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首页 *新书上架*亚里士多德《雅典政制》的构成

*新书上架*亚里士多德《雅典政制》的构成.pdf

*新书上架*亚里士多德《雅典政制》的构成

九月虺
2009-09-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

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TheCompositionofAristotle'sAthenaionPoliteiaThispageintentionallyleftblankTheCompositionofAristotle'sAthenaionPoliteiaObservationandExplanationJOHNJKEANEYNEWYORKOXFORDOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSOxfordUniversityPressOxfordNewYorkTorontoDelhiBombayCalcuttaMadrasKarachiKualaLumpurSingaporeHongKongTokyoNairobiDaresSalaamCapeTownMelbourneAucklandandassociatedcompaniesinBerlinIbadanCopyright©byJohnJKeaneyPublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress,Inc,MadisonAvenue,NewYork,NewYorkOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofOxfordUniversityPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataKeaney,JohnJThecompositionofAristotle'sAthenaionpoliteia:observationandexplanationJohnJKeaneypcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNAristotleAthenaionpoliteiaITitleJCAK'dcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperMemoriaematrisBridgeteperlegrazioseEdwinaMAnneMLauraCThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceDuringthegestationofthisbook,portionsofitweredeliveredaslecturesorcolloquiaatMcGillUniversity,RutgersUniversityand,onseveraloccasions,atmyownuniversityIamgratefulforthereactionsoftheseaudiencesParticulargratitudeisowedtothemembersofaninformal(ie,notforcredit)colloquiumwithgraduatestudentsatPrincetoninthefalltermof,inwhichmostofthecontentswereexposedtocriticaldiscussion:fortheirparticipationIthankCChampion,RGaniban,ALardinois,LMaurizio,KMcCarthyoftheDepartmentofClassics,andSMonosonoftheDepartmentofPoliticsNearlyalloftheGreekhasbeentranslated,andforthisIhaveused(withminormodifications)therenderingsofMDilts(HeracleidesLembos),PJRhodes(forthe'AandTSaunders(Plato,LawsandAristotle,Politics)SeeBibliographyThededicationrecordsfourgenerationsPrincetonJJKAugustThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsIntroduction,xiTheOriginandAuthorshipofthePoliteiai,The"Cultural"Originofthe,TheGenreandItsOrigin,TheUnityofthe'A,ObservationandExplanation,MethodsandPurposes,StructureandMeaning,VerticalStructure:RingComposition,HorizontalStructure:Chiasmus,ThePoliticsofInstitutionsversusthePoliticsofPersonality,TheFormula,AConstitutionalFormula,AristotleandTheopompus,AristotleandTheramenes,TheSeriesinChapter,,,and,TheDatingFormula,Chapter:,TheOther,Bibliography,GeneralIndex,Indexlocorum,ThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroductionAristotle's'A('AAP),sinceitsdiscoveryacenturyago,hasbeentreatedasanhistoricaldocumentandmuchutilizedbystudentsofancienthistoryThisapproachcontinuestocreatedifficultiesSomehavebelievedthattheworkissopoorashistorythatitmusthavebeentheproductofamindinferiortoAristotle's:anotherversionofthisbeliefisthattheworkissodifferentfromtherestofwhatremainsfromAristotle'svoluminousoutput,thecorpusAristotelicum,thatitmusthavebeencomposedbysomeoneelseAtleastpartiallybecauseofthedominanceofthe"historical"approach,theworkhasbeenlargelyignoredbystudentsofancientphilosophyItis,clearly,notillegitimatetousethe'AasanhistoricalsourcesometimesitisafonsunicusnorwouldanyonedenythatitandotherhavesomenecessaryconnectionwithAristotle'spoliticalphilosophy,buttomakeconclusionsaboutauthorshiporaboutthenatureoftheworkbasedoncriteriaofGreekhistoriographyorofAristotle'sphilosophyistoignoreathirdpossibility,namelythatthe'Awasneitherintendedtobeapieceofhistoricalwritingnorwasitentirelyconceivedtobeancillarytootherworks,whetherthePoliticsorsomeotherprojectIratherproposetoexaminetheworkinandforitself,withoutthehindranceofthesescholarlyblinkers,bymeansofaliteraryapproachPerhapsImaybepermittedheretogiveabriefexampleofthisapproachIwillarguethatamajorthesisoftheAPisthatthepeople()ultimatelygainspoliticalcontrolbyappropriatingtoitselfpowerswhichoriginallybelongedtothreeotherorgansofthestate,theCollegeofArchons,theCounciloftheAreopagus(=theAreopagus)andtheCounciloftheFiveHundred(=)Now,Aristotleneverarticulatesthisthesisinsomanywords:theclosesthecomestothatishisstatementinchapterontheconnectionofcontrolofjudicialdecisionandcontrolofpoliticalpower,andhisstatementinchapteronthefactthatthepeoplehaveachievedcontrolovereverythingbymeansofassemblydecreesandstrengthinthepopularlawcourtsDetailsoftheoverallprocessarepresentedpiecemeal:inchapter,Aristotlecontraststheearlierjudicialpowerofthearchonswiththeirlackofsuchpowerinthefourthcentury,andinchapterhesaysthatcertainpowersoftheAreopagushavebeentakenawayandgivenpartlytothepeople(=assembly),partlytothelawcourtsWehavenowayofknowingtowhatkindofpowersherefers,unlessweareawareofanallusioninhislanguage,throughwhichwelearnxiiINTRODUCTIONthatthepowersarejudicialTheallusiontochapterencouragesanotherlookatthereferencetothearchonsthere,andwenotethattheonlypowerstobeidentifiedarejudicialThestatementofchaptercontainsareferencetothe,andthisreferenceisfleshedoutinchapter,inwhichAristotle'sthemeisthelimitationuponthejudicialpowersoftheAllofthisisreflectedinthequadripartitestructureIputonthework(I=beginningtochapter,II=,III=,IV=end),forthelimitationonthearchonsismentionedinI,thatontheAreopagusinII,thatontheinIIIandIV,thoughinformalongexcursus,isintegrallyconnectedwithwhatprecedesit,sinceitdescribeshowthepeopleoperateinthelawcourtsIsetoutthemethodologyandsomeinitialapplicationsofitinchapters,,andchaptersanddealwithtworelatedstructureswhichinformthewholeofthe'AThecontentoftheremainingchapterswill,Itrust,beselfexplanatoryIbeganthisintroductionwiththepossessiveformofAristotleThismaybethoughttoreflectanaiveactoffaithinhisauthorship,butIhope,inthefirstchapter,tohavegroundedthatbeliefinrationalargumentIncipiamusigiturNOTESNotuncharacteristicistheremarkofIDuringinhisbigbookonAristoteles:DarstellungundInterpretationseinesDenkens(Heidelberg):DieProblematikder'AgehortzurGeschichtsforschungunddahernichtindenRahmendiesesBuches(theproblematicoftheAthpolbelongstohistoricalresearchandthereforenotwithintheboundariesofthisbook)NecessaryinthesensethatsomepartsofthePolitics(eg,book)couldnothavebeenwrittenwithoutthecollectionofhistoricaldataexemplifiedintheAttheendoftheNichomacheanEthics(B)Aristotlepromisesthathewillusethecollectedpoliteiai()informingbeststatetheory,butheneverfulfilledthepromiseInbroadoutline,noonehasattemptedaliteraryanalysissinceKaibelinhisStilundTextofWhiletherearepointsofcontactbetweenourapproachesinthesensethatIsometimesattempttotakehisconclusionssomewhatfurther(eg,chiasticstructure,thevocabularyofand),hewasconcernedwithsmallersectionsofthetext(thelargerpartofhisworkppisalinguisticCommentar)inwhichhewasdeterminedtosaysomethingabouteverychapter)Withoneexception(ch),Idealwithinterconnectedthemesandstructuresspreadmostly,butnotentirely,overthenarrativeportionoftheworkTheCompositionofAristotle'sAthenaionPoliteiaThispageintentionallyleftblankTheOriginandAuthorshipofthePoliteiaiWhenweconsiderthequestionsoftheoriginandauthorshipofthepoliteiai,itisusefultobeginbyremindingourselvesofthegenrewithwhichwearedealingOnesetofgeneraltermsofagenrehavebeendefinedbyJacobyAncientworkswiththewordintheirtitleswereoneofthreetypes:thephilosophicalpoliteia,thebestexampleofwhichisPlato'sworkthepoliticalpoliteia,likethe'AwronglyascribedtoXenophon,andthescientificpoliteiaThislastwastheinventionofAristotleandinGreekantiquitydidnotsurvivehimAswewillsee,Jacoby'sschematizationisofverylimitedvalue:itdoesnotaccountforalltheexamplesofAristotle's(notebelow)and,moregenerally,althoughitispossibletodescribethe'Aintermsofa(sub)genre,theutilityofthiskindofcharacterizationisnotveryhighfullyonanother(LondonBritishLibraryNr),thebeginningofwhichismissingandtheendofwhichismutilatedInpracticalterms,then,theknowledgeofandstatementswemakeofthepoliteiaiarebaseduponthetextoftheAP(papyritestimonia)andfragmentaryquotationsofotherofthepoliteiaiGiventheseconditions,generalizationsaboutfeaturescommontotheAPandtheotherpoliteiaimustbemadeandreceivedwithcautionThelimitationsofsuchknowledgemaybestbeclarifiedbyposingtwoquestions:whatmadeupthecontentsofthegenre,andhowtypicalofthegenrewasthe'AAbsentother,wecannot,ofcourse,begintogiveanadequateanswertothesequestions,butthereareindicationsthatthisnotionofgenremaynotbetoohelpfulJacobythoughtthatthescientificpoliteiawasconcernedwithhowthefourthcenturyconstitutioncametobeandthusentailedanhistoricalnarrativeThiswouldseemaminimalrequirementofcontent,andyetweknowofatleastonecaseinwhichspecialcircumstancesdictatedthattherebenonarrativebeginning,andtheremayhavebeenothercasesinwhichtherewasnodescriptionofacontemporaryThereisarelatedaspecttothesecondquestioninthatspecialcircumstancesresultinginspecificapproachesinthe'AwillhavebeenabsentforotherThesecircumstancesarebothgeneralandparticularForthefirst,Thereisonlyoneextantexampleofthe(sub)genre,the'Apreservedpartiallyononepapyrus(BerlinInvNr)andmoreTHECOMPOSITIONOFARISTOTLE'SATHENAIONPOLITEIAforexample,weknowtheextenttowhichknowledgeofAthenianlawwasnecessarytoreconstructSolon'sWhenfacedwiththeproblemofreconstructingother(eg,thatofLycia),Aristotledidnothavethiskindofevidencefor,aswearetoldbytheexcerptorofthe,theLycians(theydon'temploylaws)Again,Aristotleurged(amongothers)twotheses,thatpoliticaldegenerationatAthensbeganwithPericles,andthatthefigureofTherameneswastobecomparedwiththefigureofSolonBoththesescouldnotbeduplicatedinanyother,andsourcematerialtobeusedforsimilarthesesmayhavebeenlackingOthergenericimplicationsmaybeworthbriefexplorationIfoneweretoaskadifferentbutrelatedquestion,whatgenredoesthe'Amostcloselyresemble,IsupposethatthetheanswerwouldhavetobehistoryButthisanswerwouldbeunsatisfactory,forseveralreasonsItisnotonlybecause"AristoteleskeingeschichtlicherForscherist,"norbecausethe'AisnotgrantedevenamentioninRenateZoepffel'smonographonAristotleandhistoryItispartiallybecause"history"istoobroadarubricIfwelimititsscopeandreferto"constitutionalhistory,"weareclosertowhatwefindinthe'A,butthereremainsomeofitscontentswhichdonotseemcomfortablytofitevenwithinthatrubricWecanconsiderthisaspectofthequestionfromtwootherviewpoints:thefirstisAristotle'srelationtohissources,thesecondtherelationofthe'AtothepoliticalandotherwritingsofthefirstgenerationofthePeripatosItisallbutcertainthatchswereAristotle'sinnovationandnotdrawnfromanysinglesourceTheydependonobservationanddocumentaryresearchIncontrast,forfactschsarealmostentirelydependentonhistoricalsourcesButexistenceofapluralityofsourcesagainraisesaninterestingquestionItisclearthatthechronologicalskeletonofthe'AwasprovidedbyAttidographers,thewritersofAthenianlocalhistories,'AItisalsoclearthatrepresentativesofthisgenrewillhaveprovidedmanyofthehistoricaldetailsInfact,whileitisplausibletoconceivethatAristotlecouldhavegottenallofhisdetailsfromthisgenrealone,itisclearthathedidnotOnonelevel,heusedHerodotusandThucydidesdirectlyHealsousedAtthidographerswhothemselveswillhavedrawntheiraccountsfromHerodotusandThucydides:whythispluralityofsourcesSometimesAristotleusedalatersourcetocorrectanearlieroneAtothertimes,itseemsasifhisaccountwereinfluencedonlybytheearliersource:thispresumablymeansthatthelatersourcedidnotofferavariantAdifferentreasonforapluralityofsourcesisrelevant:itisthatAristotlewasawidereaderHitherto,wehavebeenconsideringonlyhistoriographicalworksassourcesoffactsIfwewidenAristotle'snettoincludeworksless"objective"than'A,wemayaskwhyheusedthingssodiverseastheessayonAtheniandemagoguesbytheopinionatedTheopompusandtheApologyandGorgiasofPlatoItwascertainlynottorecoverfactsofhistoryIfIhaveseemedoverlytostresstheimportanceofsourcesindiscussinggenericqualitiesofthe'A,itisbecausehardlyanystatementabouttheworkcanignoretheirimportanceTouseoneanalogy,itisthehistoricaldataTHEORIGINANDAUTHORSHIPOFTHEPOLITEIAImediatedthroughsecondarysourceswhichformthematterormaterialcauseofwhichthewrittenistheformorformalcauseIfitistruethatworkslikethesewereexploitedbyAristotle,itmakesthecontentsofthe'AtakeonaratherdifferentappearancefromwhattheywouldhaveiftheywerelimitedtothemainstreamofhistoriographyThereisnoallembracinganswertothisquestion,ongenericoranyothergrounds,andIwilldealwithspecificquestionsandspecificanswersAUTHORSHIP:THEANCIENTEVIDENCEWhentheLondonpapyruswasdiscovered,anewchapterinthehistoryofclassicalscholarshipbeganAswastobeexpected,oneofthefociofanalysiswasthequestionofauthorship,butargumentsagainstAristotelianauthorshipwereneithergoodnorpersuasive,andgiantslikeWilamowitzandKaibeldidnotinvolvethemselvesinthatskirmishIn,however,thequestiontookonnewurgencyInastatementwhichwastobecomehighlyinfluential,especiallyinBritishscholarship,Hignett()wrote:ThehistoricalsurveyintheAthenaionPoliteiaresemblesacarefulessaywrittenbyamodernresearchstudentwhobringstohistaskmuchindustrybutnojudgmentAnyonewhodisregardstheancientattributiontoAristotleanddecidesforhimselfontheinternalevidenceofthetreatiseisboundtoconcludethatitwaswrittenbyoneofAristotle'spupilsPresumablytheancientsattributedittoAristotlebecauseitwasoneofthePoliteiai,constitutionalhistoriesofparticularstates,issuedbyhisschoolThetextualbasesofHignett'sclaimarereducibletodiscrepanciesbetweenthePoliticsandtheAPtheconclusionHignettdrewfromtheseIhaveattemptedtorefuteelsewhereFornow,itisrelevanttonotetheassumptionsimplicitinsuchphrasesas"themodernresearchstudent,""oneofAristotle'spupils,"and"issuedbyhisschool"IdealwiththeseassumptionslaterinthischapterTheskepticalpositionofHignetthasbeenreinforcedbythesimilarstandtakenbytheauthorofwhatwillbeformanyyearsthestandardcommentaryontheAP,PJRhodes:ThecaseinfavorofAristotelianauthorshipdependsupontheattributionofantiquitybutthisisaweakfoundationunlessoneispreparedtobelievethatAristotlehimselfwroteallthepoliteiaiandalltheotherworksattributedtohimThereareimplicationstotheseremarkswhichhavegoneunnoticedTheevidenceofantiquity,externaltothetext,pointstoAristotlenotonlyastheauthoroftheAP(thatwasnotaseparatequestion)butastheauthorofallthepoliteiaiWhatevermaybeheldabouttheAPtoday,IdoubtwhetheranyonewouldunhesitatinglysupportthelatterattributionApartialreasonforthisreluctancemaybetheveryunanimityoftheevidenceButunanimitydoesnotTHECOMPOSITIONOFARISTOTLE'SATHENAIONPOLITEIAhererestuponamonolithicbase,anditisusefultoexaminehowvariouslyweightedunanimityis,whenitisappliedtotheworksattributedtoAristotleSuchattributionmaybeunanimousinone(ormore)offourways:()aworkisknownonlyfromacatalogitem,whetheritbethatpreservedbyDiogenesLaertius(a)orthatbyHesychius(b)()aworkmaybeknownasacatalogitemandbycitation()aworkmaybeknownasacatalogitem,bycitationandfromapreservedfragment()finally,besidesthesecriteria,aworkmaybepreservedinpapyriandorinmedievalmanuscriptsExamplesof(la)are(no)andof(b)(no)Anexampleof()isT,referredtobySimpliciusindeCaelo:ComminAristgraeca()isrepresentedbyE(no)citedbyPlutarch,vitDionandpartiallypreservedinfragmentsRThefourthcategoryisexemplifiedbythePoetics,(no),citedintheVitaMarciana(During)ofAristotle,andthetextofwhichisbaseduponGreek,Latin,Syriac,andArabicmanuscriptsThepointofthisanalysisisnottoshowthattheAPandthepoliteiaifallcomfortablyintothisgroupbuttomaketwoobservationsThefirstisthatthecatalogpreservedbyDiogenesLaertiuscontainsveryfewworksnotcertainlybyAristotle,andtheauthenticityofaworklistedthereinisalmostguaranteedThesecondobservationisthatthekindof"unanimousattribution"thatwefindforthepoliteiaiisuniqueBythisImeanthatourknowledgeoftheseworkscomestousinfivedifferentandindependentchannelsThefirstisthereferencetothecollectioninNEBThesecondistheiteminthecatalogpreservedbyDiogenesLaertius(no):(constitutionsofstates,byclassificationdemocratic,oligarchic,aristocratic,andtyrannical)IfMorauxiscorrect,theauthorofthiscatalogwasthescholarchofthePeripatos,AristonofCeus,ofthelastquarterofthethirdcenturyBCThethirdchannelisthecitationsofthepoliteiaiasAristotle'sinthepreservedfragmentsItisapossible,butnotanecessary,assumptionthatmostreferencesofthiskindcanbetracedbacktothe(catalogingand)disseminationofthepoliteiaithroughthelibraryatAlexandriaAnotherassumptioncanbegranted,viz,thatAlexandrianattributiontoAristotlecannotmeanmuchintermsofauthorship,unlessitcouldbeshownthatthepoliteiaireceivedthesamekindofhistoricalandstylisticanalysistowhich,forexamp

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*新书上架*亚里士多德《雅典政制》的构成

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