresponsibilityforanyerrorsoromissionsNoliabilityisassumedforincidentalorconsequentialdamagesinconnectionwithorarisingoutofinformationcontainedinthisbookThePublishershallnotbeliableforanyspecial,consequential,orexemplarydamagesresulting,inwholeorinpart,fromthereaders’useof,orrelianceupon,thismaterialAnypartsofthisbookbasedongovernmentreportsaresoindicatedandcopyrightisclaimedforthosepartstotheextentapplicabletocompilationsofsuchworksIndependentverificationshouldbesoughtforanydata,adviceorrecommendationscontainedinthisbookInaddition,noresponsibilityisassumedbythepublisherforanyinjuryandordamagetopersonsorpropertyarisingfromanymethods,products,instructions,ideasorotherwisecontainedinthispublicationThispublicationisdesignedtoprovideaccurateandauthoritativeinformationwithregardtothesubjectmattercoveredhereinItissoldwiththeclearunderstandingthatthePublisherisnotengagedinrenderinglegaloranyotherprofessionalservicesIflegaloranyotherexpertassistanceisrequired,theservicesofacompetentpersonshouldbesoughtFROMADECLARATIONOFPARTICIPANTSJOINTLYADOPTEDBYACOMMITTEEOFTHEAMERICANBARASSOCIATIONANDACOMMITTEEOFPUBLISHERSLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMentalhealthofcollegestudentsKatherineNMorrow(editor)pcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(EBook)CollegestudentsMentalhealthIMorrow,KatherineNDNLM:Stress,PsychologicalAdaptation,PsychologicalMentalHealthStudentspsychologyUniversitiesWMMRCSMdcISBN:PublishedbyNovaSciencePublishers,Inc�NewYorkCONTENTSPrefaceviiChapterTraitAnger,AngerExpression,andThemesofAngerIncidentsinContemporaryUndergraduateStudentsSandraPThomasChapterSocialAnxietyintheCollegeStudentPopulation:TheRoleofAnxietySensitivityAngelaSailerandHollyHazlettStevensChapterCoping,MentalHealthStatus,andCurrentLifeRegretinCollegeWomenWhoDifferintheirLifetimePregnancyStatus:AResiliencePerspectiveJenniferLanghinrichsenRohling,TheresaRehm,MichelleBrelandandAlexisInabinetChapterSexualBehavioralDeterminantsandRiskPerceptionRelatedtoHIVamongCollegeStudentsSuIHouandJosephMWisenbakerChapterTheImpactofaLectureSeriesonAlcoholandTobaccoUseinPharmacyStudentsArjunPDutta,BisratHailemeskel,MonikaNDaftary,andAnthonyWutohChapterTheGouldversusHeckhausenandSchulzDebateintheLightofControlProcessesamongChineseStudentsWanchiWong,YinLiandJiliangShenChapterWritingyourWaytoHealthTheEffectsofDisclosureofPastStressfulEventsinGermanStudentsLisetteMorris,AnnedoreLinkemannandBirgitKrönerHerwigContentsviChapterTestAnxietyandItsConsequencesonAcademicPerformanceamongUniversityStudentsMohdAriffBinKassim,SitiRosmainiBtMohdHanafiandDawsonRHancockChapterThePrevalenceofDepressionamongFemaleUniversityStudentsandRelatedFactorsFernandoLVázquez,ÁngelaTorres,MaríaLópez,VanessaBlanco,andPatriciaOteroChapterRelationshipsbetweenMood,CopingandStressSymptomsAmongStudentswhoWorkinSchoolsDafnaKarivandTaliHeimanChapterExaminingAngerExpressionReactionsandAngerControlBehaviorsofTurkishStudentsIbrahimKisacIndexPREFACECollegestudentshavealwaysbeensubjecttoamassiveinputofstressesThesestressesincludeinsideandoutsidepressuresbytheworldtosucceed,financialworries,concernsaboutuncertainfuture,socialproblemsandopportunitiessincecollegeisoftenthemeetingplaceforfuturemates,andhomeworkandtestsinmultipleandcomplexsubjectsrequiringpreparationandfocuswithoftenconflictingprioritiesUnsuccessfulcopingoftenresultsinanxiety,heavydrinking,depressionandahostofothermentalhealthproblemsThereadyavailabilityofweaponsofallsortshasaddedanewdimensiontotheproblemThisnewbookpresentsnewanalyseswhichdetailthedepthoftheissuesinvolvedChapterGuidedbyTraitStateAngerTheory(Spielbergeretal,),traitanger,angerexpression,andwrittennarrativesofangerincidentswereexaminedinundergraduatestudentsFischeretal’s()codingschemewasusedtoassessreasonsforanger,therelationalcontextoftheincident,methodsofexpressinganger,andoutcomesThechiefprovocateurforallstudentswasanonromanticintimate,butimportantdifferenceswereobservedwhencomparingsubgroups:()studentsscoringhighonangrytemperament,()thosescoringhighonangryreaction,and()thosescoringlowontheentiretraitangerscaleInterventionsfordysfunctionalangerareproposedChapterMostcollegestudentsexperiencesomedegreeofsocialanxietyonoccasionHowever,manysufferchronicanxietyacrosssocialsituationscoupledwithastrongfearofnegativeevaluationInadditiontoimpairedoccupationalandsocialfunctioning,severesocialanxietyorsocialphobiacancarryprofoundconsequencesforcollegestudentsSocialanxietyisaprominentmotivationforcollegestudentdrinking(BurkeandStephens,)Inadditiontosocialisolation,socialanxietyisassociatedwithdepressogeniccognitions,bothofwhichleavesociallyanxiousstudentsatanincreasedriskfordepression(Johnsonetal,)Anxietysensitivity–fearofanxietyrelatedsensationsduetoperceivedconsequencesofphysical,mental,orsocialharm–mightplayanimportantroleinthedevelopmentofsocialanxiety(Hazenetal,)Unlikepanicdisorder,inwhichindividualstypicallyfearanxietysymptomsoutoffearofphysicalharmorlossofmentalcontrol,sociallyanxiousindividualsfearperceivedsocialconsequencesofothersnoticingtheiranxietySociallyanxiouscollegestudentsalsojudgeotherswhoappearanxiousmorenegativelythandocollegestudentswithoutsocialanxiety(Purdonetal,)Althoughpanicdisordertreatmentstargetanxietysensitivitydirectlywithinteroceptiveexposurestrategies,thisapproachisjustbeginningtoreceiveattentionforthetreatmentofsocialanxietyAfterabriefreviewoftheliteraturedescribingthenatureofsocialanxietyamongcollegestudents,thisKatherineNMorrowviiichapterwillexaminethespecificroleofanxietysensitivityinitsdevelopmentandmaintenanceFinally,resultsfromapreliminaryinvestigationcomparingtheeffectsofinteroceptiveexposuredeliveredinasocialcontexttosocialcontextexposurewithouttheinteroceptivecomponentwillbepresentedanddiscussedChapterThisstudyexaminedthecurrentmentalhealthstatus,copingstrategies,andperceivedliferegretofthreetypesoffemalecollegestudents(n=):thosewhohadneverbeenpregnant(,n=)thosewhobecamepregnantatorbeforeagewhowereaprioriconsideredtoberesilient(,n=)andthosewhohadexperiencedapregnancyafterage(,n=)DatawerecollectedatadiverseurbanpublicuniversityintheSoutheastThisuniversityhasasignificantnumberofcommuterandnontraditionalstudentsResultsindicatedthatcollegewomenwhohadexperiencedanadultpregnancyreportedsignificantlyfewermaladaptivecopingstrategiesthanneverpregnantcollegewomenandthosewhohadexperiencedateenagepregnancySurprisingly,bothgroupsofeverpregnantcollegewomenexpressedsignificantlymoreliferegretthanneverpregnantcollegewomenAmongthecollegewomenwhohadexperiencedateenagepregnancy,twogroupsweredelineated:thosewhowere“thriving”versusthosewhowere“atrisk”withregardstotheircurrentsymptomsofdepression,hostility,andhopelessnessWomeninthe“atrisk”groupweresignificantlylesslikelytobesimultaneouslyparentingandattendingcollegethanthoseinthe“thriving”groupOnepotentialimplicationisthatidentifyingandinterveningwiththesepotentiallyatriskcollegewomenmayhelpimproveretentionratesandstudentmoraleatuniversitieswithadiversestudentbodyChapterYoungadultssuchascollegestudentsareknowntoengageinfrequentandunprotectedsexualactivities,theprimaryrouteforHIVtransmission,yettheirriskperceptiontowardsHIVinfectionshavebeenlowThisstudyaimedtoexaminetheextenttowhichHIVriskperceptionamongcollegestudentsmaybeexplainedbybehavioralfactors(numberofpartnersandcondomusebytypeofsexualactivity,andpartner’srisk)andselectedbackgroundvariables(sexuallytransmittedinfectionshistory,sexualorientation,age,andgender)AwebsurveywasadministeredinamajoruniversityintheSoutheasternUS(N=)Studyinformationwithsurveywebsiteaddressandloginpasswordweredisseminatedthroughflyers,coloredminihandouts,classroomannouncements,studentnewspaperadvertisements,andseveralemaillistservstudentorganizationsInformedconsentwasobtainedaspartoftheloginprocessTheinnovationofthestudyistoassessacomprehensivearrayofsexualbehaviorsandtheirrelationshipsonriskperceptionsviatheInternetBivariateanalyseswereusedtofirstexaminetherelationshipsbetweenindividualbehavioralorbackgroundvariablesandstudents’perceivedHIVriskMultiplelogisticregressionswerethenperformedtoinvestigatehowwellthevariousbehavioraldeterminantsandbackgroundvariablestogetherdistinguishedbetweenstudentswithhigherorlowerperceivedriskofHIVinfectionDatashowedthat,afterconsideringallthevariablestogether,numberofpartnersfororal(OR=),vaginal(OR=),andanal(OR=)sexwerethethreevariableswhichrevealedsignificantpredictionstoperceivedriskResultssupporttheuseoftheIntentinobtainingsensitivebehavioralinformationandsuggestthatpublichealthmessagesaddressingmultiplepartnersinconjunctionwithtypeofsexualactivitycanbeimportantininfluencingHIVriskperceptionamongcollegestudentsChapterStudiesrelatedtoalcoholanddruguseinhealthcarestudents,namelynursing,pharmacy,andmedicinesuggestthatdrugandalcoholabusecontinuestobeagrowingproblemamonghealthprofessionstudentsAreviewofthemorerecentliteraturePrefaceixinvolvingpharmacystudents,hasnotedhigherlevelsofalcoholanddrugusewhencomparedtotheundergraduatestudentpopulationInterestingly,theuseandorabuseoftobaccohavelargelybeenoverlookedinstudiesinvolvingsubstanceabuseinpharmacystudentsThisstudydocumentedthecurrentalcoholandtobaccouseinpharmacystudentsandconductedalectureseriesontheuseandabuseofalcoholandtobaccoThelectureserieswassuccessfulinincreasingtheawarenessoftheuseandpotentialabuseofalcoholinthestudentsAttitudinalchangesinstudentsfollowingthelectureserieswerealsoassessedChapterInresponsetotheGouldversusHeckhausenandSchulzdebate()ontheclaimtouniversalityofthelifespantheoryofcontrol,thepresentstudyaimstoexaminethetheoreticalformulationofHeckhausenandSchulzinthecontextofcontemporaryChina,withspecificreferencetothecontrolprocessesappliedbyChinesestudentsintheiracademicpursuitsAnewinstrument,theOPSScalesintheDomainofAcademicAchievement(OPSAA),wasconstructedandexaminedinthepilotstudyThemainpartoftheresearchprogramconsistsofthreestudiesStudyOneandStudyTworespectivelyinvestigatedthecontrolprocessesendorsedbyChinesestudentsinthepredeadlineandpostdeadlinesituationsrelatingtotwoimportantpublicexaminations,namelytheUniversityEntranceExaminationandtheTestofEnglishasaForeignLanguage(TOEFL)StudyThreeexaminedtheapplicationofcontrolstrategiesamongjuniorandseniorhighschoolstudentsinalesscriticalsituation(ie,beforeaninternalschoolexamination)TheresultsofthestudieslendsupporttothethesisabouttheprimacyofprimarycontrolAspredicted,theChinesestudentsmadeextensiveuseofselectiveprimarycontrol,selectivesecondarycontrol,andcompensatoryprimarycontrolintheurgentpredeadlinesituationThecontrolstrategiesappliedinthepostdeadlinesituationcontinuedtobecharacterizedbyprimarycontrolstrivinginboththesuccessandthefailureconditionsSuchprimarycontrolstrivingalsodemonstrateditsadaptivevaluebysignificantlycorrelatingtothepositiveaffectsubscaleofthePositiveandNegativeAffectSchedule(PANAS)Ontheotherhand,theendorsementofcompensatorysecondarycontrolinthefailureconditiondidnotshowitsadaptivevalueInintegratingtheresultsofStudyOne,StudyTwoandStudyThree,differenceswerefoundacrossthecomparedagegroupsTheascendingslopeintheapplicationofcompensatorysecondarycontrolwasconfirmedamongthesubjectswhorangedfrompreadolescentsthroughadolescentstoyoungadultsForfurtherdevelopmentoftheresearchprogram,itissuggestedthatLakatos’sideaofsophisticatedfalsificationwouldbeworthconsideringAttemptsaremadetodefinethe“hardcore”oftheresearchprogram,andtoproposenewauxiliaryhypothesesonthebasisofthepresentstudySeverallinesforfutureresearcharealsodiscussedChapterInPennebakerandBeallpublishedtheirrenownedstudyonthelongtermbeneficialhealtheffectsofdisclosingtraumaticeventsinbriefsequentialwritingsessionsTheirresultshavebeenconfirmedinvariousstudies,butconflictingresultshavealsobeenreportedTheintentofourstudywastoreplicatetheexperimentsfromPennebakerandBeall(),Pennebakeretal(),andGreenbergandStone()usingaGermanstudentsampleAdditionally,essayvariablesthatpointtotheemotionalprocessingofevents(eg,depthofselfexploration,numberofnegativepositiveemotions,intensityofemotionalexpression)wereexaminedaspotentialmechanismsofactionTraitmeasuresofpersonalitywhichcouldmoderatethepersonalconsequencesofdisclosure(alexithymia,selfconcealment,worrying,socialsupport)werealsoassessedInasecondstudytheexperimentalcondition(disclosure)wasvariedbyimplementing“coping”vs“helping”KatherineNMorrowxinstructionsasvariationsoftheoriginalconditionUnderthecopingconditionparticipantswereaskedtoelaborateonwhattheyusedtodo,continuetodo,orcoulddointhefuturetobettercopewiththeeventUnderthehelpingconditionparticipantswereaskedtoimaginethemselvesintheroleofaadviserandelaborateonwhattheywouldrecommendtopersonsalsodealingwiththetraumainordertobettercopewiththeeventTheexpectedbeneficialeffectsofdisclosureonlongtermhealth(eg,physicianvisits,physicalsymptoms,affectivity)couldnotbecorroboratedineitherthefirstorthesecondstudyNoneoftheexaminedessayvariablesofemotionalprocessingandonlyasinglepersonalityvariablewasabletoexplainsignificantvarianceinthehealthrelatedoutcomevariablesinfluenceNevertheless,substantialreductionsinposttraumaticstresssymptoms(eg,intrusions,avoidance,arousal),werefoundinbothexperimentsTheseimprovementsweresignificantlyrelatedtoessayvariablesofemotionalexpressionandselfexplorationandwereparticularlypronouncedundertheactivationofaprosocialmotivation(helpingcondition)Repeated,albeitbrief,expressivewritingaboutpersonallyupsettingortraumaticeventsresultedinanimmediateincreaseinnegativemoodbutdidnotleadtolongtermpositivehealthconsequencesinaGermanstudentsampleItdid,however,promotebetterprocessingofstressfulortraumaticevents,asevidencedbyreductionsinposttraumaticstresssymptomsTheinstructiontoformulaterecommendationsforpersonsdealingwiththesametraumaseemsmorehelpfulthanstandarddisclosureorfocusingonone'sownpast,present,andfuturecopingendeavoursOverall,expressivewritingseemstobeasuccessfulmethodofimprovingtraumaprocessingDeterminingtheappropriatesetting(eg,selfhelpvstherapeuticcontext)fordisclorecanbeseenasanobjectiveoffutureresearchChapterSomeeducatorshavefailedtoacknowledgetheprevalenceoftestanxietyanditseffectonacademicperformanceamonguniversitystudentsThisstudyaddressesthisissueattheuniversitylevelusingdatacollectedthroughtheRevisedTestAnxiety(RTA)instrumentandSarason’sfourfactormodelasabasisformeasuringtestanxietyThestudyalsoinvestigatestheeffectofdemographicfactorsontestanxietyFindingsrevealthattestanxietyissignificantlyandnegativelyrelatedtoacademicperformanceReasonsforthesefindingsareaddressedChapterInmanycountries,universitystudentsnowconstituteasignificantproportionoftheiragegroupAsinthegeneralpopulation,depressionisrelativelyfrequentinthisgroup,andaffectswomenmorethanmenInthestudydescribedhereweevaluatedtheprevalenceofdepression,depressivesymptomsandassociatedfactorsamongyoungwomensampledrandomly,withstratificationbyyearanddiscipline,fromamongthe,femalestudentsattendingaSpanishuniversity(ofitstotalstudentroll)Theprevalenceofcurrentmajordepressiveepisodewas(CI)Amongstudentswithcurrentdepression,thecommonestsymptomsweredepressedmood()andalterationofsleep()

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*新书上架*大学生的精神健康

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